TCRP Legal Research Digest 35: Reductions in Transit Service or Increases in Fares: Civil Rights, ADA, Regulatory, and Environmental Justice Implications
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TCRP Legal Research Digest 35:
Reductions in Transit Service or Increases in Fares: Civil Rights, ADA, Regulatory, and Environmental Justice Implications
(2011)
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Description

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Legal Research Digest 35: Reductions in Transit Service or Increases in Fares: Civil Rights, ADA, Regulatory, and Environmental Justice Implications explores the legal implications of reductions in transit service or increases in fares in the context of environmental justice. Based on federal environmental justice principles, the report analyzes constitutional and statutory provisions and regulations in regard to transit agencies' compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VI) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

Topics

  • Transportation — Public Transportation
  • Transportation — Administration and Management
  • Transportation — Law
  • Transportation — Society

Publication Info

54 pages | 8.5 x 11
Contents

Table of Contents

skim chapter
COVER 1-1
CONTENTS 2-2
I. INTRODUCTION 3-4
B. No Cause of Action Under Disparate-Impact Regulations Promulgated Under Section 602 of Title VI to Effectuate the Provisions of Section 601 5-5
D. USDOT Title VI Order (1997) Incorporating the Principles of Environmental Justice in Decision-Making Practices of All USDOT Programs, Policies, and Activities 6-6
E. Guidance Provided by FTA Title VI Circular (2007) for Recipients and Subrecipients of FTA Financial Assistance Regarding Compliance with Title VI and Integration of the USDOT Order as Well as Policy Guidance Concerning Limited-English-Proficient Persons 7-8
F. Application of Principles of Environmental Justice to Avoid, Minimize, or Mitigate Disproportionately High and Adverse Human Health and Environmental Effects on Low-Income Populations 9-10
G. Executive Order 13166 (2000), Department of Justice and USDOT Policy Guidance, and the 2007 FTA Title VI Circular Regarding Access to Transit Services for LEP Persons and Compliance with Title VI 11-11
H. Recipients' and Subrecipients' Obligation to Promote Inclusive Public Participation 12-12
I. Applicability of Title VI and the ADA to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 13-13
A. Section 601 Proscribes Only Intentional Discrimination 14-14
A. Proof of Disparate Treatment: The Arlington Heights Factors 15-16
B. Title VI and Recent Cases 17-20
C. Pre-Sandoval Disparate-Impact Cases 21-22
A. Cases Holding That Disparate-Impact Claims Are Not Actionable Under Section 1983 23-23
B. Sovereign Immunity and Section 1983 24-24
A. Procedures Applicable to Complaints 25-25
B. Title VI Administrative Complaints Based on Reduction in Service or Increase in Fares 26-26
D. Transit Agencies' Responses to Title VI Complaints 27-27
A. Statutory Provisions Applicable to Public Transportation Providers 28-28
B. DOT Regulations Implementing the ADA 29-29
C. The Availability of a Private Right of Action Under the ADA 30-30
D. The ADA and Paratransit Service 31-32
E. ADA Administrative Compliance and Enforcement 33-33
G. Whether State Transit Agencies Have Sovereign Immunity 34-34
A. Prohibition of Discrimination in Public Accommodations 35-35
B. Public Transportation Services Provided by Private Entities 36-36
D. Administrative Action and Enforcement 37-37
A. Transit Agencies' Title VI Policies 38-38
B. Low-Income Populations 39-39
C. Limited-English-Proficiency Persons 40-41
D. Transit Agencies' ADA Policies 42-42
E. Transit Agency Coordination 43-43
F. Transit Agency Resources 44-44
G. Policy Regarding Review of Legal Issues When Reducing Service or Increasing Fares 45-45
X. CONCLUSION 46-46
APPENDIX A - SURVEY QUESTIONS 47-50
APPENDIX B - TRANSIT AGENCIES RESPONDING TO THE SURVEY 51-52
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 53-53
BACK COVER 54-54

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