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An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology Committee for Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
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An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This work was performed under Department of the Navy Contract N00014-99-C-0307 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06927-0 Cover Photo: Courtesy of the U.S. Department of the Navy. Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology COMMITTEE FOR NAVAL HYDROMECHANICS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WILLIAM C. REYNOLDS, Stanford University, Chair ROGER E.A. ARNDT, University of Minnesota JAMES P. BROOKS, Litton/Ingalls Shipbuilding, Inc. DANIEL S. CIESLOWSKI, Kensington, Maryland DONALD M. DIX, McLean, Virginia THOMAS T. HUANG, Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company FAZLE HUSSAIN, University of Houston ANTONY JAMESON, Stanford University REUVEN LEOPOLD, SYNTEK Technologies, Inc. MALCOLM MacKINNON III, MSCL, Inc. W. KENDALL MELVILLE, Scripps Institution of Oceanography J. NICHOLAS NEWMAN, Woods Hole, Massachusetts J. RANDOLPH PAULLING, Geyserville, California MAURICE M. SEVIK, Potomac, Maryland ROBERT E. WHITEHEAD, Henrico, North Carolina Navy Liaison Representative SPIRO G. LEKOUDIS, Head (Acting), Engineering, Materials and Physical Science and Technology Department, Office of Naval Research Consultant SIDNEY G. REED, JR. Staff JOSEPH T. BUONTEMPO, Program Officer (through January 28, 2000) RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director, Naval Studies Board
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An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology NAVAL STUDIES BOARD VINCENT VITTO, Charles S. Draper Laboratory, Inc., Chair JOSEPH B. REAGAN, Saratoga, California, Vice Chair DAVID R. HEEBNER, McLean, Virginia, Past Chair ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ARTHUR B. BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute JAMES P. BROOKS, Litton/Ingalls Shipbuilding, Inc. NORVAL L. BROOME, Mitre Corporation JOHN D. CHRISTIE, Logistics Management Institute RUTH A. DAVID, Analytic Services, Inc. PAUL K. DAVIS, RAND and the RAND Graduate School of Policy Studies SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Chevy Chase, Maryland, Special Advisor DANIEL E. HASTINGS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology FRANK A. HORRIGAN, Bedford, Massachusetts RICHARD J. IVANETICH, Institute for Defense Analyses MIRIAM E. JOHN, Sandia National Laboratories ANNETTE J. KRYGIEL, Great Falls, Virginia ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University HARRISON SHULL, Monterey, California JAMES M. SINNETT, The Boeing Company WILLIAM D. SMITH, Fayetteville, Pennsylvania PAUL K. VAN RIPER, Williamsburg, Virginia VERENA S. VOMASTIC, The Aerospace Corporation BRUCE WALD, Center for Naval Analyses MITZI M. WERTHEIM, Center for Naval Analyses Navy Liaison Representatives RADM RAYMOND C. SMITH, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 RADM PAUL G. GAFFNEY II, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director CHARLES F. DRAPER, Senior Program Officer JOSEPH T. BUONTEMPO, Program Officer (through January 28, 2000) SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer JAMES E. MACIEJEWSKI, Senior Project Assistant
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An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, Veridian ERIM International, Inc., Co-Chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-Chair WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR., Lockheed Martin Corporation SHIRLEY CHIANG, University of California at Davis MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University SAMUEL H. FULLER, Analog Devices, Inc. JERRY P. GOLLUB, Haverford College MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California at Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR., Carnegie Institution CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota JOHN R. KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company (retired) MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania DUSA M. McDUFF, State University of New York at Stony Brook JANET L. NORWOOD, Former Commissioner, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory ROBERT J. SPINRAD, Xerox PARC (retired) MYRON F. UMAN, Acting Executive Director
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An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology Preface The Department of the Navy maintains a vigorous science and technology (S&T) research program in those areas that are critically important to ensuring U.S. naval superiority in the maritime environment. A number of these areas depend largely on sustained Navy Department investments for their health, strength, and growth. One such area is naval hydromechanics, that is, the study of the hydrodynamic and hydroacoustic performance of Navy ships, submarines, underwater vehicles, and weapons. A fundamental understanding of naval hydromechanics provides direct benefits to naval warfighting capabilities through improvements in the speed, maneuverability, and stealth of naval platforms and weapons. This level of understanding requires the ability to predict complex phenomena, including surface and internal wave wakes, turbulent flows around ships and control surfaces, the performance of propulsors, sea-surface interactions, and associated hydroacoustics. This ability, in turn, stems from the knowledge gained from traditional experiments in towing tanks, from at-sea evaluations, and, increasingly, from computational fluid dynamics. Historically, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) has promoted the world leadership of the United States in naval hydromechanics by sponsoring a research program focused on long-term S&T problems of interest to the Department of the Navy, by maintaining a pipeline of new scientists and engineers, and by developing products that ensure naval superiority. At the request of ONR, the National Research Council, under the auspices of the Naval Studies Board, conducted an assessment of S&T research in the area of naval hydromechanics. The Committee for Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology was appointed to carry out the following tasks during this study: assess the Navy's research effort in the area of hydromechanics, identify non-Navy-sponsored research and development efforts that might facilitate progress in the area, and provide recommendations on how the scope of the Navy's research program should be focused to meet future objectives. Attention was given to research efforts in the commercial sector as well as international research efforts, and to the potential of cooperative efforts.
