with understanding can modify or adapt procedures to make them easier to use. For example, students with limited understanding of addition would ordinarily need paper and pencil to add 598 and 647. Students with more understanding would recognize that 598 is only 2 less than 600, so they might add 600 and 647 and then subtract 2 from that sum.20

Strategic Competence

Strategic competence refers to the ability to formulate mathematical problems, represent them, and solve them. This strand is similar to what has been called problem solving and problem formulation in the literature of mathematics education and cognitive science, and mathematical problem solving, in particular, has been studied extensively.21

Strategic competence refers to the ability to formulate mathematical problems, represent them, and solve them.

Although in school, students are often presented with clearly specified problems to solve, outside of school they encounter situations in which part of the difficulty is to figure out exactly what the problem is. Then they need to formulate the problem so that they can use mathematics to solve it. Consequently, they are likely to need experience and practice in problem formulating as well as in problem solving. They should know a variety of solution strategies as well as which strategies might be useful for solving a specific problem. For example, sixth graders might be asked to pose a problem on the topic of the school cafeteria.22 Some might ask whether the lunches are too expensive or what the most and least favorite lunches are. Others might ask how many trays are used or how many cartons of milk are sold. Still others might ask how the layout of the cafeteria might be improved.

With a formulated problem in hand, the student’s first step in solving it is to represent it mathematically in some fashion, whether numerically, symbolically, verbally, or graphically. Fifth graders solving problems about getting from home to school might describe verbally the route they take or draw a scale map of the neighborhood. Representing a problem situation requires, first, that the student build a mental image of its essential components. Becoming strategically competent involves an avoidance of “number grabbing” methods (in which the student selects numbers and prepares to perform arithmetic operations on them)23 in favor of methods that generate problem models (in which the student constructs a mental model of the variables and relations described in the problem). To represent a problem accurately, students must first understand the situation, including its key features. They then need to generate a mathematical representation of the problem that captures the core mathematical elements and ignores the irrelevant features. This

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