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SOLOMON A. BERSON April 22, 1918April 11, 1972 BY J. E. RALL SOLOMON A. BERSON was born April 22, HIS, in New York City. His father, a Russian emigre who studied chem- ical engineering at Columbia University, went into business and became a reasonably prosperous fur dyer and the owner of his own company. He was a competent mathematician, enjoyed chess, and played duplicate bridge sufficiently well to become a life master. Solomon Berson- So} to his many friends was the eld- est of three children: Manny, the second, became a dentist; Gloria, the youngest, married Aaron Kelman, a physician and a friend of Sol's. In 1942 So] married Miriam (Mimi) GittIeson. They had two daughters whom So! aclored, and a happy, warm family life. So! cliscovered a taste and aptitude for music early in life. He played in chamber music groups in high school and de- veloped into an accomplished violinist. My impression has always been that he liked the presto movements besthe clearly led his entire life at a presto pace. He also played chess in high school and became sufficiently expert to play multiple games blindfoIcied. In 1934 he enterer! the City College of New York and, in 193S, received his degree. At that time So} decidecl he wanted to study medicine. He applier! to twenty-one different medical schools but was 55

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56 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS turned down by every one. Instead, he went to New York University, where he earned a Master of Science degree (in 1939) and a fellowship to teach anatomy at the NYU Dental School, where his brother, Manny, was a student. He was fi- nally admitted to New York University Medical School in 1941 and, a member of Alpha Omega Alpha honorary med- ical fraternity, received his M.D. degree in 1945. Sol internee! at Boston City Hospital from ~ 945 to ~ 946, then joiner! the Army. Serving from 1946 to 194S, he went from first lieu- tenant to captain. He spent 1948 to 1950 at the Bronx Vet- erans Administration Hospital for further training in inter- nal medicine, then deciclect to go into research. In the spring of ~ 950, Rosalyn Yalow, assistant chief of the Radioisotope Service in the Radiotherapy Department at the Bronx V.A. Hospital, was looking for a physician qualified in internal medicine ant! asked Bernarc! Straus, Chief of Med- icine, to recommenc! someone. He suggested Solomon Berson, though So! had already arranged to go to the V.A. Hospital in Bedford, Massachusetts. Straus nevertheless encouraged Yalow to interview Berson, and, during the in- terview, So! presented her with a series of mathematical puz- zles. Since Ros Yalow is not a bad mathematician and has a sense of humor, she offered So! the position, and he accepted. So began a collaboration that lasted until Sol's cleath in 1972. For about a year, while working full-time in the Radio- isotope Service, So! "moonlighted" in the private practice of medicine. He found clinical practice gratifying and his pa- tients aclored him, but his work at the V.A. became too en- grossing and he gave up his practice. In 1954 when the Ra- dioisotope Service became independent of Radiotherapy, So! became its chief. The Radioisotope Service was the forerun- ner of the modern Nuclear Medicine Service, and the thyroid clinic he established there in 1950 continues even now to function as he planned it.

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SOLOMON A. BERSON 57 One of Berson and Yalow's early papers in thyroid phys- iology exemplifies the method! that would characterize their research for the next few decades. The research was clinical, involving both normal and ctiseasect subjects; it was mathe- matically and logically precise; it went beyond specification of the technical requirements of the stucly to make assump- .- ~ tons In serene In t ne measurements explicit. In this early study, Berson and Yalow answered precisely the question of what the human thyroid's so-called "uptake" of radioactive iodine represents. To do this they focused on the quantity of iodide the thyroid clears from the blooc! per unit of time, having first determiner! that this was the only physiological constant they could measure that also described one of the functions of the thyroid. In 1952 they published their classic paper on the subject, which is still quoted. It is particularly remarkable that Berson, who lacked! extensive formal training in mathematics and physical chemistry, user! bothto such good effect in his research. About this time Berson and Yalow decided that an excel- lent way to investigate the metabolism of a variety of biolog- ically interesting compounds was to label them with a radio- active isotope. They were among the first to label serum albumin with radioactive iodine to stucly its metabolism. This work, reporter! in 1953, was one of the earliest studies to show how long albumin laster! in the circulation and the ki- netic processes governing its synthesis and degradation. Shortly thereafter the two researchers used insulin la- beled with radioactive iodine to test the hypothesis that clia- betes of the maturity-onset type was clue to an excessively rapid degradation of normally-secretec! insulin. They found that when labeled insulin was given to subjects who hacl been treater! with insulin either for diabetes or as shock therapy for schizophrenia, it disappeared more slowly than did in- sulin administered to normal subjects. They surmised that

