LABORATORY DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND RENOVATION

PARTICIPANTS, PROCESS, AND PRODUCT

Committee on Design, Construction, and Renovation of Laboratory Facilities

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product LABORATORY DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND RENOVATION PARTICIPANTS, PROCESS, AND PRODUCT Committee on Design, Construction, and Renovation of Laboratory Facilities Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the National Academy of Sciences, American Chemical Society, Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation (Contract No. SG-98-115), Howard Hughes Medical Foundation (Contract No. 79197-500111), U.S. Department of Energy (Contract No. DE-FG02-96ER76043), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Contract No. 43NANB80812). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06633-6 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 00-101279 COVER: Image courtesy of Jordan J. Levin. Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800/624-6242 202/334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product COMMITTEE ON DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND RENOVATION OF LABORATORY FACILITIES JOHN I. BRAUMAN, Stanford University, Chair JOHN L. ANDERSON, Carnegie Mellon University W. EMMETT BARKLEY, Howard Hughes Medical Institute JANET S. BAUM, Health Education + Research Associates ROBERT H. BECKER, Monsanto Company PETER J. BRUNS, Cornell University CAROL CREUTZ, Brookhaven National Laboratory DANIEL L. HIGHTOWER, University of Kansas DAVID R. PARKER, Santa Clara Fire Department FRANK J. POPPER, Rutgers University CHARLES A. POTTER, Hercules, Inc. MICHAEL REAGAN, Ellenzweig Associates PAUL R. RESNICK, DuPont Fluoroproducts (retired) AMOS B. SMITH III, University of Pennsylvania Staff RUTH MCDIARMID, Senior Program Officer MARIA P. JONES, Senior Project Assistant

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY JOHN L. ANDERSON, Carnegie Mellon University, Co-Chair LARRY E. OVERMAN, University of California, Irvine, Co-Chair BARBARA J. GARRISON, Pennsylvania State University ALICE P. GAST, Stanford University LOUIS C. GLASGOW, DuPont Fluoroproducts KEITH E. GUBBINS, North Carolina State University NANCY B. JACKSON, Sandia National Laboratories JIRI JONAS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign GEORGE E. KELLER II, Union Carbide Company (retired) RICHARD A. LERNER, Scripps Research Institute GREGORY A. PETSKO, Brandeis University WAYNE H. PITCHER, JR., Genencor International, Inc. KENNETH N. RAYMOND, University of California at Berkeley PAUL J. REIDER, Merck Research Laboratories LYNN F. SCHNEEMEYER, Bell Laboratories MARTIN B. SHERWIN, ChemVen Group, Inc. JEFFREY J. SIIROLA, Eastman Chemical Company CHRISTINE S. SLOANE, General Motors PETER J. STANG, University of Utah JOHN T. YATES, JR., University of Pittsburgh STEVEN W. YATES, University of Kentucky DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director RUTH MCDIARMID, Senior Program Officer CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate MARIA P. JONES, Senior Project Assistant DAVID GRANNIS, Project Assistant (through July 1999)

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, Veridian Corporation/ERIM International, Inc., Co-Chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-Chair WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR., Lockheed Martin Corporation SHIRLEY CHIANG, University of California at Davis MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University SAMUEL H. FULLER, Analog Devices, Inc. JERRY P. GOLLUB, Haverford College MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California at Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR., Carnegie Institution CAROL M. JANTZEN, Savannah River Technology Center PAUL G. KAMNSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota JOHN R. KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company (retired) MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania DUSA M. MCDUFF, State University of New York at Stony Brook JANET L. NORWOOD, Former U.S. Commissioner of Labor Statistics M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory ROBERT J. SPINRAD, Xerox PARC (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director (through July 1999) MYRON F. UMAN, Acting Executive Director (as of August 1999)

