TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 691: Mix Design Practices for Warm-Mix Asphalt explores a mix design method tailored to the unique material properties of warm mix asphalt technologies.
Warm mix asphalt (WMA) refers to asphalt concrete mixtures that are produced at temperatures approximately 50Â°F (28Â°C) or more cooler than typically used in the production of hot mix asphalt (HMA). The goal of WMA is to produce mixtures with similar strength, durability, and performance characteristics as HMA using substantially reduced production temperatures.
There are important environmental and health benefits associated with reduced production temperatures including lower greenhouse gas emissions, lower fuel consumption, and reduced exposure of workers to asphalt fumes.
Lower production temperatures can also potentially improve pavement performance by reducing binder aging, providing added time for mixture compaction, and allowing improved compaction during cold weather paving.
Appendices to NCHRP Report 691 include the following. Appendices A, B, and D are included in the printed and PDF version of the report. Appendices C and E are available only online.
â€¢ Appendix A: Draft Appendix to AASHTO R 35: Special Mixture Design Considerations and Methods for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA)
â€¢ Appendix B: Commentary to the Draft Appendix to AASHTO R 35
â€¢ Appendix D: Proposed Standard Practice for Measuring Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Performance Analysis Using the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Software
Table of Contents
|1.2 Problem Statement and Objective||7-7|
|2.2 Differences Between the Design of WMA and HMA||8-9|
|2.3 Preliminary WMA Mixture Design and Analysis Procedure||10-11|
|2.4 Phase I Laboratory Studies||12-16|
|2.6 Phase II Studies||17-21|
|2.7 Draft Standards for WMA||22-22|
|3.1 Phase I Findings||23-32|
|3.2 Preliminary Mixture Design Procedure Revisions||33-33|
|3.3 Phase II Findings||34-53|
|3.4 Draft AASHTO Standards||54-59|
|Appendix A - Draft Appendix to AASHTO R 35: Special Mixture Design Considerations and Methods for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA)||66-82|
|Appendix B - Commentary to the Draft Appendix to AASHTO R 35||83-92|
|Appendix D - Proposed Standard Practice for Measuring Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Performance Analysis Using the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Software||93-100|
|Unpublished Material - Appendices C and E||101-101|
|Abbreviations used without definitions in TRB publications||102-102|