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Recommended Dietary Allowances 10th Edition Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs Food and Nutrition Board Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1989
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Page ii NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS • 2101 CONSTITUTION AVE., NW •· WASHINGTON, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The study summarized in this report was supported by funds from the National Institutes of Health, United States Public Health Service, through Contract Nos. NO 1AM-0-2204 and NO1-I)K-8-2236. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs. Recommended dietary allowances / Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council.10th rev. ed. p. cm. Rev. ed. of: Recommended dietary allowances / Committee on Dietary Allowances, Food and Nutrition Board, Division of Biological Sciences, Assembly of Life Sciences. National Research Council, 9th rev. ed. 1980. Supported by funds from the National Institute of Health, United States Public Health Service, contract no: NO1-DK-8-2236. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-309-04633-5, paperbound ISBN 0-309-04041-8 (1989), hardbound with jacket I. Nutrition. 2. Diet. I. National Institutes of Health (U.S.) II. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Dietary Allowances. Recommended dietary allowances. III. Title. 1X551.N393 1989 613.2'8-dc20 DN LM/DLC for library of Congress 89-13176 CIP Copyright © 1989 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. government. Printed in the United States of America First Printing, October 1989 Sixth Printing, July 1992 Second Printing, July 1990 Seventh Printing, January 1993 Third Printing, September 1991 Eighth Printing, April 1995 Fourth Printing, January 1992 Ninth Printing, September 1998 Fifth Printing, June 1992 Twelfth Printing, March 1999 This report is available online at http://www.nap.edu
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Page iii FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE TENTH EDITION OF THE RDAS RICHARD J. HAVEL (Chairman), Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California DORIS H. CALLOWAY, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California JOAN D. GUSSOW, Department of Nutrition Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, New York WALTER MERTZ, Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland MALDEN C. NESHEIM, Provost, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Food and Nutrition Board Staff SUSHMA PALMER, Director PAUL R. THOMAS, Program Officer FRANCES M. PETER, Editor ALDON GRIFFIS, Research Assistant MARIAN F. MILLSTONE, Research Assistant The Food and Nutrition Board wishes to acknowledge the contributions of the Committee on Dietary Allowances that worked on the tenth edition from 1980 to 1985. The committee was chaired by the late Henry Kamin of Duke University Medical Center. Other members of the committee were Philip Farrell (University of Wisconsin, Madison), Helen A. Guthrie (Pennsylvania State University), Victor Herbert (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, New York), Robert Hodges (University of California, Irvine Medical Center), Max K. Horwitt (St. Louis University School of Medicine), Orville Levander (U.S. Department of Agriculture), Hellen Linkswiler (deceased; University of Wisconsin, Madison), James A. Olson (Iowa State University), and Peter L. Pellett (University of Massachusetts, Amherst). The Food and Nutrition Board staff included Myrtle L. Brown (executive secretary until August 1983), Sushma Palmer (director from July 1983), Linda D. Myers (project director), Frances M. Peter (editor), Marianne E. La Veille (research associate), and secretaries Susan Barron, Shirley E. Cole, Avis I. Harris, and Janie B. Marshall.
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Page iv FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD RICHARD J. HAVEL (Chairman), Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California HAMISH N. MUNRO (Vice Chairman), U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts EDWARD J. CALABRESE, Environmental Health Program, Division of Public Health, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts DORIS H. CALLOWAY, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California WILLIAM E. CONNOR, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon DeWITT S. GOODMAN, Director, Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University, New York, New York M.R.C. GREENWOOD, Department of Biology, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York JOAN D. GUSSOW, Department of Nutrition Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, New York JOHN E. KINSELLA, Institute of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York LAURENCE N. KOLONEL, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii BERNARD J. LISKA, Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana REYNALDO MARTORELL, Food Research Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California DONALD B. McCORMICK, Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia WALTER MERTZ, Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland MALDEN C. NESHEIM, Provost, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York J. MICHAEL McGINNIS (Ex Officio), Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. ARNO G. MOTULSKY (Ex Officio), Center for Inherited Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Food and Nutrition Board Staff SUSHMA PALMER, Director FRANCES M. PETER, Deputy Director
