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Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey SCIENCE FOR DECISIONMAKING Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
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Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report and the committee were supported by a grant from the United States Geological Survey. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06584-4 Additional copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20418 (1-800-624-6242; http://www.nap.edu). Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE USGS COASTAL AND MARINE GEOLOGY PROGRAM JOAN OLTMAN-SHAY, Chair, Northwest Research Associates, Inc., Bellevue, Washington JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge ARTHUR GREEN, Exxon Exploration Company, Houston, Texas SUSAN HUMPHRIS, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts CURT MASON, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland NEIL OPDYKE, University of Florida, Gainesville NANCY RABALAIS, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin NOEL TYLER, Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin Staff DAN WALKER, Study Director SHARI MAGUIRE, Senior Project Assistant JODI BACHIM, Project Assistant
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Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey OCEAN STUDIES BOARD KENNETH BRINK, Chair, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ALICE ALLDREDGE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID BRADLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College DAN BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison OTIS BROWN, University of Miami, Florida JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge CORT COOPER, Chevron Petroleum Technology, San Ramon, California CARL FRIEHE, University of California, Irvine RAY HILBORN, University of Washington, Seattle EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland, Solomons JOHN KNAUSS, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California ROBERT KNOX, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California RAY KRONE, University of California, Davis CINDY LEE, State University of New York, Stony Brook ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Manoa NANCY MARCUS, Florida State University, Tallahassee NEIL OPDYKE, University of Florida, Gainesville MICHAEL ORBACH, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina WALTER SCHMIDT, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee GEORGE SOMERO, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California KARL TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer ALEXANDRA ISERN, Program Officer SUSAN ROBERTS, Program Officer ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Associate LORA TAYLOR, Office Manager SHARI MAGUIRE, Senior Project Assistant JODI BACHIM, Project Assistant ANN CARLISLE, Project Assistant MEGAN KELLY, Project Assistant
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Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (Retired), S. Charleston, West Virginia THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut THOMAS J. GRAFF, Environmental Defense Fund, Oakland, California EUGENIA KALNAY, University of Oklahoma, Norman DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. KAI N. LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts RICHARD A. MESERVE, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. JOHN B. MOONEY, JR., J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia HUGH C. MORRIS, El Dorado Gold Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens MILTON RUSSELL, University of Tennessee, Knoxville THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ANDREW R. SOLOW, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY H. SYMMES, Associate Executive Director CRAIG SCHIFFRIES, Associate Executive Director for Special Projects JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst
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Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility of advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey Preface The nation's coastal and marine areas are some of our greatest environmental assets. However, these areas are under pressure from increasing coastal population and resource demands. In order to manage these areas wisely, decision-makers are demanding more and more information about natural marine systems and the impacts of human activities on them. Thus, when the U.S. Geological Survey approached the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) with the request to review the Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the value of such a review needed no explanation. The OSB established the Committee to Review the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program and charged us with recommending areas of focus for the survey's future activities in the coastal and marine regions, strategies for hiring and retaining high-quality staff, and measures for most effectively directing fiscal and human resources toward the unique challenges that exist in these important regions. This report reflects the conclusions and recommendations of the committee, drawing on extensive discussions with USGS staff; input from potential users, clients, and collaborators of the Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP); and the committee's own expertise and experience. Throughout this report the reader will find short descriptions of relevant studies conducted by the CMGP. These examples are a small subset of the large number of studies conducted by CMGP in recent years. Many other examples can be found at the CMGP homepage http://marine.usgs.gov/. The Committee to Review the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program is very grateful to the many individuals who played a significant role in the completion of this study. The committee met four times and extends its gratitude to the following individuals who appeared before the full committee or otherwise provided background information and discussed pertinent issues: Peter Barnes,
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Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey Brad Barr, Peter Betzer, Steven Bohlen, Mike Bothner, Kenneth Brink, Brad Butman, Michael Carr, William Dillon, Carlton Dufrechou, Terry Edgar, Michael Fields, Laura Fredricks, Robert Gagosian, James Gardner, Leon Gove, Gary Griggs, Chip Groat, Bob Halley, Monty Hampton, Janet Hashimoto, Deborah Hutchinson, George Kaminsky, Robert Kayen, Jack Kindinger, Randall Koski, Patrick Leahy, Homa Lee, Ralph Lewis, Jeff List, Patrick Muffler, Bruce Richmond, Dave Russ, Abby Sallenger, Rex Sanders, William Schwab, Gene Shinn, Marilyn ten-Brink, Uri ten-Brink, Rob Wertz, Jeff Williams, and Richard Williams. This report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Jeff Benoit (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Steven Boss (University of Arkansas), James Funk (Shell Oil), Eldon Hout (Oregon State Coastal and Ocean Management Program), Ray Krone (University of California at Davis), Rutherford Platt (University of Massachusetts at Amherst), Andrew Solow (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), Debra Stakes (Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute), and Walter Schmidt (Florida Geological Survey). While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Finally, the committee wishes to gratefully acknowledge the efforts of the Ocean Studies Board staff who helped produce this report, particularly, the study director, Dan Walker, and the project assistants, Shari Maguire and Jodi Bachim. Without their guidance and help, this project could never have been completed. JOAN OLTMAN-SHAY Chair, Committee to Review the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program
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Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 The Value of Understanding Geologic Processes and the Role of the U.S. Geological Survey, 2 Future Challenges 3 Role of the CMGP in Meeting the Challenge 4 Implementing Change 5 1 INTRODUCTION 6 The Value of Understanding Geologic Processes 10 Role of the USGS 10 The Geologic Division 11 The Coastal and Marine Geology Program 13 Intent of This Study 14 Scope of This Report 18 2 THE COASTAL AND MARINE GEOLOGY PROGRAM 19 Themes of the CMGP 21 The Committee's Findings 37 3 FUTURE PROGRAM EMPHASIS 40 The Geologic Structure of the Continental Margins of the United States 41 Grand Challenge 1: Establish the Geologic Framework of the U.S. Coastal and Marine Regions 47
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Science for Decisionmaking: Coastal and Marine Geology at the U.S. Geological Survey Grand Challenge 2: Develop a National Knowledge Bank on the Geologic Framework of the Country's Coastal and Marine Regions 48 Grand Challenge 3: Develop a Predictive Capability Based on an Understanding of the Geologic Framework of U.S. Coastal and Marine Regions 50 4 THE FEDERAL ROLE 51 Developing Near-term Focus 51 Role of CMGP in the Federal Government 58 Confirming the Niche for CMGP 58 5 PROGRAM PLAN RECOMMENDATIONS 62 Developing a Strategic Plan 63 Value of Strong Leadership 63 Maintaining Scientific Excellence 66 Partnerships 69 Ensuring Relevance to Regional and National Goals 70 REFERENCES 72 APPENDIXES 75 Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies 77 Appendix B: Acronyms and Abbreviations 80 Appendix C: Selected Responses to USGS Staff Questionnaire and Clients and Collaborators Questionnaire 82 Appendix D: The Relation Between the USGS Geologic Division Goals and the Coastal and Marine Geology Program 101 Appendix E: Summary Budget Data 106 Appendix F: The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program: Program Planning, Decision Process, and Operations 109