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--> Women Scientists and Engineers Employed in Industry Why So Few? A Report Based on a Conference Ad hoc Panel on Industry Committee on Women in Science and Engineering Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994
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--> NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This report has been reviewed by persons other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This material is based on work supported by the National Academy of Engineering's Technology Agenda to Meet the Competitive Challenge Program. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 93-86930 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04991-1 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NWBox 285 Washington, DC 20055 B-263 Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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--> COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ‡JEWEL PLUMMER COBB, President and Professor Emerita, California State University—Fullerton, and Trustee Professor, California State University—Los Angeles, Chair ‡CHARLOTTE V. KUH, Executive Director of the Graduate Record Examinations Program, Educational Testing Service, Vice-Chair *BETSY ANCKER-JOHNSON, Chair, World Environment Center, and Vice-president, General Motors Corporation, Environmental Activities (retired) *GEORGE CAMPBELL JR., President, National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering ‡NANCY E. CANTOR, Professor and Chair, Department of Psychology, Princeton University *†ESTHER M. CONWELL, Research Fellow, Xerox Corporation, Vice-Chair *†MILDRED S. DRESSELHAUS, Institute Professor of Electrical Engineering and Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair CAROLA EISENBERG, Lecturer in psychiatry and Dean of Student Affairs, Harvard Medical School (retired) ‡LOUIS A. FERNANDEZ, Dean, School of Natural Sciences, California State University—San Bernardino †BRUCE ANDREW FOWLER, Director of the Toxicology Program, University of Maryland Medical School * Member of the Ad Hoc Panel on Industry. † Term ended in 1993. ‡ Term began in 1993.
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--> †LILLI S. HORNIG, Visiting Research Scholar, Center for Research on Women, Wellesley College *†PAT HILL HUBBARD, Senior Vice-president of Public Affairs, American Electronics Association *SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, Professor of Physics, Rutgers University ‡WILLIE PEARSON, JR., Professor of Sociology, Wake Forest University †GIAN-CARLO ROTA, Professor of Applied Mathematics and Philosophy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology †GARRISON SPOSITO, Professor of Soil Physical Chemistry, University of California—Berkeley ‡LOIS STEELE, Research Medical Officer, Indian Health Service—Tucson KAREN K. UHLENBECK, Professor of Mathematics, University of Texas—Austin NRC Staff: Linda C. Skidmore, Staff Officer Gaelyn Davidson, Administrative Assistant * Member of the Ad Hoc Panel on Industry. † Term ended in 1993. ‡ Term began in 1993.
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--> OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PERSONNEL ADVISORY COMMITTEE LINDA S. WILSON, President, Radcliffe College, Chair DAVID BRENEMAN, Professor, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University *JOHN PATRICK CRECINE, President, Georgia Institute of Technology LESTER A. HOEL, Hamilton Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia ERNEST JAWORSKI, Distinguished Science Fellow, Monsanto Company *DANIEL KLEPPNER, Professor of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JUANITA KREPS, Professor of Economics, Duke University DONALD LANGENBERG, Chancellor, University of Maryland System BARRY MUNITZ, Chancellor, California State University System *ALAN S. RABSON, Director, Division of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis, National Institutes of Health BRUCE SMITH, Senior Staff, Center for Public Policy Education, The Brookings Institution Ex Officio WILLIAM H. MILLER, Professor, University of California—Berkeley NRC Staff: Alan Fechter, Executive Director Marilyn J. Baker, Associate Executive Director Pamela Ebert Flattau, Director of Studies and Surveys Unit * Term ended June 1, 1993.
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--> Acknowledgments The Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE) is a continuing committee within the National Research Council's Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel. The goal of the Committee is to increase the participation of women in science and engineering by convening meetings, conducting research, and disseminating data about the status of women in these fields. The Committee's core activities are funded by a consortium of federal and private organizations. For their roles in securing contributions of partial funding for the core activities of the Committee, their sharing with the Committee the concerns of their organizations relevant to the Committee's mandate, and their participation in the Committee's deliberations about topics that it might examine in order to address the underparticipation of women in science and engineering, we are grateful to the following sponsor representatives: Bruce Guile, National Academy of Engineering; Harriet Zuckerman, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation; Charles R. Bowen, International Business Machines Corporation; Mark Myers, Xerox Corporation; Burton H. Colvin, National Institute for Standards and Technology; Marguerite Hays and Ted Lorei, Department of Veterans Affairs; Roosevelt Calbert and Lola Rogers, National Science Foundation; Sherri McGee, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Sheila Rosenthal, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; and Cindy Musick, U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research. Finally, we recognize the financial support given by the General Electric Foundation, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and the National Research Council, specifically for the conference, "Women Scientists and Engineers Employed in Industry: Why So Few?" Oversight for the conference and this report was provided by a group of CWSE members having a wide range of experience in industry: Betsy Ancker-Johnson, George Campbell, Jr., Esther Conwell, Mildred S. Dresselhaus, and Shirley A. Jackson. We especially acknowledge the efforts of two individuals: Dr. Conwell, conference chair, and Dr. Dresselhaus, CWSE chair, devoted much time reviewing the manuscripts during the first six months of 1993. The Committee on Women in Science and Engineering publicly acknowledges the thoughtful contributions of the 150 participants at the conference held on January 17–18, 1993. Although they are not listed in this report, these individuals—women practicing science and engineering in the industrial work force of the United States, managers in that
