governments combined are presented in Table 5-2. The presence of immigrants and their concurrent descendants generated $89 billion in costs to states and localities across the United States. This group paid an estimated

TABLE 5-2 Fiscal Impact on State and Local Governments (1994 in 1994 dollars)

 

Aggregate (in $ billions)

Per capita ($)

 

Immigrants & Concurrent Descendants

All Others

Immigrants & Concurrent Descendants

All Others

Ratio

Diff

Taxes

Income Tax

15.7

113.1

387

513

0.75

-126

Property Tax, Homeowners

10.4

76.1

257

345

0.74

-88

Property Tax, Renters

5.2

23.6

130

107

1.21

23

Sales Tax

17.6

127.8

435

579

0.75

-144

Unemployment & Workers Comp. Contributions

4.3

27.1

106

123

0.86

-17

Other Taxes

8.3

60.1

206

273

0.76

-67

Total Taxes

61.5

427.9

1,520

1,941

0.78

-421

Costs of Benefits

Medicaid, Institutional

1.1

14.3

27

65

0.42

-38

Medicaid, Non-institutional + Other Medical Welfare

12.3

49.8

305

226

1.35

79

SSI

0.7

3.1

17

14

1.22

3

AFDC + Other Welfare

7.7

28.1

190

127

1.49

63

Food Stamps

0.3

1.5

8

7

1.19

1

Unemployment Compensation

3.3

18.3

81

83

0.97

-2

Worker's Compensation

1.2

9.3

30

42

0.71

-12

Bilingual Education

6.2

0.0

154

0

n.a.

154

Elementary and High School

42.2

191.6

1,043

869

1.20

174

Public College

7.5

29.1

186

132

1.41

54

Incarceration Costs

4.2

28.1

103

127

0.81

-24

Congestible Goods

2.1

11.4

52

52

1.01

0

Total Costs

88.8

384.5

2,197

1,744

1.26

453

Total:

(Taxes - Costs)

-27.4

43.4

-677

197

-3.44

-874



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