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An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology The committee assessed the existing program in the following areas: maturity of and challenges in key technology areas (including cost drivers); interaction with related technology areas; program funding and funding trends; scope of naval responsibility; scope, degree, and stability of non-Navy activities in key technology areas; performer base (academia, government, industry, foreign); infrastructure (leadership in the area); knowledge-base pipeline (graduate, postdoctoral, and career delineation); facilities and equipment (ships, test tanks, and the like); and integration with and/or transition to programs in a higher budget category. Two key questions for the assessment were the following: (1) What technology developments that are not being addressed, or that are being addressed inadequately, are needed to meet the Navy's long-term objectives? and (2) To what extent do these technology developments depend on Navy-sponsored R&D? A timely report was requested for use in the Navy Department's planning for its S&T investment, which includes identifying critical research areas (i.e., National Naval Needs) for Department of the Navy sponsorship. In a memorandum to all personnel at the ONR, Fred E. Saalfeld, Executive Director and Technical Director, ONR, wrote as follows:1 The purpose of a National Naval Program [now called a National Naval Need] is to allow ONR to meet its responsibilities to maintain the health of identified Navy-unique S&T areas in order that: A robust U.S. research capability to work on long-term S&T problems of interest to the DoN [Department of the Navy] is sustained; An adequate pipeline of new scientists and engineers in disciplines of unique Navy importance is maintained; and ONR can continue to provide the S&T products necessary to ensure future superiority in integrated naval warfare. The assumption of national responsibility for the support of a research area requires the long-term commitment of a significant level of investment. It can also have non-military benefits and applications unforeseen at the onset of scientific research. To assist in this effort, ONR should continue its efforts to encourage and exploit investment in these areas by other research sponsors. It is therefore imperative that U.S. superiority in these areas be maintained, even at the sacrifice of niche opportunities. The committee met in Washington, D.C., for briefings by the Navy and by others in the hydromechanics community on September 14 and 15, 1999, and on October 20 and 21, 1999, holding parallel sessions on classified and international research. In addition to these group meetings, individual committee members gathered additional information to help the committee form its collective judgment. This included information from ONR research programs and funding, from Navy Department hydromechanics test and research facilities and development efforts, from research funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and from professional societies. A subcommittee also attended a briefing entitled “Fast Ships,” which was presented by Paul E. Dimotakis at the JASON2 Fall Meeting on November 19, 1999. On December 8 and 9, 1999, the full committee met for the third and last time to finalize the report. The resulting report represents the committee's consensus view on the issues posed in the charge. 1 Memorandum from Fred E. Saalfeld to ONR, November 19, 1998. 2 The JASONs are a self-nominating academic society that conducts technical studies for the Department of Defense (meets in July, August, September, and October and produces a report in November).
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An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The committee wishes to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Alan J. Acosta, California Institute of Technology (emeritus), Christopher E. Brennen, California Institute of Technology, RADM Millard S. Firebaugh, USN (retired), Electric Boat, Lee M. Hunt, National Academies (retired), Justin E. Kerwin, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Vincent J. Monacella, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division (retired), RADM Marc E. Pelaez, USN (retired), Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Robert C. Spindel, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Marshall P. Tulin, University of California at Santa Barbara (emeritus), and Ronald W. Yeung, University of California at Berkeley. Although the individuals listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.
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An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology This page in the original is blank.
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An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 5 2 Trends and Emphasis 8 Naval Needs, 8 Research and Development, 9 Program Funding and Funding Trends, 9 3 Technology Issues 12 Naval Needs, 12 Missing or Inadequately Addressed Hydromechanics Science and Technology, 15 4 Infrastructure 18 Researchers and Developers and the S&T Knowledge Base, 18 Research Facilities for Naval Hydromechanics Technology, 24 Research in the Commercial Shipbuilding Sector, 27 International Research in Hydromechanics, 28 Scope, Degree, and Stability of Non-Navy Activities in Key Technologies, 30 Scope of Navy Responsibility for Hydromechanics Research, 33 5 Integration with and Transition to Higher-Budget-Category Programs 34 6 Findings and Recommendations 40 Importance of Hydromechanics Research to the Navy, 40 Fundamental Hydromechanics Research, 41
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An Assessment of Naval Hydromechanics Science and Technology Integration and Transition, 41 Navy's Assets for Hydromechanics Research, 42 An Institute for Naval Hydrodynamics, 44 Appendixes A Research Facilities and Equipment for Naval Hydromechanics Technology 47 B Meeting Agendas 53 C Committee Biographies 56 D Acronyms and Abbreviations 61