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58 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS this was due to the formation of soluble antigen antibody complexes that were metabolizes! more slowly than free in- sulin. Analyzing serum by paper electrophoresis, they showed that in subjects previously treated with insulin, la- beled insulin act~ed later was fount! in the B--y region of serum proteins rather than as free insulin. This observation, published in 1956, led Berson and Ya- low to consider the reversible equilibrium between a binding protein and a ligand, and they soon realizecl that a method using binding equilibria could be developed to measure very small amounts of material. They then developer} the general method! of raclioimmunoassay on the theory thatif a sub- stance (in their early work, an antibody) can be produced that binds a ligand the following situation obtains: P + L=PL P + L' = PEP One must be able to separate bound ligand (PI, + PL') from free P (protein or antibody) and free ligand, I. (in this case, insulin). The actual assay is performed with the experimental solution containing a small but unknown amount of ligand, to which an extremely small amount of radioactively labeled ligand (I-') is added. After attaining equilibrium and after electrophoretic separation, the bound and free amounts of radioactivity are measured. A series of standard reactions containing labeled ligand and progressively increasing amounts of unlabeled ligand is prepared simultaneously ex- actly as above. With increasing amounts of unlabeled ligand, progressively increasing amounts of labelled ligand will be displaced from the antibody. Interpolation of the experimen- tal results on the standarcl curve then permits accurate esti- mation of the amount of ligand in the experimental solu- tions.

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SOLOMON A. BERSON 59 The researchers had to solve several additional problems, however, before their method could be accepted as both sen- sitive and accurate. Most scientists at that time believed that insulin did not produce antibodies, though Berson and Ya- low, building on the work of others, had demonstrated that animal insulins used for the treatment of diabetes ctid, in fact, produce antibodies in man. (In guinea pigs they had ob- served specific, high-affinity antibodies to animal insulins that reacted well with human insulin.) It was also important to label the insulin so that there were no degradation products and it coup be separated out as a clean component after labeling. When, in 1959, these procedures were finally per- fected, Berson and Yalow were able to report the success of their method for measuring insulin concentration in human plasma. This accomplishment lecl to a series of studies on insulin secretion and the effect of human diabetes on insulin con- centration in plasma. It had been known for many years that there were differences between inclividuals who developed diabetes as youngsters who were more likely to go into ke- toacidosis and older diabetics with a tendency to obesity, who rarely went into ketoacidosis. The younger group of patients generally exhibited greatly reduced quantities of in- sulin in the pancreas and bloodstream and were, therefore, insulin deficient. By radioimmunoassay of insulin, Berson and Yalow showed that many older diabetics had normal or even elevated levels of insulin in the bloodstream. The defect, therefore, was not in the secretion of insulin but in some subsequent step. A complicating factor in all these measure- ments are the antibodies most patients treated with insulin develop to it (as Berson and Yalow had demonstrated), and precisely where the defect occurs in what is now called "Type IT" diabetes is still not completely understood. The high degree of specificity of the immune system

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60 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS makes radioimmunoassay capable of distinguishing closely related compounds such as thyroxine and triiodothyronine, or cortiso] and corticosterone that differ only in a single hy- droxy] group. The general principle, furthermore, can be extended to any system in which a specific binding material is available, such as thyroxine-bincling globulin for the mea- surement of thyroxine, or intrinsic factor for measurement of vitamin Be. Over the next few years, the Radioisotope Service at the Bronx VA Hospital saw an enormous burst of activity as Ber- son and Yalow adapted radioimmunoassay to the analysis of parathyroid hormone, growth hormone, ACTH, and gastrin, which were until then impossible to measure in bloocI with any degree of accuracy. In 1963, for example, Berson and Yalow shower! for the first time that the secretion of growth hormone was acutely regulated by stimuli such as hypogly- cemia and exercise. They also found parathyroid hormone in the blood in several forms that could be differentiated by antibodies with different specificities. They measurer! gas- trin, then a newly-discovered hormone that stimulates secre- tion of stomach acid, and showed that it existed in several forms of varying size in human plasma. Ra(lioimmunoassay has since been adapted to the measurement of literally hun- cireds of different substances, ranging from steroids, to thy- roid hormones, to the hepatitis B surface antigen, and the tubercle bacilli. The possibility of radioimmunoassay analysis of substances present in concentrations of 10-9 to i0-~3 molar has enormously accelerated progress in many fields of bio- meclical research. Dr. Berson received numerous awards for this work, in- cluding the ~ 97 ~ Gairciner Award, the ~ 97 ~ Dickson Prize, the 1965 Banting Memorial Lecture and Banting Medal of the American Diabetes Association, the 1960 William S. Mid- cIleton Meclical Research Award, ant! the American Diabetes

