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High impact ~nsm Proceedings of a Russian-A~,erican Workshop Committee on Confronting Terrorism in Russia Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs National Research Council In cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Insti- tute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. B7075 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Any opinions, findings, conclu- sions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authorts) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08270-6 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 2002102001 A limited number of copies of this report are available from: Development, Security, and Cooperation National Research Council, FO 2060 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Tel: (202) 334-2644 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 Tel: (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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National Acaclemy of Sciences National Acaclemy of Engineering Institute of Meclicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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NRC COMMITTEE ON CONFRONTING TERRORISM IN RUSSIA Siegfried S. Hecker, Chair Senior Fellow and Former Director Los Alamos National Laboratory Michael L. Moodie President Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute Raphael F. Pert Specialist in International Terrorism Policy Congressional Research Service Staff Glenn E. Schweitzer Project Director National Research Council Kelly Robbins Senior Program Officer National Research Council A. Chelsea Sharber Program Specialist National Research Council Rita S. Guenther Program Assistant National Research Council v

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RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Nikolai P. Laverov Vice President Russian Academy of Sciences Yevgeny P. Velikhov Director Khurchatov State Research Center of Atomic Energy Viktor Luneev Institute of State and Law Russian Academy of Sciences Yury Shlyan Foreign Relations Department Russian Academy of Sciences vim

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Preface In June 1999, the presidents of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) agreed that a joint project on combating especially dangerous crimes, particularly terrorism, would be of considerable interest to both Russian and American specialists in a variety of fields. The president of the NAS requested the president of the National Academy of Engi- neering (NAB) to assume responsibility for developing and implementing the project. Representatives of the RAS and NAE decided that a bilateral interacademy workshop on the topic of high-impact terrorism would be a good first step in carrying out such a project. The Carnegie Corporation of New York has been very interested in enhancing Russian capabilities to address terrorist threats and provided the funds required for the workshop. The workshop was held in Moscow on June 4-6, 2001. A number of Russian governmental and academic organizations with responsibilities and interests in the field accepted the invitation from the RAS to participate in the workshop, and Russian specialists with a variety of backgrounds made presentations at the work- shop. Several dozen other Russian specialists attended the sessions, and their comments greatly enriched the discussions. The NAE selected eight American specialists to make presentations on governmental and nongovernmental experi- ences in the United States in the fight against terrorism. Some of the presentations by Russian and American specialists reflected a remarkable degree of similarity in views on the terrorist threat (e.g., radiological terrorism, agricultural terror- ism), while others indicated different levels of appreciation of vulnerabilities and response requirements (e.g., the long-term Russian attention to protection of industrial facilities, the extensive American concern over cyberterrorism). The . . via

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. . . vile PREFACE agenda for the workshop and the written presentations comprise the body of this report. We will not attempt to summarize the papers or the discussions here, but simply note that the workshop provided an excellent forum for informative dis- cussion and exchange of ideas on the broad topic of high-impact terrorism. The statements made in the enclosed papers are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent positions of The National Academies. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This proceedings has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC' s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its pub- lished proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that the proceedings meets institutional standards for quality. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of papers in this proceedings: Vinton G. Cerf, WorldCom; David R. Franz, South- ern Research Institute; Charles T. Owens, Civilian Research and Development Foundation; Suzanne E. Spaulding, formerly Executive Director of the National Commission on Terrorism; Roger L. Schneider, Rho Sigma Associates, Inc.; and Alvin W. Trivelpiece, formerly Director of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the indi- vidual papers, nor did they see the final draft of the proceedings before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Marilyn Baker of the National Research Council. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional proce- dures and that all review comments were carefully considered. We wish to thank Rita S. Guenther, Rita Kit, Kelly Robbins, and A. Chelsea Sharber for their translation of the Russian language papers into English. Special thanks also to Florence Poillon, Kelly Robbins, and A. Chelsea Sharber for editing of the proceedings. SIEGFRIED S. HECKER Chair, NRC Committee on Confronting Terrorism in Russia GLENN E. SCHWEITZER Director, Office for Central Europe and Eurasia, NRC

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Contents Opening Remarks Siegfried S. Hecker TERRORISM AND THE LAW The Legal Basis for Counterterrorism Activities in the United States Raphael F. Perl Russian Legislation and the Struggle Against Terrorism Mikhail P. Kireev Russian Legislation and the Fight Against Terrorism Viktor E. Petrishchev Organized Crime and Terrorism Viktor Luneev International and Domestic Terrorism L. Paul Bremer III The Role of Internal Affairs Agencies in Efforts to Fight Terrorism Under High-Technology Conditions Oleg A. Stepanov From the Experience of the Intelligence Services of the Russian Empire in Combating Terrorists Dmitry M. Aleksenko On Historical Experience in Combating Terrorism Oleg M. Khlobustov Electromagnetic Terrorism Yury V. Parfyonov Six 16 25 37 53 61 69 76 83

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x BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM Molecular Epidemiology as a New Approach in Detecting Terrorist Use of Infectious Agents Sergey V. Netesov Bioterrorism: Threat and Response Michael L. Moodie Bioterrorism: A View from the Side Oleg S. Morenkov CHEMICAL TERRORISM Chemical Terrorism: Assessing Threats and Responses Jonathan B. Tucker NUCLEAR TERRORISM Radiological Terrorism Leonid Bolshov, Rafael Arutyunyan, Oleg Pavlovsky Nuclear Terrorism Siegfried S. Hecker Could Terrorists Produce Low-Yield Nuclear Weapons? Stanislav Rodionov Problems of Preventing Acts of Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism Vladimir M. Kutsenko, A.P. Morozov EXPLOSIVES TERRORISM Selected Technologies and Procedures Intended to Restrict Unauthorized Access to Explosives Bronislav V. Matseevich Terrorism: Explosives Threat Ronald L. Simmons CYBERTERRORISM Computer Terrorism and Internet Security Issues Valery A. Vasenin, Aleksei V. Galatenko Preventing and Responding to Cybercrime and Terrorism: Some International Dimensions Seymour E. Goodman CONTENTS 89 102 106 117 137 149 156 160 167 171 183 198

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CONTENTS AGRICULTURAL TERRORISM Problems of Biological Security in Agriculture Georgy A. Safonov, Vladimir A. Gavrilov Agricultural Bioterrorism Martin E. Hugh-Jones x~ 209 219 FUTURE TRENDS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST MODERN TERRORISM Terrorism in a High-Tech Society: Legal Aspects and Contemporary Methods of Preventing and Countering Terrorist Activity Aleksandr V. Zmeevsky Cooperation Among Ministries of Internal Affairs of CIS Member States in the Fight Against Terrorism and Other Manifestations of Extremism Igor L. Dimitrov International Centers as a Basis for Controlling Infectious Disease and Countering Bioterrorism Lev S. Sandakhchiev, Sergey V. Netesov, Raisa A. Martynyuk Terrorism Future: Tactics, Strategy, and Stealth Peter S. Probst New Opportunities for Bilateral Cooperation Glenn E. Schweitzer Concluding Statement Yevgeny P. Velikhov APPENDIXES Appendix A: Goals of Russian Federal Program on Problems of Natural and Technological Security Konstantin V. Frolov Appendix B: Agenda for Workshop on Terrorism in a High-Tech Society and Modern Methods for Prevention and Response, June 4-8, 2001, Moscow, Russia 245 250 260 267 270 273 275

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