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Every Child a Scientist Achieving Scientific Literacy for All How to Use the National Science Education Standards to Improve Your Child's School Science Program NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC 1998
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The Committee on Science Education K-12 of the Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education was the authoring committee for this document. The project was supported with funds from the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation. Development and production of the National Science Education Standards were funded by the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Education, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and a National Academy of Sciences president's discretionary fund provided by the Volvo North American Corporation, The Ettinger Foundation, and the Eugene McDermott Foundation. Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Every Child a Scientist: Achieving Scientific Literacy for All is available for sale from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lock Box 285, Washington, DC 20055. Call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area). It is also available via Internet at http://www.nas.edu. For further information about CSMEE, please contact: Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, HA 450 Washington, DC 20418 Phone: (202) 334-2353 FAX: (202) 334-1453 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org First Printing, December 1997 Second Printing, August 1998 National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education The Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education was created by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences in 1995 to promote the improvement of education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology for all members of society.
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Committee on Science Education K-12 JANE BUTLER KAHLE (Chair), Condit Professor of Science Education, Department of Teacher Education, Miami University JOSEPH D. MCINERNEY (Vice Chair), Director, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study J. MYRON ATKIN, Professor, School of Education, Stanford University CARYL EDWARD BUCHWALD, Professor of Geology and Lloyd McBride Professor of Environmental Studies, Department of Geology, Carieton College GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University CHRISTINE CHOPYAK-MINOR, Director, Keystone Science School PETER B. DOW, Director of Education, Buffalo Museum of Science WILLIAM E. DUGGER, JR., Director, Technology for All Americans WADE ELLIS, JR., Professor of Mathematics, West Valley College NORMAN HACKERMAN, Chairman, Scientific Advisory Board, The Robert A. Welch Foundation ROBERT HAZEN, Staff Scientist, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Geophysical Laboratory; Clarence Robinson Professor of Earth Science, George Mason University LEROY HOOD, Professor of Molecular Biotechnology, University of Washington MICHAEL G. LANG, Science Specialist, Phoenix Urban Systemic Initiative, Maricopa Community College WILLIAM LINDER-SCHOLER, Executive Director, SciMathMN MARIA ALICIA LOPEZ FREEMAN, Director, Center for Teacher Leadership in Language and Status, California Science Project JOHN A. MOORE, Professor Emeritus of Biology, Department of Biology, University of California DARLENE NORFLEET, Teacher, Flynn Park Elementary School WILLIAM SPOONER, Director, Instructional Services, North Carolina Department of Public Instruction JUDITH SYDNER-GORDON, TEAMS Science Distance Learning, Instructor, Los Angeles County Office of Education RACHEL WOOD, Science Specialist, Science Frameworks Commission, Delaware State Department of Public Instruction Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education Staff Rodger Bybee, Executive Director Harold Pratt, Director, K-12 Division Cynthia Allen, Graphics Consultant Kristance Coates, Project Assistant Marilyn Fenichel, Editorial Consultant Kit Johnston, Editorial Consultant Steve Olson, Editorial Consultant Doug Sprunger, Senior Project Assistant Robert Strawn, Photographer Tina Winters, Senior Project Assistant
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Contents Introduction 1 Why Do We Need Science, Anyway? 3 Start with a Vision of High-Quality Education 7 Use the Standards to Bring Science to Everyone 13 Measure the Quality of Your School Science Program 17 Take the First Steps Toward Science Education Reform 21 Resources 25
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