Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page R1
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991
OCR for page R2
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and upon its own initiative to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (USAMRDC) through grants DAMD17-88-2-8016 and DAMD17-87-G-7021. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the committee and should not be construed as an official Department of Army position, policy, or decision unless so designated by other documentation. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Education and training in the care and use of laboratory animals : a guide for developing institutional programs / Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. 1. Laboratory animals. 2. Animal welfare. I. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (U.S.). Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science. SF406.E38 1990 636.088'5—dc20 90-49571 CIP ISBN 0-309-04382-4 Copyright © 1991 by the National Academy of Sciences Permission for limited reproduction of portions of this book for educational purposes, but not for sale, may be granted on receipt of a written request to the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418. Printed in the United States of America First Printing, January 1991 Second Printing, December 1992 Third Printing, October 1998
OCR for page R3
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs COMMITTEE ON EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE Gale D. Taylor (Chairman), Program in Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana Lynn C. Anderson, Laboratory Animal Resources, Merck Sharp Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey David A. Blake, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Lynn Dahm, Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources, University of Washington, Seattle Thomas E. Darby, Lab Products, Inc., Maywood, New Jersey John E. Harkness, Mississippi State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State James F. Harwell, National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Staff Dorothy D. Greenhouse, Senior Program Officer The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) was founded in 1952 under the auspices of the National Research Council. Its mission is to provide expert counsel to the federal government, the biomedical research community, and the public on the scientific, technological, and ethical use of laboratory animals within the context of the interests and mission of the National Academy of Sciences. ILAR promotes the high-quality, humane care of laboratory animals; the appropriate use of laboratory animals; and the exploration of alternatives in research, testing, and teaching.
OCR for page R4
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs INSTITUTE OF LABORATORY ANIMAL RESOURCES COUNCIL Steven P. Pakes (Chairman), The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas June R. Aprille, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts Melvin W. Balk, Charles River Laboratories, Inc., Wilmington, Massachusetts Douglas M. Bowden, University of Washington, Seattle Lester M. Crawford, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Thomas J. Gill III, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Jon W. Gordon, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York Alan M. Goldberg, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Margaret Z. Jones, Michigan State University, East Lansing Michael D. Kastello, Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey Robert H. Purcell, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland J. Wesley Robb, School of Medicine University of Southern California, Los Angeles John L. VandeBerg, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas Staff: Thomas L. Wolfle, Director COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES Bruce M. Alberts (Chairman), University of California, San Francisco Bruce N. Ames, University of California, Berkeley Francisco J. Ayala, University of California, Irvine J. Michael Bishop, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco Michael T. Clegg, University of California, Riverside Glenn A. Crosby, Washington State University, Pullman Freeman J. Dyson, The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey Leroy E. Hood, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Donald F. Hornig, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts Marian E. Koshland, University of California, Berkeley Richard E. Lenski, University of California, Irvine Steven P. Pakes, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas Emil A. Pfitzer, Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc., Nutley, New Jersey Thomas D. Pollard, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Joseph E. Rall, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Richard D. Remington, University of Iowa, Iowa City Paul G. Risser, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque Harold M. Schmeck, Jr., Armonk, New York Richard B. Setlow, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York Carla J. Shatz, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California Torsten N. Wiesel, Rockefeller University, New York, New York Staff: John E. Burris, Executive Director
OCR for page R5
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Preface The Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science was appointed in 1988 to "prepare an annotated syllabus [guide] for a course in humane practices of animal care and use to assist institutions in complying with recently enacted federal laws, which mandate that educational programs be provided for personnel who use animals in research, testing, and teaching." The committee met four times between November 1988 and June 1990. During the first meeting, several decisions were made that determined the scope and content of this report. First, to assist the scientific community in meeting its demonstrated commitment to humanely care for and use research animals, it was determined that the report would include more information and in much more depth than is necessary to meet minimal requirements of existing regulations. Second, it was resolved that the intended audience should be anyone who can directly or indirectly influence the well-being of animals. These people include investigators, research technicians, teachers, teaching assistants, people in physical plant maintenance, and administrators and animal care staff, all of whom need an understanding of their responsibilities to make an institution's animal care and use program successful. It was also decided that the report would address primarily the principal species used in biomedical research, with limited inclusion of less commonly used species. The care and use of animals in agricultural research were considered beyond the scope of the committee's charge. The consensus was that the committee would develop a core syllabus appropriate for every institution where animal research is performed. In addition, a number of individual packages would be developed that would allow each institution to adapt this guide to its own unique needs. It was recognized that many of the research facilities that will use this guide are not academic institutions and that some basic guidance on development, presentation, and evaluation of an education and training program should be included.
