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Information Technology for Manufacturing A Research Agenda Committee to Study Information Technology and Manufacturing Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Manufacturing Studies Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1995
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Page ii NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this project was provided by the national Science Foundation (under Grant No.MIP-93/2296). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 94-67789 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05179-7 Cover: The manufacturing "wheel" shown is intended to suggest the integration through information technology of manufacturing activities both among and across the four basic elements of an idealized process. The concept is discussed in Chapter 2 of this report. Available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) B-483 Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Page iii Committee To Study Information Technology And Manufacturing PETER WILL, USC/Information Sciences Institute, Chair BARBARA M. FOSSUM, University of Texas DENNIS M. HOGAN, Dennis M. Hogan Associates NEAL LAURANCE, Ford Motor Company KEN J. LINDSAY, Northrop Aircraft Division EUGENE S. MEIERAN, Intel Corporation RAJ REDDY, Carnegie Mellon University WYCKHAM D. SEELIG, AT&T Network Systems GILBERT S. STAFFEND, Allied Signal Automotive IVAN E. SUTHERLAND, Sun Microsystems Laboratories (through February 1994) LOUISE H. TREVILLYAN, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center DANIEL E. WHITNEY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology EUGENE WONG, University of California at Berkeley PAUL K. WRIGHT, University of California at Berkeley RICHARD A. WYSK, Texas A&M University ROBERT E. KAHN, Corporation for National Research Initiatives, Special Advisor Staff MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board THOMAS C. MAHONEY, Manufacturing Studies Board (through September 1994) MICHAEL A. McDERMOTT, Manufacturing Studies Board (through February 1994) GREG MEDALIE, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (through April 1994) HERBERT S. LIN, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (from April 1994) LESLIE M. WADE, Project Assistant
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Page iv Computer Science And Telecommunications Board WILLIAM WULF, University of Virginia, Chair FRANCES ALLEN, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center JEFF DOZIER, University of California at Santa Barbara DAVID J. FARBER, University of Pennsylvania HENRY FUCHS, University of North Carolina CHARLES M. GESCHKE, Adobe Systems Inc. JAMES GRAY, San Francisco, California BARBARA J. GROSZ, Harvard University DEBORAH A. JOSEPH, University of Wisconsin RICHARD M. KARP, University of California at Berkeley BUTLER W. LAMPSON, Digital Equipment Corporation BARBARA H. LISKOV, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN MAJOR, Motorola Inc. ROBERT L. MARTIN, AT&T Network Systems DAVID G. MESSERSCHMITT, University of California at Berkeley WILLIAM H. PRESS, Harvard University CHARLES L. SEITZ, Myricom Inc. EDWARD SHORTLIFFE, Stanford University School of Medicine CASMIR S. SKRZYPCZAK, NYNEX Corporation LESLIE L. VADASZ, Intel Corporation MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL, Director LOUISE A. ARNHEIM, Senior Staff Officer HERBERT S. LIN, Senior Staff Officer JAMES E. MALLORY, Staff Officer RENEE A. HAWKINS, Staff Associate GLORIA P. BEMAH, Administrative Assistant LESLIE M. WADE, Project Assistant
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Page v Manufacturing Studies Board CHARLES P. FLETCHER, Aluminum Company of America, Chair SARA L. BECKMAN, University of California at Berkeley LESLIE A. BENMARK, E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co. Inc. STEVEN J. BOMBA, Johnson Controls Inc. BRIAN E. BOYER, Northrop Aircraft Division GARY L. COWGER, General Motors Corporation HAROLD E. EDMONDSON, Hewlett-Packard (retired) THOMAS G. GUNN, Gunn Associates Inc. ALISTAIR M. HANNA, McKinsey & Co. Inc. GEORGE J. HESS, The Ingersoll Milling Machine Co. CHARLES W. HOOVER, JR., Polytechnic University STEPHEN C. JACOBSEN, University of Utah RAMCHANDRAN JAIKUMAR, Harvard University J.B. JONES, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University DONALD KENNEDY, International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers THOMAS L. MAGNANTI, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOE M. MIZE, Oklahoma State University JACOB T. SCHWARTZ, New York University HERBERT B. VOELCKER, Cornell University PAUL K. WRIGHT, University of California at Berkeley ROBERT SCHAFRIK, Acting Director
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Page vi Commission On Physical Sciences, Mathematics, And Applications RICHARD N. ZARE, Stanford University, Chair RICHARD S. NICHOLSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vice Chair STEPHEN L. ADLER, The Institute for Advanced Study SYLVIA T. CEYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SUSAN L. GRAHAM, University of California at Berkeley ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, Rutgers University KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory HANS MARK, University of Texas at Austin THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology JEROME SACKS, National Institute of Statistical Sciences L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota A. RICHARD SEEBASS III, University of Colorado LEON T. SILVER, California Institute of Technology CHARLES P. SLICHTER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ALVIN W. TRIVELPIECE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, The MITRE Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director