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Preface In response to concerns of the community of users and administrators of research facilities, the Committee on Design, Construction, and Renovation of Laboratory Facilities (see Appendix A) was appointed by the National Research Council (NRC) to provide guidance on effective approaches for building laboratory facilities in the chemical and biochemical sciences (Appendix B gives the statement of task). The committee members were chosen for their knowledge and experience in aspects of laboratory design, construction, and renovation and included scientist-users, facilities managers, providers of design services (architects and engineers), and experts in the specialized areas of environmental health and safety, hazardous materials, and community relations. All of the members of the committee shared the community's concern about the problems of building laboratory facilities. Committee members' initial responses to the nature of these problems, possible solutions, and the content and style that the report might take were quite diverse. Following public meetings and presentations (Appendix C), however, the committee arrived at a consensus about these issues, deciding as a result to focus on how to have a successful laboratory facility designed and built, not on the details of laboratory construction. The committee based much of its report on testimony presented during its first two meetings by scientist-users, administrators, and design professionals, as well as consultants in the areas of fire protection, compliance with Environmental Protection Agency regulations and the Americans with Disabilities Act, and building code. Committee members also heard a presentation from the entire building team of one project—including a scientist-user, facilities manager, director of

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product physical planning, architect, administrator, and construction manager (see Appendix C). The committee is grateful to the many individuals who provided technical information and insight during these briefings. This information provided a sound foundation on which the committee based its work. In addition, committee members were able to draw on their own experience. This study does not duplicate the numerous other publications on laboratory construction (see the bibliography). It is the committee's hope that scientist-users, institutional administrators, and institutional managers will use this report to become informed users of design services and that the professional design community will use this report to enhance its ability to interact with its clients. This study was conducted under the auspices of the NRC's Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology. The committee acknowledges this support. The chair is particularly grateful to the NRC staff as well as the members of this committee, who worked diligently and effectively on a demanding schedule to produce this report. John I. Brauman, Chair Committee on Design, Construction, and Renovation of Laboratory Facilities

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Gerald D. Begley, Eastman Chemical Company, Jacob Bigeleisen, State University of New York at Stony Brook, F. Peter Boer, Tiger Scientific, Inc., Ronald Breslow, Columbia University, Lawrence D. Brown, University of Pennsylvania, Ira Farber, Brandeis University, Rebekah G. Gladson, University of California at Irvine, Frederick D. Lewis, Northwestern University, Ann Norberg, 3M, Marion C. Thurnauer, Argonne National Laboratory, and K. Peter Walter, Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Although the individuals listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   HUMAN ISSUES   8     Participants   8     Project Champion   9     Participant Groups   9     Sociology   14     Need for Shared Input   15     Role of the User Representative   16     Final Product Considerations   17     Community Relations   21     Helpful Practices and Resources   22     Practices to Avoid   26     Recommendations   27 2   PROCESS ISSUES   28     Predesign Phase   30     Procedural Guidelines   30     Preliminary Considerations   33     Goals and Objectives   33     Predesign Phase Report Elements   34     Application of Predesign Phase Report   38     Design and Documentation Phase   38     Procedural Guidelines   39     Design and Documentation   41

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product     Construction Phase   46     Procedural Guidelines   47     Process Control   50     Special Issues Related to Laboratory Facilities   53     Postconstruction Phase   53     Building Commissioning   54     Postoccupancy Evaluation   55     Postconstruction Interactions   56     Financial Responsibilities of Ownership   56     Recommendations   58 3   TECHNICAL ISSUES   59     Environmental Health and Safety   59     Codes and Regulations   60     Environmental Issues   62     Health Issues   64     Safety Issues   69     Design Considerations   72     Building Design and Site Selection   75     Floor Planning   80     Laboratory Configuration   88     Building Services and Structure   95     Research Laboratory Cost Considerations   103     Budget Formulation   104     Build Versus Renovate   105     Building Construction Cost Considerations   106     Impact of Value-Adding Design Strategies   108     Costs and Cost Control during Design and Construction   110     Project Cost Components   116     Recommendations   124     BIBLIOGRAPHY   125     APPENDIXES         A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   129     B Statement of Task   133     C Committee Meetings   134     D Selection of a Design Professional   137     E Definitions   143     INDEX   149

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Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product LABORATORY DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND RENOVATION

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