OCR for page R6
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs The committee recognizes that this report reflects only an initial effort to fulfill both the scientific community's need for information and the mandated requirements for education and training in the care and use of laboratory animals. The dynamics of biomedical research and legislation, critical comments by those who use the guide, and the ongoing development of audiovisual programs will almost certainly require that the report be extensively revised within a few years. The committee hopes that this guide serves as the first building stone in the development of institutional education and training programs that assist scientists in the conduct of biomedical research, as well as meeting the spirit and intent of federal legislation. The committee extends its appreciation to Kevin P. Engler and Jean A. Larson of the National Agricultural Library's Animal Welfare Information Center, who prepared the appendix on how to use the center, and to the staff of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, especially Dorothy D. Greenhouse, whose support has made this document possible. Gale D. Taylor, Chairman Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science
OCR for page R7
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Contents I INTRODUCTION 1 Introduction 3 2 How to Use This Guide 6 II COURSE MODULES 1 Core Module 11 Introduction 11 Outline for the Core Module 12 2 Species-Specific Module 16 Introduction 16 Outline for the Species-Specific Module 16 3 Pain-Management Module 20 Introduction 20 Outline for the Pain-Management Module 20 4 Surgery Module 23 Introduction 23 Outline for the Surgery Module 23 III CONTENT OUTLINES Introduction 28 1 Laws, Regulations, and Policies That Impact on the Care and Use of Animals 29 1.1 Federal Regulations and Policies Affecting the Care and Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education 29 1.2 Selected Requirements of AWRs and PHS Policy 32
OCR for page R8
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs 1.3 State and Local Regulations Affecting the Care and Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education 34 1.4 Institutional Policies Affecting the Care and Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education 34 References 34 2 Ethical and Scientific Issues 36 2.1 Definitions 36 2.2 Conceptual Framework for Ethical Decisions 36 2.3 Arguments Used by Those Advocating the Humane Use of Animals for Human Purposes 37 2.4 Arguments Used by Animal-Rights Advocates 37 2.5 The Role of Laws, Regulations, and Policies 37 2.6 Suggested Ethical Principles 37 References 37 3 Alternatives 39 3.1 Definitions 39 3.2 Rationale for Considering Alternatives 39 3.3 Nonanimal Research Methods and Models 40 3.4 Factors Influencing Model Selection 41 3.5 Utilization of Services 42 References 42 4 Responsibilities of the Institution, the Animal Care and Use Committee, and the Research and Veterinary Staffs 43 4.1 Responsibilities of the Institution 43 4.2 Responsibilities of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee 44 4.3 Responsibilities of the Investigator 45 4.4 Responsibilities of the Attending Veterinarian 47 References 47 5 Pain and Distress 48 5.1 Definitions 48 5.2 Categories of Pain 49 5.3 Pain Perception 49 5.4 Assessment of Pain 49 5.5 Stress 50 5.6 Distress 50 5.7 Ethical Obligations 51 5.8 Legal Obligations 51 5.9 Adequate Veterinary Care 51 References 52 6 Anesthetics, Tranquilizers, Analgesics, and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents 53 6.1 General Anesthetics 53
OCR for page R9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs 6.2 Tranquilizers and Sedatives 55 6.3 Analgesics 57 6.4 Neuromuscular Blocking Agents (Paralytics or Immobilizing Agents) 58 6.5 Factors Modifying the Effects of Tranquilizers, Analgesics, and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents 59 6.6 Safety Precautions 59 6.7 Recordkeeping Requirements 59 6.8 Functions of the Attending Veterinarian in Pain Management 59 References 59 7 Survival Surgery and Postsurgical Care 61 7.1 Definitions 61 7.2 Legal Requirements 61 7.3 Preparation for Surgery 62 7.4 Anesthesia 63 7.5 Surgical Complications 63 7.6 Incisions 64 7.7 Postsurgical Care 65 7.8 Equipment 65 7.9 Recordkeeping 66 References 66 8 Euthanasia 67 8.1 Definition 67 8.2 Legal Requirements 67 8.3 Ethical and Humane Considerations 68 8.4 Human Considerations 68 8.5 Criteria for Selection of Method of Euthanasia 69 8.6 Pharmacologic Methods 69 8.7 Physical Methods 72 8.8 Carcass Disposal 74 References 74 9 Husbandry, Care, and the Importance of the Environment 75 9.1 Legal Requirements for Husbandry and Care 75 9.2 Importance of Proper Husbandry and a Stable Environment 75 9.3 Environmental Variables That Can Be Controlled 76 9.4 Dealing with Emergencies 76 Reference 76 10 Species-Specific Overview 77 10.1 Factors Associated with Selection of Animals 77 10.2 Procurement of Animals 79 10.3 Caging 79 10.4 Environmental Enrichment 80
OCR for page R10
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs 10.5 Food 80 10.6 Water 80 10.7 Handling and Restraint 81 10.8 Identification and Records 81 10.9 Animal Health 81 10.10 Zoonoses 83 10.11 Specific Techniques 84 References 84 IV RESOURCES 1 Sources of Information 87 2 Selected Bibliography 89 Laws, Policies, and Guidelines 89 Ethics, Animal Welfare, and the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research, Education, and Testing 90 Alternatives 90 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees 91 Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress 91 Surgery 93 Euthanasia 93 Biology, Husbandry, and Care 93 Genetics and Nomenclature 97 Nutrition 97 Occupational Hazards and Laboratory Safety 98 Pathology and Therapy 99 Design of Educational Course 102 3 Audiovisual Materials 103 V HOW TO DEVELOP, DELIVER, AND EVALUATE AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM 1 How to Approach the Task of Education 109 Educational Goals 109 Setting Objectives 110 Selecting Methods 110 Overcoming Resistance to Change 112 Conclusions 113 2 How to Plan and Implement a Training Course 114 Identifying the Target Audience 114 Allocating a Budget/Funding 114 Determining Goals and Objectives 115 Scheduling the Course 115 Reserving Facilities 115 Identifying and Contacting Lecturers 115
OCR for page R11
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Obtaining and Reviewing Audiovisual Materials 116 Assembling Reference Materials 116 Publicizing the Course 116 References 117 3 Evaluation 118 Evaluating the Institutional Program 118 Evaluating the Course 119 Reference 119 APPENDIXES I Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training 125 II The Animal Welfare Information Center 127 Animal Welfare Information Center Established 127 Services and Information Resources Available Through AWIC 127 AWIC Reference Publications 129 Projects Supported by AWIC 129 Updates Regarding AWIC and NAL 131 Publications Available Through AWIC 131 III Sample Objectives of Self-Assessment Statements 133 Introduction 133 Core Module 133 Species-Specific Module 136 Pain-Management Module 137 Surgery Module 138
OCR for page R12
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs This page in the original is blank.