Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page R1
BioDiversity BIODIVERSITY E.O.Wilson, Editor Frances M.Peter, Associate Editor NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988
OCR for page R2
BioDiversity NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave, NW Washington, DC 20418 The National Academy of Sciences was chartered by Congress in 1863 as a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to the furtherance of science and engineering for the public welfare. In 1916 the National Research Council was organized, enabling the Academy to draw upon the entire American scientific and technical community in the pursuit of its mandate to provide independent advice to the nation on critical scientific and technical questions. The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846 in accordance with the will of the Englishman, James Smithson, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of America, “to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.” The Smithsonian has since evolved into an institution devoted to public education, research and national service in the arts, sciences and history. This independent federal establishment is the world’s largest museum complex and is responsible for public and scholarly activities, exhibitions and research projects nationwide and overseas. The National Forum on BioDiversity was developed by the Board on Basic Biology of the National Research Council’s Commission on Life Sciences and by the Smithsonian Institution’s Directorate of International Activities. The views expressed in this book are solely those of the individual authors and are not necessarily the views of the National Academy of Sciences or of the Smithsonian Institution. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Forum on Biodiversity (1986: Washington, D.C.) Biodiversity/Edward O.Wilson, editor, Frances M.Peter, associate editor, p. cm. “Papers from the National Forum on BioDiversity held September 21–25, 1986, in Washington, D.C., under the cosponsorship of the National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution.” Includes index. ISBN 0-309-03783-2. ISBN 0-309-03739-5 (pbk.) 1. Biological diversity conservation—Congresses. 2. Biological diversity—Congresses. I. Wilson, Edward Osborne, 1929–II. Peter, Frances M. III. National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) IV. Smithsonian Institution. V. Title. QH75.A1N32 1986 333.7’2–dc19 First Printing, March 1988 Second Printing, May 1988 Third Printing, October 1988 Fourth Printing, May 1989 Fifth Printing, September 1989 Sixth Printing, May 1990 Seventh Printing, November 1990 Eighth Printing, August 1991 Ninth Printing, March 1992 Tenth Printing, January 1993 Eleventh Printing, January 1994 Twelfth Printing, April 1995 Thirteenth Printing, October 1996 Fourteenth Printing, February 1999 Copyright © 1988 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. government. Printed in the United States of America
OCR for page R3
BioDiversity The National Forum on BioDiversity, on which this book is based, was developed by the Board on Basic Biology of the National Research Council’s Commission on Life Sciences and by the Smithsonian Institution’s Directorate of International Activities.
OCR for page R4
BioDiversity This page intentionally left blank.
OCR for page R5
BioDiversity EDITOR’S FOREWORD The diversity of life forms, so numerous that we have yet to identify most of them, is the greatest wonder of this planet. The biosphere is an intricate tapestry of interwoven life forms. Even the seemingly desolate arctic tundra is sustained by a complex interaction of many species of plants and animals, including the rich arrays of symbiotic lichens. The book before you offers an overall view of this biological diversity and carries the urgent warning that we are rapidly altering and destroying the environments that have fostered the diversity of life forms for more than a billion years. The source of the book is the National Forum on BioDiversity, held in Washington, D.C., on September 21–24, 1986, under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences and Smithsonian Institution. The forum was notable for its large size and immediately perceived impact on the public. It featured more than 60 leading biologists, economists, agricultural experts, philosophers, representatives of assistance and lending agencies, and other professionals. The lectures and panels were regularly attended by hundreds of people, many of whom participated in the discussions, and various aspects of the forum were reported widely in the press. On the final evening, a panel of six of the participants conducted a teleconference downlinked to an estimated audience of 5,000 to 10,000 at over 100 sites, most of them hosted by Sigma Xi chapters at universities and colleges in the United States and Canada. The forum coincided with a noticeable rise in interest, among scientists and portions of the public, in matters related to biodiversity and the problems of international conservation. I believe that this increased attention, which was evident by 1980 and had steadily picked up momentum by the time of the forum, can be ascribed to two more or less independent developments. The first was the accumulation of enough data on deforestation, species extinction, and tropical biology to bring global problems into sharper focus and warrant broader public exposure. It is no coincidence that 1986 was also the year that the Society for Conservation Biology was founded. The second development was the growing awareness of the close linkage between the conservation of biodiversity and economic development. In the United States and other industrial countries, the two