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SOLOMON A. BENSON 6 Association's first Eli Lilly Award in 1957. In 1977, five years after his cleath, Dr. Rosalyn Yalow received the Nobel Prize for the "development of raclioimmunoassays of peptide hor- mones." Drs. Berson ant! Yalow patentee! neither the general con- cept of radioimmunoassay nor any of the procedures they had developed to make it so precise and sensitive an assay. But while numerous commercial laboratories macle large sums of money for performing raclioimmunoassays, Berson remained unconcerned. His salary at the Veterans Adminis- tration was anything but munificent. Yet, wrote Dr. Jesse Roth, one of Berson's early postdoctoral fellows, "... Sey- mour Glick and ~ didn't have any travel grants inclucled in our fellowships, nor dicl the laboratory provide any travel funds, so our meeting expenses were pair! for out of Dr. Ber- son's pocket." Dr. Berson continued his research at the Radioisotope Service until his death, but in 1968 accepted the professor- ship and chairmanship of the Department of Medicine, at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine of the City University of New York. In this position, he influenced many medical stu- dents and house staff. When he had an argument with the administration at Mount Sinai and threatener! to resign, the entire house staff on the medical service agreed to resign en masse if he were to leave. Needless to say, the dispute was adjuclicatec! and both Dr. Berson and the house staff stayed on. In spite of the heavy demands of being professor of med- icine and chairman of the department in a large medical school, Dr. Berson retainer! close ties with Dr. Yalow ant} their laboratory, and the productivity of their scientific colIabora- tion continued unabated. As is the case with many great and busy scientists, Dr. Berson was on the editorial boards of numerous journals to which he gave a surprising amount of time, carefully and

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62 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS thoughtfully reviewing articles. He was a member of many boards and advisory councils, several with the National In- stitutes of Health. In April 1972, the month he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, So] Berson diec! while attending a meeting of the Federation of the American Societies for Ex- perimental Biology in Atlantic City.

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SOLOMON A. BERSON SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 63 1951 With R. S. Yalow. The use of K42-tagged erythrocytes in blood vol- ume determinations. Science, 114:14-15. 1952 With R. S. Yalow. The effect of cortisone on the iodine accumulat- ing function of the thyroid gland in euthyroid subjects. l. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 12:407-22. With R. S. Yalow, I. Sorrentino, and B. Roswit. The determination of thyroidal and renal plasma IT clearance rates as a routine diagnostic test of thyroid dysfunction. l. Clin. Invest., 31:141- 58. With R. S. Yalow. The use of K42 or p32 labeled erythrocytes and IT tagged human serum albumin in simultaneous blood vol- ume determinations. J. Clin. Invest., 31:572-80. With R. S. Yalow, A. Azulay, S. Schreiber, and B. Roswit. The bio- logical decay curve of P32-tagged erythrocytes. Application to the study of acute changes in blood volume. I. Clin. Invest., 31:581-91. 1953 With R. S. Yalow, I. Post, L. H. Wisham, K. N. Newerly, M. l. Vil- lazon, and O. N. Vazquez. Distribution and fate of intravenously administered modified human globin and its effect on blood volume. Studies utilizing I~3~-tagged globin. J. Clin. Invest., 32:22-32. With R. S. Yalow, S. S. Schreiber, and ]. Post. Tracer experiments with I~3~-labeled human serum albumin: Distribution and deg- radation studies. l. Clin. Invest., 32:746-68. 1954 With R. S. Yalow. The distribution of I~3~-labeled human serum albumin introduced into ascitic fluid: Analysis of the kinetics of a three compartment catenary transfer system in man and spec- ulations on possible sites of degradation. J. Clin. Invest., 33:377-87. With S. S. Schreiber, A. Bauman, and R. S. Yalow. Blood volume