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--> technological work force, human resources staff at companies ranging from small businesses to Fortune 500 corporations, and researchers investigating the underparticipation of women in science and engineering in general and the science and engineering (S&E) industrial work force in particular—shared experiences, without which this report could not have been developed. Furthermore, we applaud the meritorious efforts of the five companies described in some detail in Chapter III, also recognizing that still other U.S. companies have undertaken programs to enhance the participation of women in their technological work forces. It is the Committee's intention to continue to disseminate information about such programs exhibiting effectiveness in recruiting women and advancing their careers in science and engineering. Finally, the Committee is indebted to the staff of the National Research Council's Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel for providing the forum and creating the environment in which its initial examination of the status of industrially employed women scientists and engineers could occur. Throughout this project—from initial planning of the conference through dissemination of this report—activities have been coordinated competently by the CWSE study director, Linda C. Skidmore. Pamela Ebert Flattau, director of studies and surveys, offered valuable advice during the planning of the conference. Judy Scott wrote a summary of the 2-day conference, which formed the basis of this report. Gaelyn Davidson, administrative assistant, handled conference logistics and most word processing for this report. The contributions of these many individuals and organizations have resulted in this first CWSE volume looking at the status of women scientists and engineers employed in the industrial sector of the United States. One recommendation during the final plenary session of the January 1993 conference was for the Committee to hold a series of conferences at which this issue would continue to be examined. The Committee has begun to act on that recommendation, with the endorsement of the National Research Council's Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel and the Executive Committee of the Council's Governing Board. The Committee is grateful for the continued support of the National Research Council, as evidenced by this recent action.
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--> Contents Executive Summary 1 I The Representation of Women Scientists and Engineers in Industry 5 II Barriers for Women in Corporate Culture 17 •Access 17 •The Workplace Environment 20 Paternalism 21 Allegations of Reverse Discrimination 23 Sexual Harassment 23 Different Standards 24 Styles of Communication 26 Perceptions of the Role of Women 27 •Retention 28 Opportunities for Advancement 31 Salary Discrepancies 38 Work-Family Issues 42 III Corporate Initiatives to Recruit and Retain Women Scientists and Engineers 51 •A Look at Six Companies 51 Xerox Corporation 51 Alcoa 54 Aerospace Corporation 56 AT&T Bell Laboratories 57 Scios Nova 62 Barrios Technology: A Model Company 63 •Elements of Effective Programs 65 Well-Developed Recruitment Initiatives 67 Career Development 68 Mentoring Programs 71 Women's Networks 74 Compensation and Bonuses 79 Addressing Work-Family Issues 79 •Addressing Attrition 82 •Evaluation of Programs 83
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--> IV Attributes and Strategies for Successful Employment in Industry 87 •General Characteristics 87 S&E Expertise and Competence 88 Ability To Establish Goals and To Take Risks 90 Strong Communication Skills 91 Self-Confidence 92 Openness to Change 94 •Additional Qualities of an Effective Manager or Entrepreneur 96 Positive Attitude 96 Sense of Humor 97 Desire To Help Others 97 Leadership 98 Ability To Seize Opportunities 99 •Success Factors for the Woman Entrepreneur 99 •Strategies for Success 100 V Conclusions 105 Appendixes A: Approaching Change by Linda S. Wilson 113 B: Related Tables 127 List of Tables I-1: 1988 and 1989 Science and Engineering (S&E) Bachelor's Degree Recipients Employed in Industry in 1990 (as a percentage of recent graduates in all sectors): All employed graduates and female and male graduates, by field 10 I-2: 1988 and 1989 Science and Engineering (S&E) Master's Degree Recipients Employed in Industry in 1990 (as a percentage of recent graduates in all sectors): All employed graduates and female and male graduates, by field 11 I-3: 1988 and 1989 Science and Engineering (S&E) Ph.D. Recipients Employed in Industry in 1990 (as a percentage of recent Ph.D.s in all sectors): All employed Ph.D.s and female and male Ph.D., by field 12
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--> III-1: Summary Data, AT&T Bell Laboratories' Graduate Research Program for Women, 1975–1992 59 List of Figures I-1. Number of science and engineering (S&E) degrees awarded to women, by degree level, 1966–1989 6 I-2. Percentage of science and engineering (S&E) degrees awarded to women, by degree level, 1966 and 1989 7 I-3. Women as a percentage of the total science and engineering (S&E) and industrial S&E employment pools, by degree level, 1990 8 I-4. Percentage of women and men receiving degrees in life, behavioral, and social sciences, by degree level, 1989 13 I-5. Percentage of 1988 and 1989 science and engineering (S&E) degree recipients employed in industry, by degree level, total and selected fields, 1990 14 I-6. Male and female exit rates, by sector (percentage of scientists and engineers employed in 1982 who had left S&E employment by 1989) 15 II-1. Comparisons of the probabilities of exit of women in industry and women in other sectors, 1982–1989, by type of exit 30 II-2. Response to the statement, "The company does a good job developing employees," 36
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--> Using X-ray diffraction analysis, Joka Vandenberg evaluates the quality of layered crystals used in making strained-multi-quantum-well lasers. (Photo: AT&T Bell Laboratories)