OCR for page R6
BioDiversity are often seen in opposition, with environmentalists and developers struggling for compromise in a zero-sum game. But in the developing nations, the opposite is true. Destruction of the natural environment is usually accompanied by short-term profits and then rapid local economic decline. In addition, the immense richness of tropical biodiversity is a largely untapped reservoir of new foods, pharmaceuticals, fibers, petroleum substitutes, and other products. Because of this set of historical circumstances, this book, which contains papers from the forum, should prove widely useful. It provides an updating of many of the principal issues in conservation biology and resource management. It also documents a new alliance between scientific, governmental, and commercial forces—one that can be expected to reshape the international conservation movement for decades to come. The National Forum on BioDiversity and thence this volume were made possible by the cooperative efforts of many people. The forum was conceived by Walter G.Rosen, Senior Program Officer in the Board on Basic Biology—a unit of the Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences (NRC/NAS). Dr. Rosen represented the NRC/NAS throughout the planning stages of the project. Furthermore, he introduced the term biodiversity, which aptly represents, as well as any term can, the vast array of topics and perspectives covered during the Washington forum. Edward W.Bastian, Smithsonian Institution, mobilized and orchestrated the diverse resources of the Smithsonian in the effort. Drs. Rosen and Bastian were codirectors of the forum. Michael H.Robinson (Director of the National Zoological Park) served as chairman of the Program Committee, organized one of the forum panels, and served as general master of ceremonies. The remainder of the Program Committee consisted of William Jordan III, Thomas E.Lovejoy III, Harold A.Mooney, Stanwyn Shetler, and Michael E.Soulé. The various panels of the forum were organized and chaired by F.William Burley, William Conway, Paul R.Ehrlich, Michael Hanemann, William Jordan III, Thomas E.Lovejoy III, Harold A.Mooney, James D.Nations, Peter H.Raven, Michael H.Robinson, Ira Rubinoff, and Michael E.Soulé. David Johnson at the New York Botanical Garden was very helpful in verifying some of the botanical terms used in this book. Helen Taylor and Kathy Marshall of the NRC staff and Anne Peret of the Smithsonian Institution assisted with the wide variety of arrangements necessary to the successful conduct of the forum. Linda Miller Poore, also of the NRC staff, entered this entire document on a word processer and was responsible for formatting and checking the many references. Richard E.Morris of the National Academy Press guided this book through production. The National Forum on BioDiversity was supported by the National Research Council Fund and the Smithsonian Institution, with supplemental support from the Town Creek Foundation, the Armand G.Erpf Fund, and the World Wildlife Fund. The National Research Council Fund is a pool of private, discretionary, nonfederal funds that is used to support a program of Academy-initiated studies of national issues in which science and technology figure significantly. The NRC Fund consists of contributions from a consortium of private foundations including
OCR for page R7
BioDiversity the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Charles E.Culpeper Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation, the Andrew W.Mellon Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Alfred P.Sloan Foundation; the Academy Industry Program, which seeks annual contributions from companies that are concerned with the health of U.S. science and technology and with public policy issues with technological content; and the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering endowments. The publication of this volume was supported by the National Research Council Dissemination Fund, with supplemental support from the World Wildlife Fund. We are deeply grateful to all these organizations for making this project possible. Finally, and far from least, Frances M.Peter marshalled the diverse contributions in the present volume and was essential to every step of the manuscript editing process. The cover for Biodiversity was derived from a forum poster designed by artist Robert Goldstrom. E.O.WILSON
OCR for page R8
BioDiversity This page intentionally left blank.
OCR for page R9
