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--> The Case for Human Factors in Industry and Government Report of a Workshop William Rouse, Nancy Kober, and Anne Mavor, editors Committee on Human Factors Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997
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--> NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The work of the Committee on Human Factors is supported by the Department of Army Contract No. DAAD05-92-C-0087 issued by the U.S. Aberdeen Proving Ground Support Activity. The views and opinions and findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other official documentation. International Standard Book Number 0-309-05894-5 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20418 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area). http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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--> COMMITTEE ON HUMAN FACTORS WILLIAM B. ROUSE (Chair), Enterprise Support Systems, Norcross, Georgia TERRY CONNOLLY, Department of Management and Policy, College of Business and Public Administration, University of Arizona, Tucson COLIN G. DRURY, Industrial Engineering Department, University of Buffalo, New York WILLIAM C. HOWELL, American Psychological Association Science Directorate, Washington, DC DANIEL R. ILGEN, Department of Psychology and Department of Management, Michigan State University BONNIE E. JOHN, Human-Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University TOM B. LEAMON, Liberty Mutual Insurance Co., and Liberty Mutual Research Center for Safety and Health, Hopkinton, MA DAVID C. NAGEL, AT&T Laboratories, Basking Ridge, NJ KARLENE ROBERTS, Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley BENJAMIN SCHNEIDER, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland LAWRENCE W. STARK, School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley EARL L. WIENER, Department of Management Science, University of Miami GREG L. ZACHARIAS, Charles River Analytics, Cambridge, MA ANNE MAVOR, Director JERRY KIDD, Senior Adviser SUSAN McCUTCHEN, Senior Project Assistant
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--> The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress of 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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--> WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS SPEAKERS KENNETH R. BOFF,** Human Engineering Division, Air Force Armstrong Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH JOHN LAUBER, Safety and Compliance, Delta Air Lines, Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport, GA TOM B. LEAMON,* Liberty Mutual Research Center, Liberty Mutual Insurance Company, Hopkinton, MA DAVID C. NAGEL,* AT&T Labs, Basking Ridge, NJ J. BRIAN PEACOCK, Manufacturing Ergonomics Laboratory, General Motors Corporation, Warren, MI STUART S. WINBY, Change Management, Hewlett-Packard Company, Palo Alto, CA (by speakerphone) PARTICIPANTS MICHAEL ADESS, Human Factors Division, Coast Guard, Washington, DC TERRY ALLARD, Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Arlington, VA CHARLES E. BILLINGS, Consultant, Columbus, OH WILLIAM BLACKWOOD, Hay Management Consultants, Arlington, VA BRUCE A. BOGER, Division of Reactor Controls and Human Factors, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC M. SUE BOGNER, Office of Surveillance and Biometrics, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD HAROLD R. BOOHER, H.R. Booher Consulting, Bethesda, MD BOB BOST, Headquarters, Naval Sea Systems Command, Arlington, VA JANIS CANNON-BOWERS, Training Systems Division, Naval Air Warfare Center, Orlando, FL PETER CARSTENSEN, OHIP/DDUPSA, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD SUSAN CHIPMAN, Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Arlington, VA LAWRENCE COLE, AAR, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC BERNARD CORONA,** Human Research and Engineering Directorate, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD RICHARD J. ECKENRODE, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC ELEANA EDENS, AAR, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC CATHY EDWARDS, Coast Guard, Washington, DC JUNE ELLISON, Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC LAWRENCE FINE, DSHEFS, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH DEXTER FLETCHER, Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA NAHUM GERSHON, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA
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--> STEPHEN GOLDBERG, STRICOM, Army Research Institute, Orlando, FL PAUL S. GOODMAN,* Center for Management of Technology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA JAMES GRENELL, Human Factors, Boeing Helicopters, Philadelphia, PA GENEVIEVE HADDAD, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington, DC DOUGLAS H. HARRIS, Anacapa Sciences, Inc., Charlottesville, VA WILLIAM C. HOWELL,* Science Directorate, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC M. STEPHEN HUNTLEY, JR., Operations Vehicle Systems Division, Department of Transportation, Volpe Center, Cambridge, MA ROBERTA L. KLATZKY,* Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA NANCY KOBER, Consultant, Charlottesville, VA JOHN LOCKETT,** Human Research and Engineering Directorate, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD JEAN MacMILLAN, BBN Corporation, Cambridge, MA GERALD S. MALECKI, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA ANN MAJCHRZAK,* Human Factors Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA GEORGE MASTROIANNI,** SSCNC-YBH, Army Natick RD&E Center, Natick, MA ANNE S. MAVOR,*** Committee on Human Factors DENNIS K. McBRIDE, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA SUSAN R. McCUTCHEN,*** Committee on Human Factors JAMES P. McGEE,*** Committee on Human Factors MICHAEL MENDELSON, OHIP/DDUPSA, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD JEFF MORRISON, RDT&E Division, Naval Command Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, San Diego, CA CYNTHIA H. NULL,** Aviation Operations Systems, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA ROBERT K. OSGOOD, Engineering Research, Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA PATRICE O'TOOLE, Federation of Behavioral, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Washington, DC J.J. PERSENSKY, Division of System Technology, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC ALAN POPE, NASA-Langley Research Center, Langley, VA JAY A. RACHLIN, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD WILLIAM ROUSE,* Enterprise Support Systems, Norcross, GA EDUARDO SALAS, Training Systems Division, Naval Air Warfare Center, Orlando, FL CHARLES R. SAWYER, Human Factors, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC STEVEN L. SAUTER, Applied Psychology and Ergonomics, NIOSH/ Robert A. Taft Laboratories, Cincinnati, OH PAUL SCHUTTE, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA
