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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY CHEMICAL STOCKPILE DISPOSAL PROGRAM BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1994
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences, is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAL03-90-C-0035 (CLIN OO1) between the U.S. Department of the Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 94-65647 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05046-4 Copies available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20005 (800) 624-6242, (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) B-323 Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program CARL R. PETERSON, Chairman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ELISABETH M. DRAKE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge COLIN G. DRURY, University at Buffalo, State University of New York GENE H. DYER, Consultant, San Rafael, California MG VINCENT E. FALTER, USA Retired, Springfield, Virginia ANN FISHER, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park (from 3/93) B. JOHN GARRICK, Plg, Inc., Newport Beach, California WILLIAM E. KASTENBERG, University of California, Los Angeles (from 8/93) CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts (from 8/93) DAVID S. KOSSON, Rutgers—The State University, Piscataway, New Jersey (from 8/93) JOHN P. LONGWELL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge RICHARD S. MAGEE, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark WALTER G. MAY, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, (from 8/93) ALVIN H. MUSHKATEL, Arizona State University, Tempe PETER J. NIEMIEC, Greenberg, Glusker, Fields, Claman & Machtinger, Los Angeles, California GEORGE PARSHALL, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware GAVRIEL SALVENDY, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana JAMES R. WILD, Texas A&M University, College Station (from 8/93) Staff DONALD L. SIEBENALER, Study Director TRACY WILSON, Senior Program Officer MARGO L. FRANCESCO, Senior Program Assistant
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Board on Army Science and Technology PHILIP A. ODEEN, Chairman, BDM International, Inc., McLean, Virginia LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, Vice Chairman, Montgomery and Associates, Washington, D.C. ROBERT A. BEAUDET, University of Southern California, Los Angeles WILLIAM K. BREHM, Systems Research Applications Corporation, Arlington, Virginia ALBERTO COLL, U.S. Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island WILLIAM H. EVERS, JR., W. J. Schafer Associates, Inc., Arlington, Virginia JAMES L. FLANAGAN, Center for Computer Aids in Industrial Productivity, Piscataway, New Jersey CHRISTOPHER C. GREEN, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, Michigan ROBERT J. HEASTON, Guidance and Control Information Analysis Center, Chicago, Illinois THOMAS MCNAUGHER, The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. GENERAL GLENN K. Otis, USA Retired, Coleman Research Corporation, Fairfax, Virginia NORMAN F. PARKER, Varian Associates (Retired), Cardiff by the Sea, California KATHLEEN J. ROBERTSON, Center for Naval Analysis, Alexandria, Virginia HARVEY W. SCHADLER, General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York F. STAN SETTLES, The Garrett Corporation (Retired), Tempe, Arizona JOYCE L. SHIELDS, Hay Systems, Inc., Washington, D.C. DANIEL C. TSUI, Princeton University, New Jersey ALLEN C. WARD, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director ALBERT A. SCIARRETTA, Senior Program Officer DONALD L. SIEBENALER, Senior Program Officer TRACY D. WILSON, Senior Program Officer HELEN D. JOHNSON, Staff Associate ANN M. STARK, Program Associate MARGO L. FRANCESCO, Senior Program Assistant LUCY V. FUSCO, Senior Secretary ALLISON P. KNIGHT, Administrative Secretary
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Preface The United States has maintained a stockpile of highly toxic chemical agents and munitions for more than half a century. In 1985, Congress, in Public Law 99-145, directed the Department of Defense to destroy at least 90 percent of the unitary chemical agent and munitions stockpile, with particular attention to M55 rockets, which were deteriorating and becoming increasingly hazardous. The program has expanded to treat the entire unitary stockpile, and after setting several intermediate goals and dates, Congress, in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993, dated October 28, 1992, directed the Army to dispose of the entire unitary chemical warfare agent and munitions stockpile by December 31, 2004. The Army had commissioned studies of different disposal technologies and tested several in the 1970s. In 1982, incineration was selected as the method to dispose of agents and associated propellants and explosives, and to thermally decontaminate metal parts. In 1984, the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Demilitarizing Chemical Munitions and Agents reviewed a range of disposal technologies and endorsed the Army's selection of incineration. Incineration technology is embodied in today's "baseline" disposal system, developed largely at the Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System (CAMDS) experimental facility at Tooele Army Depot, Utah. The first full-scale operational plant is now in service at the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) on Johnston Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, southwest of Hawaii. The second operational plant has just been completed at Tooele and is undergoing "systemization" testing, which uses surrogates for agent to verify that all components of the system work as designed. Similar facilities are planned for the remaining seven continental agent and munitions storage sites. The Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee) was formed in 1987 at the request of the Undersecretary of the Army to monitor the disposal program and to review and comment on relevant technical issues. The Stockpile Committee is a standing committee, to remain in service with rotating
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions personnel until completion of the disposal program. The Stockpile Committee has monitored the development and implementation of the baseline system; has visited CAMDS numerous times, JACADS three times, and the new facility at Tooele twice; and has issued numerous reports on various aspects of the disposal program. There is public concern with the selection of incineration as the process for destruction of chemical agents. In March 1991, the Stockpile Committee suggested, and the Army agreed, that a new study of alternatives to incineration be undertaken. Accordingly, the Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies (Alternatives Committee) was established in January 1992 to develop a comprehensive list of alternative technologies and to review their capabilities and potential as agent and munitions disposal technologies. That committee's report, Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions , was issued in June 1993. The Alternatives Committee report serves as a reference document but does not make recommendations. It was planned in 1991 that the Stockpile Committee, working with the report of the Alternatives Committee and with its own knowledge of the baseline system and disposal requirements, would formulate recommendations regarding the pursuit of potential alternatives to incineration. In the course of formulating its recommendations, the Stockpile Committee and the Alternatives Committee held a public forum in June 1993 to learn more about the public's concerns with the planned disposal operations. The Defense Authorization Act of 1992 also directed the Army to submit to Congress, not later than December 31, 1993 (extended to 60 days following delivery of this report), a report on potential alternatives to the baseline system. That report is to contain an analysis of the Alternatives Committee report and "any recommendations that the National Academy of Sciences makes to the Army ...". This report provides those recommendations to the Army. This report has been a true committee effort, with major contributions from practically each and every member to the discussions, deliberations, and writing. The committee is particularly pleased with the unstinting support from NRC staff members Margo Francesco, Robert Katt, Donald Siebenaler, and Tracy Wilson. Carl R. Peterson, Chairman Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 21 The Call for Disposal, 21 The Call for Recommendations, 22 Disposal Technology Selection Background—The Role of National Research Council Committees, 23 Related Options and Issues, 25 Health and Environmental Impacts, 25 Schedule, 25 Transportation, 26 Community Concerns, 26 Public Forum, 26 Human Impacts, 27 External Driving Factors, 29 Management Capabilities, 30 Site-Specific Impacts, 30 Ecological Impacts, 30 Schedules, 32 2 THE UNITARY CHEMICAL AGENT AND MUNITIONS STOCKPILE 34 Agents, 34 Containers and Munitions, 35 Geographical Distribution, 35 Condition of the Chemical Stockpile, 43 M55 Propellant Stability, 46
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions 3 FUNDAMENTALS OF DISPOSAL 52 Intermediates and End Products of Agent Destruction, 52 Material Feed and Processing Streams, 56 Processing of Non-Agent Materials, 58 Waste Stream Regulations, 58 4 SELECTION CRITERIA 61 Risk, 61 Risk as a Measure of Health and Safety, 62 The Risk of Chemical Stockpile Storage, 67 The Risk of Chemical Stockpile Disposal Operations, 67 Health Effects, 68 The Health Effects of Accidental Releases, 68 The Health Effects from Normal Operations, 69 Risk Assessment Activities, 72 Programmatic Risk Assessment, 72 Site-Specific Risk Assessment, 77 Relative Risks Associated with Individual Steps of Disposal Operations, 78 Overall, 78 Internal Events, 79 External Events, 80 Relative Risks of Alternative Disposal Technologies, 80 Issues Other than Risk, 81 Socioeconomic Impacts, 81 Open Decision-Making Process, 82 Schedule, 82 Cost, 82 Citizen Involvement, 83 Summary, 83 5 THE PRESENT BASELINE SYSTEM 85 Baseline System Implementation, 85 Storage, Transportation, and Unloading of Munitions and Containers, 85 Disassembly and Draining, 87 Agent Destruction, 88 Energetics Destruction, 88 Metal Parts Decontamination, 89
