Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals

Fourth Revised Edition, 1995

Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition

Committee on Animal Nutrition

Board on Agriculture

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1995



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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under cooperative agreement No. 5 R01 RR06161-03. Additional support was provided by Ziegler Brothers, Inc., and Harlan Sprague-Dawley Co. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nutrient requirements of laboratory animals / Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. — 4th rev. ed. p. cm. — (Nutrient requirements of domestic animals) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-05126-6 1. Laboratory animals—Feeding and feeds. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition. II. Series. SF95.N32 [SF406.2] 636.08'542 s—dc20 [636'.93233] 94-43585 CIP © 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Printed in the United States of America

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 SUBCOMMITTEE ON LABORATORY ANIMAL NUTRITION NORLIN J. BENEVENGA, Chair, University of Wisconsin, Madison CHRISTOPHER CALVERT, University of California, Davis CURTIS D. ECKHERT, University of California, Los Angeles GEORGE C. FAHEY, University of Illinois JANET L. GREGER, University of Wisconsin, Madison CARL L. KEEN, University of California, Davis JOSEPH J. KNAPKA, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland HULDA MAGALHAES, Bucknell University OLAV T. OFTEDAL, National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C. PHILIP G. REEVES, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks, North Dakota HELEN ANDERSON SHAW, University of North Carolina, Greensboro JOHN EDGAR SMITH, Pennsylvania State University, University Park ROBERT D. STEELE, University of Wisconsin, Madison COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION HAROLD F. HINTZ, Chair, Cornell University GARY L. CROMWELL, University of Kentucky GEORGE C. FAHEY, University of Illinois RONALD L. HORST, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa TERRY J. KLOPFENSTEIN, University of Nebraska LAURIE M. LAWRENCE, University of Kentucky LARRY M. MILLIGAN, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada ALICE N. PELL, Cornell University JERRY L. SELL, Iowa State University ROBERT P. WILSON, Mississippi State University Staff MARY I. POOS, Project Director JANET OVERTON, Editor DENNIS BLACKWELL, Senior Project Assistant

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 BOARD ON AGRICULTURE DALE E. BAUMAN, Chair, Cornell University PHILIP H. ABELSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C. JOHN M. ANTLE, Montana State University WILLIAM B. DELAUDER, Delaware State University SUSAN K. HARLANDER, Land O'Lakes, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota RICHARD R. HARWOOD, Michigan State University T. KENT KIRK, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Madison, Wisconsin JAMES R. MOSELEY, Jim Moseley Farms, Inc., Clarks Hill, Indiana, and Purdue University NORMAN R. SCOTT, Cornell University GEORGE E. SEIDEL, JR., Colorado State University CHRISTOPHER R. SOMERVILLE, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California PATRICIA B. SWAN, Iowa State University JOHN R. WELSER, The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan Staff SUSAN E. OFFUTT, Executive Director CARLA CARLSON, Director of Communications JANET OVERTON, Editor

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 Preface The first edition of Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals was published in 1962. It summarized the nutrient requirements of the rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, monkey, and cat based on an evaluation of the literature. The second revised edition was published in 1972 and updated the information presented in the first edition. The third revised edition was published in 1978 and was expanded to include a chapter on general aspects of nutrition, and the species chapters incorporated information on expected growth and reproductive performance in addition to the nutrient requirements of the laboratory rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil, vole, and the nutrient requirements of fishes. In this, the fourth revised edition, the subcommittee reviewed the literature and summarized the nutrient requirements of the rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil, and vole. The subcommittee structure was altered for this publication as members were assigned by nutrient across species rather than by nutrient within a species. This structure provided the subcommittee with nutrient expertise that could be applied to more than one species. To maintain a species expertise, one member of the subcommittee was designated as the species chair and integrated the information into the chapter. The species chair also developed a section on expected growth and reproduction of the various breeds within a species and reviewed the literature to assemble natural-ingredient and purified diets that should meet the needs of animals of the species used in long-term studies. After its review of the literature, the subcommittee emphasized the need for experiments designed to determine nutrient requirements of laboratory animals. Work of that nature is of considerable value in compiling the information contained in a publication such as this. Thus, not all the requirements reported in this publication were derived from experiments specifically designed to estimate the requirement of a nutrient, and interpretation of published work was required to derive an estimate. Where appropriate, the subcommittee used information available for one species to estimate the requirements for another species. The text devoted to each nutrient includes a description of decisions made to obtain the requirement shown in the table. The subcommittee thanks Mary Poos, Dennis Blackwell, and Janet Overton for their assistance during the development and preparation of this document. N. J. Benevenga, Chair Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 Contents     PREFACE   vii     OVERVIEW   1 1   GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR FEEDING AND DIET FORMULATION   3     Factors Affecting Nutrient Requirements   3     Formulation of Diet Types   4     Manufacture and Storage Procedures and Other Considerations   7     Quality Assurance and Potential Contaminants   8     Dietary Restriction   9     References   9 2   NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF THE LABORATORY RAT   11     Origin of the Laboratory Rat   11     Growth and Reproductive Performance   11     Estimation of Nutrient Requirements   12     Energy   14     Lipids   17     Carbohydrates   20     Protein and Amino Acids   22     Minerals   27     Vitamins   38     Potentially Beneficial Dietary Constituents   52     References   58 3   NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF THE MOUSE   80     Genetic Diversity   80     Estimation of Nutrient Requirements   80     Energy   83     Lipids   84     Carbohydrates   85     Protein and Amino Acids   85     Minerals   88     Vitamins   92     Potentially Beneficial Dietary Constituents   96     References   97