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64 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS alterations in congestive heart failure. l. Clin. Invest., 33:578- 86. With R. S. Yalow. Quantitative aspects of iodine metabolism. The exchangeable organic iodine pool, and the rates of thyroidal secretion, peripheral degradation and fecal excretion of endog- enously synthesized organically bound iodine. I. Clin. Invest. 33: 1533-52. 1955 With R. S. Yalow. Critique of extracellular space measurements with small ions: Na24 and Br82 spaces. Science, 121:34-36. With R. S. Yalow. The iodide trapping and binding functions of the thyroid. I. Clin. Invest., 34: 186-204. - With M. A. Rothschild, A. Bauman, and R. S. Yalow. Tissue distri- bution of I~3~-labeled human serum albumin following intra- venous administration. }. Clin. Invest., 34: 1354-58. With A. Bauman, M. A. Rothschild, and R. S. Yalow. Distribution and metabolism of I'3~-labeled human serum albumin in congestive heart failure with and without proteinuria. I. Clin. Invest., 34:1359-68. 1956 With R. S. Yalow, A. Bauman, M. A. Rothschild, and K. Newerly. Insulin-I~3~ metabolism in human subjects: demonstration of insulin binding globulin in the circulation of insulin-treated subjects. I. Clin. Invest., 35: 170-90. 1957 With R. S. Yalow. Chemical and biological alterations induced by irradiation of I~3'-labeled human serum albumin. I. Clin. In- vest., 36:44-50. With M. A. Rothschild, A. Bauman, and R. S. Yalow. The effect of large doses of desiccated thyroid on the distribution and me- tabolism of albumin-I~3~ in euthyroid subjects. I. Clin. Invest.. 36:422-28. With R. S. Yalow. Serum protein turnover in multiple myeloma. I. Lab. Clin. Med., 49:386-94. With R. S. Yalow. Ethanol fractionation of plasma and electropho- retic identification of insulin-binding antibody. J. Clin. Invest., 36:642-47.

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SOLOMON A. BERSON 65 With R. S. Yalow. Apparent inhibition of liver insulinase activity by serum and serum fractions containing insulin-binding antibody. J. Clin. Invest., 36:648-55. With R. S. Yalow, S. Weisenfeld, M. G. Goldner, and B. W. yolk. The effect of sulfonylureas on the rates of metabolic degrada- tion of insulin-I~3~ and glucagon-I~3t in viva and in vitro. Dia- betes, 6:54-60. With A. Bauman, M. A. Rothschild, and R. S. Yalow. Pulmonary circulation and transcapillary exchange of electrolytes. J. Appl. Physiol., 11:353-61. With R. S. Yalow. Studies with insulin-binding antibody. Diabetes, 6:402-7. 1958 With R. S. Yalow. Insulin antagonists, insulin antibodies and insulin - resistance. Am. I. Med., 25: 155 -59. With A. B. Gutman, T. F. Yu, H. Black, and R. S. Yalow. Incorpo- ration of glycine-l-C~4, glycine-l-C~4 and glycine-N~5 into uric acid in normal and gouty subjects. Am. I. Med., 25:917-32. 1959 With S. Weisenfeld and M. Pascullo. Utilization of glucose in nor- mal and diabetic rabbits. Effects of insulin, glucagon and glu- cose. Diabetes, 8:116-27. With R. S. Yalow. Quantitative aspects of reaction between insulin and insulin-binding antibody. I Clin. Invest., 38: 1996 -2016. With R. S. Yalow. Species-specificity of human anti-beef, pork in- sulin serum. ]. Clin. Invest., 38:2017-25. With R. S. Yalow. Assay of plasma insulin in human subjects by immunological methods. Nature, 184: 1648-49. With R. S. Yalow. Recent studies on insulin-binding antibodies. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 82:338-44. 1960 With R. S. Yalow. Immunoassay of endogenous plasma insulin in man. I. Clin. Invest., 39: 1157-75. With R. S. Yalow. Plasma insulin in man (Editorial). Am. }. Med., 29: 1-8. With R. S. Yalow. Plasma insulin concentrations in nondiabetic and early diabetic subjects. Diabetes, 9:254-60.