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Pollution Abatement Systems, 89 Auxiliary Systems, 92 Agent Monitoring Systems, 93 Baseline Performance at JACADS During OVT, 94 6 COMPARISON OF THE BASELINE SYSTEM AND ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES 98 Introduction, 98 Bases for Selecting Alternative Technologies, 99 Safety, 99 Technical Capabilities, 101 Listing of Alternatives, 101 Initial Screening of Agent Destruction Processes, 101 Evaluations of Destruction Processes, 101 Alternative Processes Recommended for Further Research and Development, 109 Gelled Agent, 113 Metals, Energetics, and Dunnage Disposal, 113 Energetics Treatment, 113 Metal Parts Decontamination, 115 Dunnage Disposal, 115 Enhanced Baseline System, 115 Development Requirements for Alternative Technologies, 118 7 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 120 Overview, 120 Specific Findings and Recommendations, 121 Expeditious Progress, 121 Risk Analyses, 122 Public Concerns, 123 Current System, 124 Alternatives, 126 Stockpile Safety, 128 Staffing Needs, 129 Summary, 130
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions APPENDICES Appendix A, Public Law 102-484—Oct. 23, 1992 (Extract), 133 Appendix B, Public Forum, 138 Appendix C, Use of Activated Carbon Adsorption Systems for Exhaust Gas Cleaning, 148 Appendix D, Supercritical Water Oxidation and Wet Air Oxidation, 154 Appendix E, Neutralization (Chemical Hydrolysis), 159 Appendix F, Update on the Status of Biological Processes, 176 Appendix G, Biographical Sketches, 181 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 189
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Figures 2-1 M55 rocket and M23 land mine. 36 2-2 105-mm, 155-mm, 8-inch, and 4.2-inch projectiles. 37 2-3 Bomb, spray tank, and ton container. 38 2-4 Types of agent and munitions, and percentage of total agent stockpile (by weight of agent at each storage site). 39 4-1 Types of risk. 64 4-2 Sources of risk. 65 4-3 Risk of stockpile storage and disposal. 74 4-4 Potential cumulative consequences of delayed disposal, for constant storage and disposal risk. 76 5-1 Schematic of the baseline system. 86 5-2 Schematic diagram of the pollution abatement systems. 91 B-1 Letter of invitation to public forum. 146 C-1 Contaminant concentration profiles in a charcoal bed. 150 E-1 Block diagram of a neutralization-based system for destruction of chemical warfare agents. 167
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Tables 1-1 Presentation by Dr. Carl R. Peterson during the June 30, 1993, Public Forum 28 1-2 Prior Public Concerns About the Disposal Program 29 1-3 Schedule for the Construction and Operation of Chemical Stockpile Disposal Facilities (December 1993) 33 2-1 Composition of Munitions in the U.S. Chemical Stockpile 40 2-2 Chemical Munitions Stored in the Continental United States 41 2-3 Approximate Amounts of Metals, Energetics, and Agent Contained in the Unitary Chemical Weapons Stockpile (tons), by Site 42 2-4 Toxic Chemical Munition Leakers 45 2-5 Estimated Date at Which 0.5 Percent Stabilizer Levels Would Be Reached in Most Rapidly Deteriorating M55 Lots 48 3-1 Air and Exposure Standards 54 4-1 Scope of Risk Assessment 79 6-1 Summary of Process Capabilities and Status 102
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Abbreviations and Acronyms ACAMS Automated Continuous Agent Monitoring System AChE Acetylcholinesterase APE Ammunition Peculiar Equipment ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry BRA Brine Reduction Area CAMDS Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act CSDP Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program DAAMS Depot Area Air Monitoring System DMMP Dimethoxy Methyl Phosphate DOD Department of Defense DPE Demilitarization Protective Ensemble DRE Destruction Removal Efficiency DUN Dunnage Furnace EEG Electroencephalograph EMPA Ethylmethylphosphoric Acid EPA Environmental Protection Agency ERDEC Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center GA Tabun GB Sarin GD Soman
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions H, HD, HT Blister or Mustard Agents HEPA High-Efficiency Particulate Air IBP Kitazin P ID Induced Draft in. Inch JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System JSLRMDP Joint Services Large Rocket Motor Disposal Program lb Pound LIC Liquid Incinerator m3 Cubic Meter mg Milligram min Minute mm Millimeter mM Millimolar μm Micromole MPF Metal Parts Furnace NDPA 2-Nitrodiphenylamine NOEL No-Observed-Effect-Level NOx Nitrogen Oxides NPDES National Pollution Discharge Elimination System NRC National Research Council OPH Organophosphorus Hydrolase OTA Office of Technology Assessment OVT Operational Verification Testing PCB Polychlorinated Biphenyl PEIS Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement PIC Product of Incomplete Combustion POHC Principal Organic Hazardous Constituent ppm Parts per Million psi Pounds per Square Inch RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SAIC Science Applications International Corporation SCWO Supercritical Water Oxidation
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions TDG Thiodiglycol TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act USATHAMA U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency VOC Volatile Organic Compound VX Organophosphate Nerve Agent WAO Wet Air Oxidation
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