EAT FOR LIFE

The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease

Catherine E. Woteki, Ph.D., R.D.

Paul R. Thomas, Ed.D., R.D.

Editors

Committee on Diet and Health Food and Nutrition Board

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1992



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease EAT FOR LIFE The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease Catherine E. Woteki, Ph.D., R.D. Paul R. Thomas, Ed.D., R.D. Editors Committee on Diet and Health Food and Nutrition Board INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992

OCR for page R1
Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The Institute of Medicine was chartered in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to enlist distinguished members of the appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. In this, the Institute acts under both the Academy's 1863 congressional charter responsibility to be an adviser to the federal government and its own initiative in identifying issues of medical care, research, and education. The study summarized in this publication was supported by funds from the National Research Council Fund, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Pew Charitable Trusts, Fannie E. Rippel Foundation, and Occidental Petroleum Corporation. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation supported the preparation of Eat for Life. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Eat for Life: the Food and Nutrition Board's guide to reducing your risk of chronic disease / Catherine E. Woteki and Paul R. Thomas, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-04049-3 1. Nutrition. 2. Chronic diseases—Prevention. I. Woteki, Catherine E. II. Thomas, Paul R., 1953–. III. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Food and Nutrition Board. RA784.E16 1992 613.2—dc20 91-37837 CIP Copyright © 1992 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic procedure, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purpose of official use by the United States government. This book is printed on acid-free recycled stock that is made from 70% de-inked fiber of which 10% is postconsumer waste. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The image adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is based on a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatlichemuseen in Berlin. Cover art by Mercedes McDonald

OCR for page R1
Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease An Editorial Note This book is the result of the work of many people and draws on more than a decade of study by the Food and Nutrition Board. It brings together the most current information on nutrition, gleaned from an exhaustive collection of data and professional literature that was reviewed and evaluated by nutrition scientists. The goal of all this effort: to determine whether diet has any effect on chronic disease. When the Food and Nutrition Board began planning a study of what is known of diet and its relationship to chronic disease, three books were envisioned. The first was a comprehensive review and analysis of the scientific literature, which culminated in a massive volume published in 1989 under the title Diet and Health. That report makes specific recommendations on dietary changes to maintain health and prevent disease. The second book to come from this study focused on implementing the dietary guidelines that emerged from the scientific review. If reducing the risk of chronic disease is a national health goal and if dietary modification is likely to help in achieving that goal, the Food and Nutrition Board reasoned that government, the private sector, health professionals, and educators would need a strategy for implementation. This book appeared in 1991 under the title Improving America's Diet and Health: From Recommendations to Action. The present book, Eat for Life, is the final volume. Written for individuals and families interested in improving their health, it is a practical guide on how to incorporate the dietary guidelines into everyday life. Special acknowledgment is owed to a small group of supporters who believed that this book could be completed successfully without compromising the material it covers. Joseph Alper, working from the voluminous original report, wrote the first draft of what was to become Eat for Life. Catherine Woteki, Paul Thomas, and editorial consultant Roseanne Price, together with members of the Food and Nutrition Board, revised and completed the manuscript in its present form. The many drafts of the manuscript were typed and proofread by Donna Thompson, Ute Hayman, Pamela Turner, and Marcia Lewis. The National Academy Press gave encouragement and technical assistance throughout the project. The final success of this large endeavor involving so many people may never be known. We can only hope that it will be observed in the growing trend toward good health that emerges from knowledgeable individuals eating well. C.E.W. P.R.T.

OCR for page R1
Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease CONTENTS 1   Introduction   1     Developing Nutritional Guidelines,   3     An Eating Pattern for Life—Not a "Diet"   5 2   Guidelines for a New Eating Pattern   9     The Nine Dietary Guidelines,   10     How These Guidelines Stack Up Against Others,   16     You Benefit, the Nation Benefits,   24     Dietary Terms,   27 3   The Food We Eat   33     What's in Food?   34     How Diet Has Changed Over Time,   53 4   Diet and Chronic Disease in the United States   57     Atherosclerosis (Hardening of the Arteries),   60     Heart Disease,   62     Peripheral Artery Disease,   63     Stroke,   64     High Blood Pressure (Hypertension),   65     Cancer,   67     Diabetes,   69     Obesity,   70     Osteoporosis,   75     Gallstones,   76     Cirrhosis of the Liver,   76     Dental Caries (Cavities),   77

OCR for page R1
Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease 5   Calories, Energy Balance, and Chronic Diseases   79     Fueling Up and Burning It Off,   80     Weight and Chronic Illness,   81     The Dieting Cycle,   84 6   Fats, Cholesterol, and Chronic Diseases   87     Heart Disease,   87     High Blood Pressure,   95     Cancer,   96     Other Chronic Degenerative Disease,   98     Children: A Special Case?,   98 7   Protein, Carbohydrates, and Chronic Diseases   101     Protein,   102     Carbohydrates,   103     Fiber,   104 8   Vitamins, Minerals, and Chronic Diseases   109     Vitamins,   110     Minerals,   114     Vitamin and Mineral Supplements,   119 9   Alcohol, Other Food Substances, and Chronic Diseases   121     Alcohol,   122     Coffee and Tea,   127     Other Food Additives,   128 10   Making the Change to the New Eating Pattern   131     What Foods Should I Eat? Some General Guidelines,   132     Planning a Menu,   133     Shopping,   136

OCR for page R1
Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease     Cooking,   147     Eating Out,   152     Taking the Next Steps,   154     APPENDIXES   157 A   U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances,   157 B   Resources,   161 C   Committee on Diet and Health and Food and Nutrition Board,   163     Index   167

OCR for page R1
Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease EAT FOR LIFE

OCR for page R1
Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease This page in the original is blank.