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Re orts of the Committee on Vision, 1947-1990 Joanne S. Albanes, Editor Committee on Vision Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1990

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academv of Sciences, the National Academy of Eng~necning, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chance for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according tO procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Enginecnng, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Scicsces is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of dis- tinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the chaner granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Science s. The National Academy of Enginecnng was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mcmbcm, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsor engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert h1. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of SCiCDCCS ~ its 0ng~ional charter to be an air to the federal g~emment and, upon its awn initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel 0. Shier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National R~h Couna] was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad immunity of science and technology with the Academy's purpo6= of furthering l~nowkdge and advising the federal garment. Functioning in accordance with general polices determined by the Academy, the Council has become the pnnapal opc~ating agent of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Enguncenog in priding senices IO the ga~c~nment, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chainnan and vice Trainman, respectively, of the National Research Council. library of COQ8re.S Catalog Card No. 89 063539 loternational Standard Boolc Number ~309 041481 Available Mom: National Amdctny Prep 2101 Constitution Avenue , N. W. Washington, D.C 20418 Printed in the United States of America S062

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COMMITTEE ON VISION SUZANNE MCKEE (Chairy, Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Foundation, San Francisco LYNN COOPER, Department of Psychology, Columbia University RUSSELL LEE DEVALOIS, Department of Psychology and Physiological Optics, University of California, Berkeley MERTON CLYDE FROM, College of Optometry, University of Houston DAVID L. GUYTON, palmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins University DONALD HOOD, Department of Psychology, Columbia University JAMES LACKNER, Ashton Graybiel Spatial Orientation Laboratory, Brandeis University GORDON E. LEGGE, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota PETER LENNIE, Center for Visual Sciences, Universitr of Rochester LOUIS SILVERSTEIN, Honeywell, Inc., Phoenix, Ariz KENT ~ STEVENS, Department of Computer and Intonation Science, University of Oregon ANDREW B. WATSON, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. PAMELA EBERT FI-ATTAU, Study Director JOANNE S. AL13ANES, Research Assistant CAROL METCALF, Administrative Secretary ROSE WHITE, Secretary # iii

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Preface The Committee on Vision is a standing committee of the National Research Council's Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. The committee provides analysis and advice on scientific issues and applied problems involving vision. It also attempts to stimulate the development of visual science and to provide a forum in which basic and applied scientists, engineers, and clinicians can interact. Working groups of the committee study questions that may involve engineering and equip- ment, physiological and physical optics, neurophysiology, psychophysics, perception, environmental effects on vision, and visual disorders. The Committee on Vision was organized by the National Research Council in 1942 at the request of the Army, the Navy, and the Office of Scientific Research and Development to provide a mechanism for military personnel to gain access to scientific and technical information pertaining to vision, to promote the exchange of research findings on visual problems, and to stimulate research on vision. Sponsorship of the committee subsequently broadened to include the Air Force and a number of civilian federal agencies. As sponsorship broadened, the activities of the committee also expanded to include nonmilitary problems in vision. The typical response of the committee to a request for information is the formation of a working group or panel. Working groups are es- tablished when a question is judged to be consonant with the interests and priorities of the Committee on Vision, when it is broad in scope and significant, and when the relevant information is not widely available in the scientific literature. Occasionally, the recommendation that a working group be established is made because of a scientific controversy for which an unbiased analysis of evidence is required, especially if the resolution of that controversy has major practical significance. The final product of the working group, its report, is reviewed by the committee and the Na- tional Research Council. Following this review (and after opportunities for the working group to deal with reviewers' comments), the report is pub- lished, submitted to the requesting sponsor, and presented to the scientific community. Nowhere are the unique contributions of the Committee on Vision more evident than in the series of reports issued over the years under its aegis. Beginning with a manual for testing heterophoria and prism diver- gence in 1947, the committee has addressed such diverse topics as visibility, v

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dark adaptation, flicker fusions, eye movement, visual search techniques, form discrimination, contrast threshold, aging and perception, and the effects of microwave radiation on the eye. In addition to summanzing pertinent vision research of the day, many of these reports address issues of interest to the public or specific problems relating to the operational objectives of the government. Hence, in this summary of the committee's work the reader will note the inclusion of reports on a lighting plan for radar approach control systems, the visual effects of face masks, and the effects of video display terminals. This summaIy report has been compiled as a part of the committee's continuing efforts to bring the work of the vision science community to the attention of a wider audience. The report presents a chronological listing of available reports prepared under the aegis of the Committee on Vision since 1947. An individual summary has been prepared for each report to provide the reader with some understanding of its content. The length of the report is indicated as well as its availability. This summary of reports will be of interest to vision specialists, whether they are involved in the development of federal programs and policies that draw from the vision sciences or in the support and conduct of basic research. The historical legacy will undoubtedly also be of value to serious research scientists. Funds for the report were provided from the general budget of the committee, which receives support from the departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force; the National Eye Institute; the National Institute on Aging; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; the National Science Foundation; the American academies of Ophthalmology and Optometry; the American Optometric Association; and the Society for Information Displays. Suzanne McKee, Chair Committee on emulsion n

