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Traffic Management For High-Speed Networks by H.T. Kung Gordon McKay Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Harvard University National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1997
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The National Research Council serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on scientific and technical questions of national importance. Established in 1916 under the congressional charter of the private, nonprofit National Academy of Sciences, the Research Council brings the resources of the entire scientific and technical community to bear on national problems through its volunteer advisory committees. Today the Research Council stands as the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering and is administered jointly by the two academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Research Council has numerous operating units. One of these is the Naval Studies Board, which is charged with conducting and reporting upon surveys and studies in the field of scientific research and development applicable to the operation and function of the Navy. A portion of the work done to prepare this document was performed under Department of Navy Grant N00014-94-1-0200 issued by the Office of Naval Research and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Additional copies of this report available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America
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NAVAL STUDIES BOARD David R. Heebner, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Chair George M. Whitesides, Harvard University, Vice Chair Albert J. Baciocco, Jr., The Baciocco Group, Inc. Alan Berman, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University Norman E. Betaque, Logistics Management Institute Norval L. Broome, Mitre Corporation Gerald A. Cann, Raytheon Company Seymour J. Deitchman, Chevy Chase, Maryland, Special Advisor Anthony J. DeMaria, DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems, Inc. John F. Egan, Lockheed Martin Corporation Robert Hummel, Courant Institute of Mathematics, New York University David W. McCall, Far Hills, New Jersey Robert J. Murray, Center for Naval Analyses Robert B. Oakley, National Defense University William J. Phillips, Northstar Associates, Inc. Mara G. Prentiss, Jefferson Laboratory, Harvard University Herbert Rabin, University of Maryland Julie JCH Ryan, Booz, Allen and Hamilton Harrison Shull, Monterey, California Keith A. Smith, Vienna, Virginia Robert C. Spindel, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington David L. Stanford, Science Applications International Corporation H. Gregory Tornatore, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University J. Pace VanDevender, Prosperity Institute Vincent Vitro, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bruce Wald, Center for Naval Analyses Navy Liaison Representatives Paul G. Blatch, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Ronald N. Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Staff Ronald D. Taylor, Director Susan G. Campbell, Administrative Assistant Christopher A. Hanna, Project Assistant Mary (Dixie) Gordon, Information Officer
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COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS Robert J. Hermann, United Technologies Corporation, Co-Chair W. Carl Lineberger, University of Colorado, Co-Chair Peter M. Banks, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan Lawrence D. Brown, University of Pennsylvania Ronald G. Douglas, Texas A&M University John E. Estes, University of California at Santa Barbara L. Louis Hegedus, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. John E. Hopcroft, Cornell University Rhonda J. Hughes, Bryn Mawr College Shirley A. Jackson, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Kenneth H. Keller, University of Minnesota Kenneth I. Kellermann, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Margaret G. Kivelson, University of California at Los Angeles Daniel Kleppner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology John Kreick, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company Marsha I. Lester, University of Pennsylvania Thomas A. Prince, California Institute of Technology Nicholas P. Samios, Brookhaven National Laboratory L.E. Scriven, University of Minnesota Shmuel Winograd, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center Charles A. Zraket, Mitre Corporation (retired) Norman Metzger, Executive Director
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Preface The International Science Lecture Series (ISLS) operates as a special project of the National Research Council's Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications. The series was established in 1990 at the request of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and joined in 1992 by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). The purpose of the series is to advance communication and cooperation within the international scientific community. A search committee established by the National Research Council (NRC) selects prominent U.S. scientists to lecture in three areas of basic scientific inquiry: ocean and meteorological sciences, materials science, and information science. The countries in which the lectures are to be given are selected on the basis of consultations with the international scientific community, with the science attache in U.S. embassies, with senior representatives of ONR-Asia and ONR-Europe, and with both ONR and AFOSR representatives in Washington, D.C. Wherever appropriate, each lecture in a host country is followed by formal and informal discussions with senior government, industrial, and academic representatives to expand the dialogue on research progress, problems, and areas of common interest in order to identify research opportunities that lend themselves to greater cooperation and collaborative effort. Following each tour, the formal lecture is published for wider international distribution. The fourth lecture of the series, which is presented here, is Traffic Management for High-Speed Networks by H.T. Kung, Gordon McKay Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Harvard University. The first lecture in the series, The Heard Island Experiment, was presented by Walter H. Munk, holder of the Secretary of the Navy Research Chair at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, and the second lecture, Fountainhead for New Technologies and New Science, was presented by Rustum Roy, Evan Pugh Professor of the Solid State and professor of geochemistry, Pennsylvania State University. The third lecturer was John E. Hopcroft, who is the Joseph C. Ford Professor of Computer Science at Cornell University and who gave the lecture, Computing, Communication, and the Information Age. Professor Kung's lecture tour consisted of two separate trips—one in the Far East and the other in Siberia. He gave his lecture first at the Chinese University of Hong Kong on June 5, 1995, to the computer sciences community. While in Hong Kong, Professor Kung and the ISLS representatives from the NRC, ONR, and AFOSR also visited the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and the Hong Kong University. Professor Kung delivered his lecture at these two institutions as well. On June 8 he presented his lecture at the Sino-American Joint Seminar on Trends in Information Science held in Beijing, China. Discussions also were held with the staffs and faculties of Tsing Hua University and Peking University. Professor Kung visited Fudan University and Shanghai Jiaotong University on June 14 and 15 and Zhejiang University in Hanzhou on June 16. He gave his lecture at Fudan University. The second tour took Professor Kung and the ISLS group to Novosibirsk, Siberia, in January 1996. They met on January 8, 1996, with the staff of the A.P. Ershov Institute of Informatics
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Systems and discussed future working relationships between the U.S. and Russian information sciences research communities. On January 9, the ISLS group met with the staffs of the Institute of Automation and Electrometry as well as the Institute of Computational Technologies. Professor Kung presented his lecture there on January 10 and then visited the Institute for Information Systems and the Novosibirsk State University. The National Research Council, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research would like to express their appreciation to the many host-country representatives for their hospitality and their invaluable assistance in arranging Professor Kung's visits and the many discussions that followed the formal lecture. The sponsors are also indebted to the American Embassy representatives in each of the host countries and to the representatives of ONR-Asia and ONR-Europe for their tireless efforts to make the lecture tours a success.
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Contents Abstract 1 Why New Control Methods Are Needed 1 Rapid Increase in Network Speeds 1 Network Congestion Problem 2 Inadequacy of Brute-Force Approach to Providing Large Buffers 2 Use of Flow Control 4 Control of Congestion for ATM Networks 4 Technical Goals of Flow Control for Supporting ATM ABR Services 5 Two Traffic Models 6 A Flood Control Principle 6 Credit-based Flow Control 6 Credit Update Protocol 7 Static vs. Adaptive Credit Control 9 Adaptive Buffer Allocation 9 Receiver-oriented Adaptive Buffer Allocation 10 Rationale for Credit-based Flow Control 12 Overallocation of Resources to Achieve High Efficiency 12 Link-by-Link Flow Control to Increase Quality of Control 13 Per-VC Queueing to Achieve a High Degree of Fairness 14 Rate-based Flow Control 14 CreditNet ATM Switch 16 Experimental Network Configurations 18 Measured Performance on CreditNet Experimental Switches 19 Summary and Concluding Remarks 20 Acknowledgments 21 References 21
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