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Page vii Commission On Engineering And Technical Systems ALBERT R.C. WESTWOOD, Sandia National Laboratories, Chair H. KENT BOWEN, Harvard University NAOMI F. COLLINS, NAFSA: Association of International Educators NANCY R. CONNERY, Consultant RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation SAMUEL C. FLORMAN, Kreisler Borg Florman Construction Company TREVOR O. JONES, Libbey-Owens-Ford Company NANCY G. LEVESON, University of Washington ALTON D. SLAY, Slay Enterprises Inc. JAMES J. SOLBERG, Purdue University BARRY M. TROST, Stanford University GEORGE L. TURIN, Teknekron Corporation WILLIAM C. WEBSTER, University of California at Berkeley DEBORAH A. WHITEHURST, Arizona Community Foundation ROBERT V. WHITMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology CHARLES E. WILLIAMS, Toll Road Investors Partnership II ARCHIE L. WOOD, Executive Director
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Page viii The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Page ix Preface At the request of the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council's Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) and Manufacturing Studies Board (MSB) formed the Committee to Study Information Technology and Manufacturing in April 1993. The committee of 16 individuals from academia and industry was charged with determining the computer science and engineering research needed to support advanced manufacturing. In preparing this report, the committee reviewed and synthesized relevant material from recent reports and initiatives, interviewed a number of researchers and practitioners in the field, and met five times to discuss the input from these sources as well as the independent observations and findings of the committee members themselves. (Contributors to this report are listed in Appendix A.) It shared its preliminary thinking with a broad community in an interim report.1 Reviewers of that document noted a number of issues as deserving of further study that are addressed in this final report. The committee included experts from the information technology (IT) and the manufacturing domains, individuals involved in research and development as well as implementation, and individuals experienced in the manufacture of mechanical and electronic products.2 In short, 1 Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and Manufacturing Board, National Research Council. 1993. Information Technology and Manufacturing: A Preliminary Report on Research Needs. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 2 In the interests of keeping this project manageable, the committee concentrated on discrete manufacturing. In did not address continuous manufacturing (the production of substances and materials) to any significant degree.
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Page x the committee was by design highly heterogeneous, a characteristic intended to promote discussion and synergy among its members. The committee focused on articulating a vision of IT-enabled manufacturing in the 21st century, identifying the obstacles to achieving the vision, and identifying research topics that address the obstacles. Its deliberations centered on the three thrusts outlined by the former Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology in its Advanced Manufacturing Technology initiative: • ''Intelligent" manufacturing equipment and systems; • Integrated tools for product, process, and enterprise design; and • Advanced manufacturing technology infrastructure. Since these thrusts were outlined, the present administration has emphasized to a much greater degree the importance of a national information infrastructure that would support many activities of national importance, including manufacturing. That issue was considered by the committee as well. The range and combination of research topics recommended by the committee are an essential feature of this report. Some of the topics chosen by the committee have been proposed by others in prior reports; the need for work in some areas is enduring. Some topics fall into areas of long-standing need but are advanced with new emphases. Because of limited time, the committee was unable to assess in depth the topics it identified. Moreover, it did not specifically address areas other than information technology that might prove beneficial to manufacturing; such areas include new physical processes that might be developed to shape and fabricate discrete components. In preparing this final report, the committee drew heavily on the preliminary report it issued in late 1993. Its efforts in subsequent meetings served to develop more fully, validate, and complement the ideas presented in that earlier report. A site visit to an engine plant in March 1994 (described in Appendix B) provided a firsthand demonstration of the productive use of current information technology in manufacturing. In addition, a National Science Foundation workshop in May 19943 (attended by some committee members) helped to crystallize some of the ideas presented in the material on the design process. The CSTB and MSB are grateful to the National Science Foundation, to those who made presentations and/or submitted written material to the committee, and to those who reviewed this report and its predecessor. CSTB will be glad to receive comments on this report. Please send them via Internet e-mail to CSTB@NAS.EDU, or via regular mail to CSTB, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20418. The committee, of course, remains responsible for the report's content. 3 See Mukherjee, Amar, and Jack Hilibrand (eds.). 1994. New Paradigms for Manufacturing. NSF 94-123. National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.
