A study by the Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates (WEFA) Group attempts to quantify the total costs of all legal and regulatory barriers in the telecommunications, information services, equipment manufacturing, and video programming markets. The study compares a baseline economic forecast with a forecast assuming that all legal and regulatory barriers to competition are removed and that rate-of-return regulation is replaced by pure price cap regulation in all jurisdictions. The study concludes that "competition and the expected lower prices that competition will bring result in nearly $550 billion in consumer savings cumulatively over the next ten years." In its analysis, WEFA first develops pricing models for long-distance, local, cellular, and cable service, and then estimates the impact that competitive entry will have on prices for long-distance, local, cellular, and cable television service. The study predicts that prices for these services will fall dramatically over the study period (1995 to 2005), with both sharp one-time price adjustments (to reduce prices to competitive levels) and steadily decreasing prices over time due to technological efficiencies. The main impetus for these price changes, WEFA asserts, will be entry of the Bell operating companies into the various markets, after the lifting of the video programming ban and the MFJ restrictions on inter-LATA service. The WEFA Group, Economic Impact of Deregulating U.S. Communications Industries, February 1995 (hereinafter 1995 WEFA Study).