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--> WALTER L. SCOTT, OHIP/DDUPSA, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC HERB SCHLICKENMAIER, White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, Washington, DC BENJAMIN SCHNEIDER,* Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD RICHARD R. SCOTT, General Accounting Office, Washington, DC ALFRED L. SMITH, Jr., ATR, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC LAWRENCE STARK,* School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA JOHN TANGNEY, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington, DC BARBARA BOYLE TORREY,*** Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council WILLARD VAUGHAN, JR., Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Arlington, VA HAROLD VAN COTT, Human Factors Consultant, Bethesda, MD ROBERT M. WATERS, Human Factors, Department of Energy, Washington, DC JACKIE WERTH, General Accounting Office, Washington, DC EARL WIENER,* Department of Management Science, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL WILLIAM A. WULF, President, National Academy of Engineering GREG L. ZACHARIAS,* Charles River Analytics, Cambridge, MA * Member, Committee on Human Factors ** Sponsor representative *** Staff, National Research Council
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--> Contents Preface ix Introduction 1 Six Perspectives 5 Changing the Culture of Safety: The Aviation Industry, 6 Achieving Competitive Breakthroughs: The Computer and Communications Industry, 8 Persuading the Right People with the Right Message: The Automobile Industry, 10 Increasing Productivity by Focusing on People: The Electronics Industry, 12 Providing Quality Work Day by Day: The Insurance Industry, 14 Seizing Unique Opportunities: The Defense Laboratories, 16 Lessons from the Workshop 19 Resource Commitments, 20 Resource Mobilization, 23 Strategies for Advancing Human Factors, 24 Packaging the Outputs of Human Factors, 27 Continuing Issues, 29 Conclusion 31 Appendix: Workshop Agenda 33 Committee Reports 35
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--> Preface The Committee on Human Factors was established in October 1980 by the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council. The principal objectives of the committee are to provide new perspectives on theoretical and methodological issues, to identify basic research needed to expand and strengthen the scientific basis of human factors, and to encourage the use of human factors principles and practices in the development of products and systems. Since its inception, the committee has issued more than a dozen reports regarding human factors applications, the state of knowledge, and research needs on topics deemed important by the committee and its sponsors. The field of human factors provides a systematic approach to accommodating the capabilities and limitations of people in equipment design and training. Researchers in the field conduct studies that describe people's sensorimotor, cognitive, psychophysical, and anthropometric characteristics. The data from these studies are used by practitioners in conjunction with the results of targeted user studies to design work environments, to make equipment compatible with the intended user, and to develop effective training. Human factors issues arise in every domain in which people interact with the products of a technological society. To perform its role effectively, the committee draws on experts from a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines. Members of the committee include specialists in psychology, engineering, biomechanics, physiology, medicine, cognitive sciences, machine intelligence, computer sci-
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--> ences, sociology, education, and human factors engineering. Other disciplines are represented in the working groups, workshops, and symposia organized by the committee. Each of these disciplines contributes to the basic data, theory, and methods required to improve the scientific basis of human factors. The workshop on the case for human factors emerged from an ongoing discussion with the committee's sponsors. In this era of reinventing government and ever-tightening budgets, a key issue identified in those discussions is a need to articulate the value added to a variety of program development and other activities by human factors. It was clear that convening a workshop with participants drawn solely from government would limit the perspectives needed. To this end, the committee invited executives from the airline, computer and communications, automobile, electronics, and insurance industries to complement participation of government executives and human factors managers. Prior to the workshop, we posed questions to the speakers to enable them to become acquainted with each other's points of view. Presentations by these speakers constituted the first half of the one-day workshop. The second half-day was devoted to several discussion groups, each led by a senior government executive. The discussion groups focused on the six different points of view presented by the speakers, with emphasis on how those perspectives might apply in participants' organizations. This report summarizes both the speakers' perspectives and the lessons identified by participants as important to demonstrating the value of human factors. The committee is indebted to the presenters and those who participated in the discussions. We also extend our thanks to National Research Council staff member Susan McCutchen, who worked with the committee and sponsors on organizing the workshop and preparing this document for publication. WILLIAM B. ROUSE, CHAIR ANNE S. MAVOR, STUDY DIRECTOR COMMITTEE ON HUMAN FACTORS
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The Case for Human Factors in Industry and Government
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