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66 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With R. S. Yalow, H. Black, and M. Villazon. Comparison of plasma insulin levels following administration of tolbutamide and glu- cose. Diabetes, 9:356-62. 1961 With R. S. Yalow. The effects of x-radiation of I~3'-labeled iodoty- rosines in solution: the significance of reducing and oxidizing radicals. Radiat. Res., 14:590-604. With R. S. Yalow. Immunologic specificity of human insulin: appli- cation to immunoassay of insulin. I. Clin. Invest., 40:2190-98. With R. S. Yalow. Immunoassay of plasma insulin in man. Diabetes, 10:339-44. With R. S. Yalow. Preparation and purification of human insulin- It3~ binding to human insulin-binding antibodies. J. Clin. In- vest., 40:1803-8. With R. S. Yalow. Immunochemical distinction between insulins with identical amino acid sequences from different mammalian species (pork and sperm whale insulins). Nature, 19 1: 1392-93. With R. S. Yalow. Plasma insulin in health and disease. Am. I. Med., 31:874-81. 1962 With R. S. Yalow. Diverse applications of isotonically labeled insu- lin. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 24:487-95. With R. S. Yalow. Insulin antibodies and insulin resistance. Diabetes Dig., 1:4. 1963 With R. S. Yalow. Iodine metabolism and the thyroid gland. N.Y. State J. Med., 62:35-42. With R. S. Yalow. Antigens in insulin: Determinants of specificity of porcine insulin in man. Science, 139:844-85. With R. S. Yalow, G. D. Aubarch, and I. T. Potts, tr. Immunoassay of bovine and human parathyroid hormone. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 49:613:17. With J. Roth, S. M. Glick, and R. S. Yalow. Hypoglycemia: A potent stimulus to secretion of growth hormone. Science, 140:987-88. With J. Roth, S. M. Glick, and R. S. Yalow. Secretion of human growth hormone: Physiologic and experimental modification. Metabolism, 12:577-79.

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SOLOMON A. BERSON 67 With S. M. Glick, J. Roth, and R. S. Yalow. Immunoassay of human growth hormone in plasma. Nature, 199:784-87. 1964 With I. Roth, S. M. Glick, and R. S. Yalow. Antibodies to human growth hormone (HGH) in human subjects treated with HGH. I. Clin. Invest., 43: 1056 -65. With R. S. Yalow. The present status of insulin antagonists in plasma. Diabetes, 13:247-59. With R. S. Yalow, S. M. Glick, and I. Roth. Immunoassay of protein and peptide hormones. Metabolism, 13: 1135 -53. With R. S. Yalow. Reaction of fish insulins with human insulin anti- serums: Potential value in the treatment of insulin resistance. N. Engl. I. Med., 270: 1171-78. With J. Roth, S. M. Glick, and R. S. Yalow. The influence of blood glucose and other factors on the plasma concentration of growth hormone. Diabetes, 13:355-61. With R. S. Yalow, S. M. Glick, and I. Roth. Radioimmunoassay of human plasma ACTH. I. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 24: 1219- 25. 1965 - With S. M. Glick, J. Roth, and R. S. Yalow. The regulation of growth hormone secretion. In: Recent Progress in Hormone Research, ed. G. Pincus, New York: Academic Press, vol. 21, pp. 241-83. With R. S. Yalow. Dynamics of insulin secretion in hypoglycemia. Diabetes, 14:341-49. With R. S. Yalow, S. M. Glick, and I. Roth. Plasma insulin and growth hormone levels in obesity and diabetes. (Conference on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Obesity.) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 131 :357-73. With R. S. Yalow. Some current controversies in diabetes research. Diabetes, 14:549-72. 1966 With R. S. Yalow. Insulin in blood and insulin antibodies. Am. J. Med., 40:676-90. With R. S. Yalow. Iodoinsulin used to determine specific activity of Iodine- 131. Science, 152:205 -7.

