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11 Ad I Pl Rat Issues, Theones, and Techn~gues Daniel Druckman end 'John A. Swets, Editors Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Enhancing human performance : issues, theories, and techniques / Daniel Druckman and John A. Swets, editors. p. cm. "Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council." Bibliography: p. Includes index. ISBN 0-309-03792-1. ISBN 0-309-03787-5 (soft) 1. Self-realization-Congresses. 2. Performance-Psychological aspects~ongresses. I. Druckman, Daniel, 1939- . II. Swets, John Arthur, 1928- . III. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance. BF637.S4E56 1987 158-dcl9 Copyright ~ 1988 by the National Academy of Sciences Printed in the United States of America First Printing, December 1987 Second Printing, May 1989 Third Printing, April 1992 87-3 1233 CIP

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COMMITTEE ON TECHN1Q U ES FOR TH E ENHANCEMENT OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE JOHN A. SWETS, Chair, Bolt Beranek and Newman inc., Cambridge' Mass. ROBERT A. BJORK, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles THOMAS D. COOK, Department of Psychology, Northwestern University GERALD C. DAVISON, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California LLOYD G. HUMPHREYS, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois RAY HYMAN, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon DANIEL M. LANDERS, Department of Physical Education, Arizona State University SANDRA A. MOBLEY, Director of Training and Development, The Wyatt Company, Washington, D.C. LYMAN W. PORTER, Graduate School of Management, University of California, Irvine MICHAEL I. POSNER, Department of Neurology, Washington University WALTER SCHNEIDER, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh JEROME E. SINGER, Department of Medical Psychology, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, Md. SALLY P. SPRINGER, Department of Psychology, State University of New York, Stony Brook RICHARD F. THOMPSON, Department of Psychology, Stanford University DANIEL DRUCKMAN, Study Director JULIE A. KRAMAN, Administrative Secretary . . .

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Contents PREFACE . I OVERVIEW . . V11 2 Findings and Conclusions 15 3 Evaluation Issues 24 II PSYCHOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES.................. 4 Learning........................................ 5 Improving Motor Skills ........................... 6 Altering Mental States ........................... 7 Stress Management ............................. ~ Social Processes ................................ III PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES 9 Paranormal Phenomena...-....................... 37 39 61 102 115 133 167 169 REFERENCES 209 APPENDIXES 233 A Summary of Techniques: Theory, Research, and Applications 235 B Background Papers 246 C Committee Activities 248 v

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Vl INDEX CONTENTS . . . D Key Terms ............................... E Military Applications of Scientific Information F Biographical Sketches........................ . ~ 252 262 ... 282 289