The National Academies Press

TCRP Report 142: Vehicle Operator Recruitment, Retention, and Performance in ADA Complementary Paratransit Operations
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TCRP Report 142:
Vehicle Operator Recruitment, Retention, and Performance in ADA Complementary Paratransit Operations
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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 142: Vehicle Operator Recruitment, Retention, and Performance in ADA Complementary Paratransit Operations provides guidance for understanding the relationships that influence and enhance operator recruitment, retention, and performance in Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) complementary paratransit services.

Appendixes to TCRP Report 142 were published electronically as TCRP Web-Only Document 50: Survey Instrument, Productivity Charts, and Interview Protocol for Case Studies for TCRP Report 142.


Publication Info

142 pages | 8.5 x 11

Table of Contents

skim chapter
Front Matter i-xii
Summary 1-4
Study Issues, Goals, and Methodology 5-5
Organization of the Report 6-7
An Overview of Paratransit Vehicle Operator Issues 8-8
FTA ADA Paratransit Compliance Reviews 9-9
Demographic Factors Affecting Availability of Qualified Workers 10-10
Impact of Management Characteristics and Practices 11-11
Shortage of Vehicle Operators in Other Sectors: Fixed-Route Transit, School Bus, and Trucking 12-12
Successful Approaches to Recruiting and Retaining Transit Vehicle Operators 13-13
Workforce Planning: A Tool for Facilitating Vehicle Operator Availability 14-14
Successful Approaches Cited in Other Transportation Sectors 15-17
Attractiveness of the Operator Position 18-18
How Providers Attract Applicants 19-19
Factors Adversely Affecting Operator Satisfaction and Performance 20-20
Implications of Findings 21-22
Responses 23-23
Workforce Status 24-24
Pre-Qualification Requirements 25-25
Training Completion Rates 26-26
Annual Post-Training Turnover Rates 27-27
Use of Split Shifts 28-29
Pay Rates 30-30
Impact of Wages on Turnover 31-31
Union Representation and Impacts on Wages 32-32
Types of Fringe Benefits Provided 33-33
Level of Fringe Benefits Provided 34-34
Relationship Between Paratransit and Fixed-Route Workforces 35-36
Factors That Impact Vehicle Operator Recruitment 37-38
Efforts Made to Improve Recruitment 39-40
Factors That Impact Vehicle Operator Retention 41-41
Efforts Made To Improve Retention 42-44
Innovative Procurement Strategies 45-48
Developing an Employee Profile and Pre-Qualifications 49-49
Competitive Wages 50-50
Recruitment Efforts 51-51
Providing Effective Training and Tools 52-52
Training 53-53
Workable Schedules 54-54
Management Support 55-55
Underlying Causal Factors That Impact Vehicle Operator Recruitment and Retention 56-56
Compensation, Turnover, Productivity, and Total Cost 57-57
Compensation and Recruitment and Training Costs 58-58
Purpose of the Analysis and Data Sources 59-59
Regression Analysis 60-60
Starting Wage, Provider Type, and Turnover 61-61
Health Care Coverage, Provider Type, and Turnover 62-62
Summary of Findings 63-64
Methodology 65-65
Productivity Results - DART, Dallas, TX 66-67
Productivity Results - LYNX, Orlando, FL 68-68
Methodology 69-69
On-Time Performance Results - LYNX, Orlando, FL 70-70
Complaint Rate Results - DART, Dallas, TX 71-71
Summary of Findings 72-73
Methodology 74-74
Charlotte Area Transit System Special Transportation Service 75-76
MV Transportation, Denver, CO 77-77
Veolia Transportation, Baltimore, MD 78-78
Observations 79-79
The Other Costs of Turnover 80-80
Characteristics of Successful ADA Paratransit Operators 81-82
Effective Recruiting Approaches 83-86
Comprehensive Pre-Employment Screening 87-87
Realistic Job Previews 88-89
Compensation 90-91
Training in Advanced Technologies 92-92
Providing a Supportive Work Environment 93-95
Best Practice: Early and Ongoing Input and Involvement 96-96
Best Practice: Mentoring 97-98
Chapter 9 - Benefits and Issues Related to Workforce Integration and Wage Parity 99-99
Costs and Benefits of Workforce Integration and Wage Parity 100-102
Varieties of Integration 103-103
Instituting Full Workforce Integration and Wage Parity: Chelan-Douglas Public Transit Benefit Area (Link Transit), Wenatchee, WA 104-104
Integration of an Alternative to Paratransit: The City of Annapolis Department of Transportation (Annapolis Transit), Annapolis, MD 105-105
The Dynamics of Recently Instituting Wage Parity: Utah Transit Authority (UTA), Salt Lake City, UT 106-107
Approach and Methodology 108-108
Lessons Learned 109-110
Denver Regional Transportation District (RTD), Denver, CO 111-111
Community Transit, Everett, WA 112-112
Access Services, Inc. (ASI), Los Angeles, CA 113-114
Madison Metro Transit, Madison, WI 115-115
Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA), Orange County, CA 116-116
Palm Tran CONNECTION, Lake Worth, FL 117-117
City of Phoenix Public Transit Department, Phoenix, AZ 118-118
San Diego Metropolitan Transit System, San Diego, CA 119-119
San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), San Mateo, CA 120-121
King County Metro Transit (Metro), Seattle/King County, WA 122-123
Chapter 11 - Future Research Needs 124-125
References 126-127
Bibliography 128-128
Appendixes 129-129
Abbreviations used without definitions in TRB publications 130-130

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