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68 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With R. S. Yalow. Labeling of proteins- problems and practices. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 28:1033-44. With R. S. Yalow. Deamidation of insulin during storage in frozen state. Diabetes, 15:875 -79. With G. Roselin, R. Assan, and R. S. Yalow. Separation of antibody- bound and unbound peptide hormones labeled with iodine- 131 by talcum powder and precipitated silica. Nature,212:355- 57. With R. S. Yalow. Purification of I~3'-parathyroid hormone with microfine granules of precipitated silica. Nature, 212:357-58. With R. S. Yalow. Parathyroid hormone in plasma in adenomatous hyperparathyroidism, uremia, and bronchogenic carcinoma. Science, 154:907-9. With R. S. Yalow. State of human growth hormone in plasma and changes in stored solutions of pituitary growth hormone. i. Biol. Chem., 241:5745-49. 1967 With R. S. Melick, I. R. Gill, fir., R. S. Yalow, F. C. Bartter, J. T. Potts, Jr., and G. D. Aurbach. Antibodies and clinical resistance to parathyroid hormone. N. Engl. I. Med., 276: 144-47. With R. S. Yalow. Radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones in plasma. N. Engl. J. Med., 277:640-47. 1968 With R. S. Yalow. Peptide hormones in plasma. In: The Harvey Lec- tures, New York: Academic Press, ser. 62, 1966-1967, pp. 107- 63. With R. S. Yalow. Immunochemical heterogeneity of parathyroid hormone. I. Clin. Endocrinol., 28:1037-47. With R. S. Yalow. Radioimmunoassay of ACTH in plasma. l. Clin. Invest., 47:2725-51. 1969 With R. S. Yalow, N. Varsano-Aharon, and E. Echemendia. HGH and ACTH secretory responses to stress. Horm. Metab. Res., 1:3-8. With R. S. Yalow and S. I. Goldsmith. Influence of physiologic fluctuations in plasma growth hormone on glucose tolerance. Diabetes, 18:402-8.

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SOLOMON A. BERSON 69 With R. S. Yalow. Significance of human plasma insulin sephadex fractions. Diabetes, 18:834-39. 1970 With R. S. Yalow. Radioimmunoassay of gastrin. Gastroenterology, 58: 1-14. With N. Varsano-Aharon, E. Echemendia, and R. S. Yalow. Early insulin responses to glucose and to tolbutamide in maturity- onset diabetes. Metabolism, 19:409-17. With R. S. Yalow. Size and charge distinctions between endogenous human plasma gastrin in peripheral blood and heptadecapep- tide gastrins. Gastroenterology, 58:609-15. With S. I. Goldsmith and R. S. Yalow. Effects of 2-deoxy-d-glucose on insulin-secretory responses to intravenous glucose, gluca- gon, tolbutamide and arginine in man. Diabetes, 19:453-57. With J. H. Walsh and R. S. Yalow. Detection of Australia antigen and antibody by means of radioimmunoassay techniques. I. In- fect.Dis.,121:550-54. 1971 With I. H. Walsh and R. S. Yalow. The effect of atropine on plasma gastrin response to feeding. Gastroenterology, 60:16-21. With R. S. Yalow. Further studies on the nature of immunoreactive gastrin in human plasma. Gastroenterology, 60:203-14. With R. S. Yalow. Nature of immunoreactive gastrin extracted from tissues of gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology, 60:215-22. With G. M. A. Palmieri and R. S. Yalow. Adsorbent techniques for the separation of antibody-bound from free hormone in ra- dioimmunoassay. Horm. Metab. Res., 3:301-5. With R. S. Yalow, T. Saito, and I. }. Selikoff. Antibodies to "Alcalase" after industrial exposure. N. Engl. I. Med., 284:688-90. With R. S. Yalow. Gastrin in duodenal ulcer. N. Engl. }. Med., 284:445. With R. S. Yalow. Size heterogeneity of immunoreactive human ACTH in plasma and in extracts of pituitary glands and ACTH- producing thymoma. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 44:439-45. 1972 With R. S. Yalow. Radioimmunoassay in Gastroenterology Gastro- enterology, 62: 1061-84.

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70 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With G. Nilsson, l. Simon, and R. S. Yalow. Plasma gastrin and gastric acid responses to sham feeding and feeding in dogs. Gastroenterology, 63:51-59. With R. S. Yalow. And now, "big, big" gastrin. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 48:391-95. 1973 With R. S. Yalow. "Big, big insulin." Metabolism, 22:703-13. With R. S. Yalow. Characteristics of "Big ACTH" in human plasma and pituitary extracts. I. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 36:415-23.

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