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 4   NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF THE GUINEA PIG   103     Behavioral and Nutritional Characteristics   103     Growth and Reproduction   105     Estimation of Nutrient Requirements   105     Energy   107     Lipids   107     Carbohydrates   108     Protein and Amino Acids   108     Minerals   112     Vitamins   115     Potentially Beneficial Dietary Constituents   119     References   120 5   NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF THE HAMSTER   125     Biological and Behavioral Characteristics   125     Examples of Purified and Natural-Ingredient Diets   126     Water and Energy   126     Lipids   127     Carbohydrates   129     Protein and Amino Acids   131     Minerals   132     Vitamins   133     Potentially Beneficial Dietary Constituents   135     References   136 6   NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF THE GERBIL   140     Reproduction and Development   140     Energy and Water   140     Lipids   141     Protein   141     Minerals   141     Vitamins   142     References   143     7NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF THE VOLE   144     Biological Characteristics   144     Husbandry and Form of Diet   145     Protein and Amino Acids   146     Minerals   146     Vitamins   147     References   147     APPENDIX   149     AUTHORS   154     INDEX   157

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 Tables and Figures TABLES 2-1   Some Reproductive Characteristics of Representative Strains of Inbred and Outbred Rat Colonies at the National Institutes of Health   12 2-2   Estimated Nutrient Requirements for Maintenance, Growth, and Reproduction of Rats   13 2-3   Examples of Natural-Ingredient Diets Used for Rat and Mouse Colonies at the National Institutes of Health   14 2-4   Example of a Commonly Used Purified Diet (AIN-76A) for Rats   14 2-5   Examples of Recently Tested Purified Diets for Rapid Growth of Young Rats and Mice or for Maintenance of Adult Rats and Mice   15 2-6   Relative Ability of n-6 and n-3 Fatty Acids to Alleviate Several Signs of EFA Deficiency in Rats   19 2-7   Digestibility of Some Selected Dietary Fats   21 2-8   Examples of Amino Acid Patterns Used in Studies with Purified Diets Containing 5 Percent Fat   24 2-9   Comparison of National Research Council Estimates of Indispensable Amino Acid Requirements for Growth   25 2-10   Equivalence of β-Carotene and Retinol at Different Concentrations   38 2-11   Vitamin A Repletion of Vitamin A-Deficient Rats   38 3-1   Average Growth of Commonly Used Strains of Laboratory Mice   81 3-2   Some Reproductive Characteristics of Representative Strains of Inbred and Outbred Mouse Colonies Maintained at the National Institutes of Health   81 3-3   Estimated Nutrient Requirements of Mice   82 3-4   Protein Requirements for Growth for Various Strains of Mice   86 3-5   Protein Requirements for Reproduction for Various Strains of Mice   87 3-6   Amino Acid Requirements for Growth for Various Strains of Mice   88 4-1   Estimated Nutrient Requirements for Growth for Guinea Pigs   104 4-2   Example of a Natural-Ingredient Diet Used for Guinea Pig Breeding Colonies at the National Institutes of Health   106

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 4-3   Examples of Four Satisfactory Purified Diets for Guinea Pigs   106 4-4   Protein Requirement for Growth for Various Strains of Guinea Pigs   109 4-5   Amino Acid Requirement for Growth for Male Hartley Guinea Pigs   110 5-1   Names, Characteristics, and History of Laboratory Hamsters   126 5-2   Developmental Indices for Golden, Chinese, and Siberian Hamsters   127 5-3   Reproductive Indices for Golden, Chinese, and Siberian Hamsters   128 5-4   Growth of Golden Hamster Outbred Cr:RGH (SYR)   129 5-5A   Rutten and de Groot Purified Diet for Hamsters   129 5-5B   Rutten and de Groot Mineral Mix   129 5-5C   Rutten and de Groot Vitamin Mix   129 5-6A   Hayes Purified Diet for Hamsters   130 5-6B   Hayes Mineral Mix   130 5-6C   Hayes-Cathcart Vitamin Mix   130 5-7A   Natural-Ingredient Diet for Hamsters   130 5-7B   Trace Mineral Mix   130 5-7C   Vitamin Mix   130 5-8   Protein Requirements   130 6-1   Reproductive and Developmental Indices for the Mongolian Gerbil   140 7-1   Reproductive and Developmental Indices for Voles   145 FIGURES 2-1   Mean body weight of male and female rats of five inbred strains   12 2-2   Nitrogen gain response curves   25 APPENDIX TABLES 1   Fatty Acid Composition (%) of Some Common Fats Used in Rodent Diets   151 2   Amino Acid Composition (mg/g nitrogen) of Purified Proteins Used in Laboratory Animal Diets   152 3   Molecular Weights of Vitamins   152 4   Conversion Factors   153

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals

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