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Page v COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES BRUCE M. ALBERTS (Chairman), Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California PERRY L. ADKISSON, Office of the Chancellor, The Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas FRANCISCO J. AYALA, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, California J. MICHAEL BISHOP, The G.W. Hooper Research Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, California FREEMAN J. DYSON, School of Natural Sciences, The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey NINA V. FEDOROFF, Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, Maryland RALPH W.F. HARDY, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research (Cornell), Ithaca, New York RICHARD J. HAVEL, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California LEROY E. HOOD, Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California DONALD F. HORNIG, Interdisciplinary Programs in Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts ERNEST G. JAWORSKI, Division of Biological Sciences, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri SIMON A. LEVIN, Ecosystems Research Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York HAROLD A. MOONEY, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California STEVEN P. PAKES, Division of Comparative Medicine, Southwestern Medical School, University of Texas, Dallas, Texas JOSEPH E. RALL, Intramural Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland RICHARD D. REMINGTON, Office of Academic Affairs, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa PAUL G. RISSER, Office of the Vice President, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico RICHARD B. SETLOW, Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York TORSTEN N. WIESEL, Laboratory of Neurobiology, Rockefeller University, New York, New York Commission on Life Sciences Staff JOHN E. BURRIS, Executive Director
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Page vi The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Page vii Preface This tenth edition of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) reflects the work of two panels of the Food and Nutrition Board. The first, the Committee on Dietary Allowances, was appointed in 1980 and by 1985 had prepared a draft of this edition that, after an outside review overseen by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC), was postponed for further consideration (Press, 1985). The second panel, a subcommittee of the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) itself, was appointed in 1987 to complete this, the tenth edition of the RDAs. The FNB subcommittee began work in June 1987 under sponsorship of the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases. Throughout its efforts, the subcommittee was keenly aware of the breadth of expertise needed to address its charge. Accordingly, after establishing criteria for developing RDAs that would be applied across nutrients, the subcommittee held special meetings with invited experts on several nutrients and consulted widely on difficult-to resolve issues and on the importance of new scientific data. Although the subcommittee sought the advice of others and considered the critiques of outside reviewers, it takes full responsibility for the recommendations and for any errors that may have escaped its attention. This report has been approved by the Food and Nutrition Board and the NRC Report Review Committee. Both are satisfied that the tenth edition reflects a concurrence of scientific opinion and will be appropriate for use by governmental and private agencies as a basis for developing nutrition programs and policies pertaining to public health.
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Page viii The subcommittee thanks the many consultants who provided advice and help in revising the draft report: Drs. John G. Bieri, Gladys Block, George M. Briggs (deceased), C. Wayne Callaway, Kenneth J. Carpenter, Frank Chytil, William E. Connor, Steven Cummings, Peter R. Dallman, Stanley N. Gershoff, DeWitt S. Goodman, J.-P. Habicht, Phillip Harvey, Michael N. Kazarinoff, Janet C. King, Orville A. Levander, Sheldon Margen, Velimir Matkovic, Donald B. McCormick, Dennis Miller, Curtis D. Morris, Suzanne Murphy, Susan M. Oace, Robert R. Recker, Floyd C. Rector, Jerry M. Rivers, Howerde E. Sauberlich, Ruth Schwartz, Barry Shane, E.L. Robert Stokstad, John W. Suttie, Barbara A. Underwood, Robert H. Wasserman, and Regina Ziegler. We also wish to thank the members of the Board's Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation and its three subcommittees, whose members reviewed and commented on this report. The subcommittee is also grateful to Dr. Alvin G. Lazen of the Commission on Life Sciences and to the staff of the Food and Nutrition Board for their help during various phases of our work: Dr. Sushma Palmer, Frances Peter, Aldon Griffis, Marian Millstone, Marion Ramsey Roberts, Sandra Johnson, Molly McGlade, and especially Dr. Paul R. Thomas for his able support to the subcommittee throughout the study. Richard J. Havel, Chairman Food and Nutrition Board and the Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs REFERENCE Press, F. 1985. Postponement of the 10th edition of the RDAs. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 85:1644-1645.
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Page ix Contents 1 SUMMARY 1 2 DEFINITION AND APPLICATIONS 10 3 ENERGY 24 4 CARBOHYDRATES AND FIBER 39 5 LIPIDS 44 6 PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS 52 7 FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS 78 Vitamin A 78 Vitamin D 92 Vitamin E 99 Vitamin K 107
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Page x 8 WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS 115 Vitamin C 115 Thiamin 125 Riboflavin 132 Niacin 137 Vitamin B6 142 Folate 150 Vitamin B12 158 Biotin 165 Pantothenic Acid, 169 9 MINERALS 174 Calcium 174 Phosphorus 184 Magnesium 187 10 TRACE ELEMENTS 195 Iron 195 Zinc 205 Iodine 213 Selenium 217 Copper 224 Manganese 230 Fluoride 235 Chromium 241 Molybdenum 243 11 WATER AND ELECTROLYTES 247 12 OTHER SUBSTANCES IN FOOD 262 INDEX 273 SUMMARY TABLE 284
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R1 ended Dietary Allowances 10th Edition
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