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Page xi Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 VISION AND RECOMMENDED AREAS OF RESEARCH 12 Introduction 12 Information Technology and the Increasing Complexity of Manufacturing 13 Purpose, Scope, and Content of This Report 15 Flexibility for the Future 16 Recognizing Information Technology's Increasing Capability in a Changing World 17 Balancing Current Needs and the Development of Future Capabilities 23 Looking Ahead 25 The Potential Impact of Information Technology on the Manufacturing Enterprise 26 The Broad Vision 26 Nearer-Term Prospects for Improvement 28 Product and Process Design 28 Shop Floor Production 30 Business Practices 33 New Manufacturing Styles 34 The Virtual Factory 35 The Programmable or Reconfigurable Factory 36 The Networked Factory 38 Microfactories 39
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Page xii Getting From Here to ThereThe Need for Balance and a Considered Approach 40 The Research Agenda 42 Technology Research 42 Product and Process Design 42 Shop Floor Control 43 Modeling and Simulation 45 Enterprise Integration and Business Practices 47 Non-Technology Issues 47 2 MANUFACTURING: CONTEXT, CONTENT, AND HISTORY 49 The Economics of Manufacturing 49 The Nature of Manufacturing 50 The Historical Context of Manufacturing 56 Early Paradigm Changes 56 Recent Changes and Their Effects 58 3 INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND PROCESS DESIGN 60 Introduction 60 Design Paradigms 62 Electronic Design 62 Application to Mechanical Design 65 Needs and Research for Mechanical Design 66 Research for Product Description 70 Research for Process Description 76 Research for Tools to Support Integrated Product and Process Design 79 Research Areas Not Specific to Manufacturing 80 Geometric Reasoning 80 Knowledge and Information Management 81 Specific Research Questions 82 4 SHOP FLOOR PRODUCTION 84 Introduction 84 Scheduling Factory Activities 85 Centralized Control 85 Decentralized Control 92 Autonomous Agents 92 Work and Logistics Flow 94 Controlling Individual Factory Activities 95 Equipment Controllers 96 Sensors 102
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Page xiii Facilitating Continuous Improvement 105 Controlling and Managing Product Configuration 106 Specific Research Questions 107 5 MODELING AND SIMULATION FOR THE VIRTUAL FACTORY 109 Introduction 109 Considerations in the Development of Virtual Factories 110 Learning from Past Problems 110 Determining the Requirements for Effective Factory Models 111 Modeling Technology 113 Representing and Capturing Manufacturing Expertise 116 Research Areas Not Specific to Manufacturing 118 6 INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE ISSUES 119 Introduction 119 Architectures and Standards 121 Integration 123 Redesign of Business Practices 123 Intra-enterprise Integration 124 Inter-enterprise Integration 128 Non-manufacturing-specific Research 130 Information Retrieval Systems 131 Software Engineering 132 Dependable Computing Systems 134 Collaboration Technology and Computer-supported Cooperative Work 135 7 ORGANIZATIONAL AND SOCIETAL INFRASTRUCTURE 136 Targeting the Decision Maker 137 Motivating Technology Transfer and Academic-Industrial Interaction 137 Motivating Introduction and Implementation of Information Technology 142 Understanding Organizational Issues 142 Human Resources 142 Communications 143 Organization for Ad Hoc Tasks 143 Informal Hierarchies of Status 144 Overcoming History and Managing Risk 144 Providing for Technology Demonstrations 147 Stimulating the Adoption of Open Standards 149
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Page xiv Developing Better Metrics of Performance 151 Developing New Models for Accounting and Valuation 152 Emphasizing Education, Training, and Retraining 153 BIBLIOGRAPHY 156 APPENDIXES A List of Contributors 163 B Site Visit to Romeo Engine Plant, March 23, 1994 165 C Illustrative Advanced Long-range Technology Demonstrations 169
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