BioDiversity CONTENTS 1 The Current State of Biological Diversity E.O.Wilson 3 PART 1 CHALLENGES TO THE PRESERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY 2 The Loss of Diversity: Causes and Consequences Paul R.Ehrlich 21 3 Tropical Forests and Their Species: Going, Going…? Norman Myers 28 4 Ecological Diversity in Coastal Zones and Oceans G.Carleton Ray 36 5 Diversity Crises in the Geological Past David M.Raup 51 6 Estimating Reductions in the Diversity of Tropical Forest Species Ariel E.Lugo 58 7 Challenges to Biological Diversity in Urban Areas Dennis D.Murphy 71 PART 2 HUMAN DEPENDENCE ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 8 Deep Ecology Meets the Developing World James D.Nations 79 9 Screening Plants for New Medicines Norman R.Farnsworth 83 10 Serendipity in the Exploration of Biodiversity: What Good Are Weedy Tomatoes? Hugh H.Iltis 98
OCR for page R10
BioDiversity 11 The Outlook for New Agricultural and Industrial Products from the Tropics Mark J.Plotkin 106 PART 3 DIVERSITY AT RISK: TROPICAL FORESTS 12 Our Diminishing Tropical Forests Peter H.Raven 119 13 The Tropical Forest Canopy: The Heart of Biotic Diversity Terry L.Erwin 123 14 Tropical Dry Forests: The Most Endangered Major Tropical Ecosystem Daniel H.Janzen 130 15 Deforestation and Indians in Brazilian Amazonia Kenneth I.Taylor 138 16 Primate Diversity and the Tropical Forest: Case Studies from Brazil and Madagascar and the Importance of the Megadiversity Countries Russell A.Mittermeier 145 PART 4 DIVERSITY AT RISK: THE GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE 17 Lessons from Mediterranean-Climate Regions Harold A.Mooney 157 18 Structural and Functional Diversity in Temperate Forests Jerry F.Franklin 166 19 Diversity in and among Grasslands Paul G.Risser 176 20 Diversity and Biological Invasions of Oceanic Islands Peter M.Vitousek 181 PART 5 THE VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY 21 Economics and the Preservation of Biodiversity W.Michael Hanemann 193 22 Commodity, Amenity, and Morality: The Limits of Quantification in Valuing Biodiversity Bryan Norton 200 23 The Rise of the Global Exchange Economy and the Loss of Biological Diversity Richard B.Norgaard 206
OCR for page R11
BioDiversity 24 Why Put a Value on Biodiversity? David Ehrenfeld 212 25 What Mainstream Economists Have to Say About the Value of Biodiversity Alan Randll 217 PART 6 HOW IS BIODIVERSITY MONITORED AND PROTECTED? 26 Monitoring Biological Diversity for Setting Priorities in Conservation F.William Burley 227 27 Information Management for the Conservation of Biodiversity Robert E.Jenkins, Jr. 231 28 Identifying and Protecting the Origins of Our Food Plants J.Trevor Williams 240 29 Conserving and Monitoring Biotic Diversity: Some African Examples Brian J.Huntley 248 PART 7 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: HOW CAN THEY HELP? 30 Can Technology Aid Species Preservation? William Conway 263 31 Conservation of Biological Diversity in Botanical Gardens Peter S.Ashton 269 32 Using Science and Technology to Reestablish Species Lost in Nature Tom J.Cade 279 33 Intensive Technology in the Care of Ex Situ Populations of Vanishing Species Ulysses S.Seal 289 34 Cryobiology, Embryo Transfer, and Artificial Insemination in Ex Situ Animal Conservation Programs Betsy L.Dresser 296 PART 8 RESTORATION ECOLOGY: CAN WE RECOVER LOST GROUND? 35 Ecological Restoration: Reflections on a Half-Century of Experience at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum William R.Jordan III 311 36 Restoring Diversity in Salt Marshes: Can We Do It? Joy B.Zedler 317
OCR for page R12
BioDiversity 37 Restoration of Degraded Lands in the Amazon Basin Christopher Uhl 326 38 Increasing Diversity by Restoring Damaged Ecosystems John Cairns, Jr. 333 39 Restoring Diversity: The Search for a Social and Economic Context John Todd 344 PART 9 ALTERNATIVES TO DESTRUCTION 40 Are There Alternatives to Destruction? Michael H.Robinson 355 41 Agroecology and In Situ Conservation of Native Crop Diversity in the Third World Miguel A.Altieri and Laura C.Merrick 361 42 Alternatives to Destruction: Research in Panama Gilberto Ocana, Ira Rubinoff, Nicholas Smythe, and Dagmar Werner 370 43 Biological Engineering for Sustainable Biomass Production Sinyan Shen 377 PART 10 POLICIES TO PROTECT DIVERSITY 44 Preserving Biological Diversity in the Tropical Forests of the Asian Region John Spears 393 45 The Tropical Forestry Action Plan: Recent Progress and New Initiatives F.William Burley 403 46 International Development and the Protection of Biological Diversity Nyle C.Brady 409 PART 11 PRESENT PROBLEMS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS 47 Diverse Considerations Thomas E.Lovejoy 421 48 The Conservation of Biodiversity in Latin America: A Perspective Mario A.Ramos 428 49 A Major New Opportunity to Finance the Preservation of Biodiversity Robert J.A.Goodland 437
OCR for page R13
BioDiversity 50 And Today We’re Going To Talk About Biodiversity…That’s Right, Biodiversity Lester R.Brown 446 51 The Effect of Global Climatic Change on Natural Communities Robert L.Peters II 450 PART 12 WAYS OF SEEING THE BIOSPHERE 52 Mind in the Biosphere; Mind of the Biosphere Michael E.Soulé 465 53 A Mammal Gallery: Five Word Pictures and Three Poems Michael McClure 470 54 Cold Water Spirit Larry Littlebird 476 55 A Christian View of Biodiversity John B.Cobb, Jr. 481 56 The Earth as a Living Organism James E.Lovelock 486 PART 13 EPILOGUE 57 Epilogue David Challinor 493 Index 497
OCR for page R14
BioDiversity This page intentionally left blank.