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Contents AGING AND VISION ............................................ Aging and Human Visual Function (1982), 3 Aging and Visual Functions of MilitaIy Pilots: A Review (1982), 4 Work, Aging, and Vision: Report of a Conference (1987), 5 Eyes on the Worl~lace (1988), 6 AERONAUTICS AND SPACE .............. .... 1 Visual Problems of Space Ravel (1962), 9 Visual Requirements For Faring: Some Aspects of Reevaluation (1964), 10 Vision Research: Flying and Space Ravel (1968), 11 Visual Elements in Flight Simulation (1976), 12 Vision Research for Flight Simulation: Report on a Workshop on Simulation of Low-Level Flight (1982), 13 CLINICAL APPLICATIONS .... .......... 15 Manual of Instructions for Testing Heterophoria and Prism Divergence at Near (1947), 17 Manual of Instructions for Clinical Sting of Visual Acuity (1947; revised 1951), 18 Report on International Nomenclature for Designating Visual Acuity (1953), 19 Manual of Instructions: Armed Forces Vision Tester (1951; revised 1952), 20 First Interprofessional Standard for Visual Field lasting (1975), 21 Recommended Standard Procedures for the Clinical Measurement and Specification of Visual Acuity (1980), 22 Clinical Applications of Visual Psychophysics (1981), 23 vii

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Nutrition, Pharmacology, and Vision: Proceedings of a Symposium (1982), 24 Myopia: Prevalence and Progression (1989), 25 Considerations in Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Proceedings of a Symposium (1990), 26 Contact Lens Use Under Adverse Conditions: Applications in Military Aviation (1990), 27 COLOR VISION. Color Vision (1973), 31 Procedures for Testing Color Vision (1981), 32 DARK ADAPTATION AND NIGHT VISION. . . .29 ........ 33 Review of Wartime Studies of Dark Adaptation, Night Vision Tests, and Related Epics (1949), 35 A Bibliography on Dark Adaptation (1953), 36 Report of the Working Group on Illumination and Dark Adaptation (1953), 37 Effect of Flashes of Light on Night Visual Acuity: Part I (1953), 38 Effect of Flashes of Light on Night Visual Acuity: Part II (1953), 39 The Effect of Pre-Exposure on Dark Adaptation: An Annotated Bibliography (1955), 40 Flash Blindness Symposium: Proceedings of the U.S. Army Natick Laboratories (1967), 41 Night Vision: Current Research and Future Directions: Symposium Proceedings (1987), 42 ENGINEERING AND EQUIPMENT.. 43 Standard Color Filters for Electronics Equipment (1952), 45 Report of Working Group on Airfield leeway Lighting and Destination Marking Systems (1953), 46 A Broad-Band-Blue T ighting System for Radar Approach Control Centers (1953), 47 Literature Survey of Material Published Relating to Specifications of Hand-Held Binoculars (1953), 48 An Evaluation of Problems of Chart Reading Under Red Illumination (1953), 49 Laser Eye Effects (1968), 50 The Prototype Mail Sorting System at the Cincinnati Post Office (1972), 51 Optical Properties and Visual Effects of Face Masks (1977), 52 The Multiple Position Letter Sorting Machine: An Evaluation of Visual, Auditory, and Human Factors Problems (1979), 53 ... V111

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Electronic Navel Aids: New Directions For Research (1986), 54 PHYSICAL OPTICS ... ..55 Studies of Visual Telescope System Employing Reflection Optics (1951), 57 Theory of Slant Visibility (1952), 58 A Bibliography on Reflecting Optics 1925-1950 (195~, revised 1955), 59 1962 Symposium on Physiological Optics (1962), 60 Current Developments in Optics and Vision (1968), 61 TARGET RECOGNITION....... Visibility: A Bibliography (1952), 65 The Limiting Capabilities of Unaided Human Vision in Aerial Reconnaissance (1953), 66 Characteristics of Tank-Mounted Searchlights for Detection of Ground Targets (1953), 67 Form Discrimination as Related to Military Problems (1957), 68 Visual Search Techniques (1960), 69 Feasibility of Describing Visual Demands of Military Jobs (1962), 71 Visual Factors Relating to Optically-Controlled Indirect-Fire Point Forget Weapons (1968), 72 Visual Search (1973), 73 Visual Processing Issues in Computer-Aided Target Recognition: Report of a Workshop (1988), 74 TRANSPORTATION .... The Visual Factors in Automobile Driving: Summary Report of a Symposium (1958), 77 Visual Factors in Transportation Systems (1969), 78 VISION SCIENCE........................ Some Aspects of the Basis of Stereoscopic Vision (1953), 81 An Annotated Bibliography of Flicker-Fusion Phenomena: - Covering the Period 1740-1952 (1953), 82 The Measurement of Visual Function (1965), 83 Eye Movements and Psychological Processes (1976), 84 Electrophysiological Techniques in Vision (1977), 85 Effects of Microwave Radiation on the Lens of the Eye (1981), 86 Emergent Techniques for Assessment of Visual Performance (1985), 87 Vision Research Reports (1960), 88 Recent Developments in Vision Research (1966), 89 Vision Research in MilitaIy and Government Laboratories (1967), 90 Frontiers of Visual Science: Proceedings of the 1985 Symposium ....63 75 .79

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(1987), 91 Advances in the Modularity of Vision: Selections From a Symposium on Frontiers of Visual Science (1990), 92 Advances in Photoreception: Proceedings of a Symposium on Frontiers of Visual Science (1990), 93 VISUAL DISPLAYS. . Standards to be Employed in Research on Visual Displays (1947; Revised 1950), 97 Illumination and Visibility of Radar and Sonar Displays (1958), 98 An Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Displays (1965), 100 ...... 95 Video Display Terminals and Vision of Workers: Summary and Overview of a Symposium (1982), 101 Video Displays, Work, and Vision (1983), 102 Motion Sickness, Visual Displays, and Armored Vehicle Design: Proceedings of a Conference (1989), 103 MISCELLANEOUS . . . ...105 The Armed Forces-National Research Council Vision Committee History 1944-1949 and Description of Organizational Structure (1955), 107 Information Requirements for the Control of Combat Forces (1959), 109 Inquiry Into Methods Used to Obtain Military Information Requirements (1960), 110 Visual Problems of the Armed Forces (1962), 111 Survey of Visual Research Literature on Military Problems During World War II (1970), 112 x