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THE Knowledge Economy AND POSTSECON DARY EDUCATION Report of a Workshop Committee on the Impact of the Chan on the Education System E- - gl ng conomy Patricia A~bjerg Graham ant] Nevzer G. Stacey, Editors Center for Education Division of Behavioral ant] Social Sciences ant] Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washi ngton, DC
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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS · 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. · Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. ESI-0002231 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authorts) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Control Card Number 2002103034 International Standard Book Number 0-309-08292-7 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2002~. The knowledge economy and postsecondary education: Report of a workshop. Committee on the Impact of the Changing Economy on the Education System. P.A. Graham and N.G. Stacey (Eds.~. Center for Education. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
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National Acaclemy of Sciences National Acaclemy of Engineering Institute of Meclicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engi- neers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its con- gressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respec- tively, of the National Research Council.
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COMMITTEE ON THE IMPACT OF THE CHANGING ECONOMY ON THE EDUCATION SYSTEM PATRICIA ALBJERG GRAHAM (Chair), Graduate School of Education, Harvard University DAVID W. BRENEMAN, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia PETER CAPPELLI, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania MARTHA DARLING, Education Policy Consultant, Ann Arbor, MI ARNE L. KALLEBERG, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina RONALD M. LATANISION, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Speakers CHARLES ABELMANN, The World Bank CLIFFORD ADELMAN, U.S. Department of Education ESTELA BENSIMON, University of Southern California BRANDON DOBELL, Credit Suisse First Boston THOMAS DUFFY, Cardean University WILLIAM GRAVES, Eduprise IRVING HAMER, New York City Schools Board of Education LISA LYNCH, Tufts University DAVID STERN, University of California ROBERT ZEMSKY, University of Pennsylvania National Research Council Staff NEVZER G. STACEY, Study Director MARGARET HILTON, Program Officer LINDA DEPUGH, Administrative Assistant v
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Preface Americans have witnessed and participated in an extraordinary decade of economic volatility and educational reform. The National Academy of Sciences, through its Center for Education in its Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council (NRC), recognized this tumult. It responded by appointing the Committee on the Impact of the Changing Economy on the Education System in fall 2000. The committee's charge was to organize a workshop, held in May 2001, to explore how the various participants in the postsecondary sector were or were not changing their practices. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation. An underlying assumption of the workshop, albeit one that several participants debated, was that the economy was a powerful force influencing postsecondary education. As the indicators of U.S. eco- nomic vitality have altered during the preparation of this document, we have maintained our focus upon the postsecondary system itself, rather than attempt to explain the manner in which the U.S. economy influences higher education. That important and challenging issue we commend to another National Academy of Sciences group. This report is the result of the committee's deliberations, the dis- cussions at the workshop, and most importantly, the papers prepared for the workshop, which form the body of this document. Such work is inevitably collaborative, and the committee is deeply indebted and appreciative of the participation of the authors and attendees at the workshop. We are also very grateful for the reviewers' comments on our draft document. Finally, we especially thank Nevzer Stacey, our program officer at the National Academy of Sciences, and her colleagues, Linda DePugh and Margaret Hilton, for their attentiveness, incisive observations, and support. Michael Feuer, director of the Center for Education, gave us our initial charge, and we believe that this report helps to advance understanding of the dynamics of today' s postsecondary environments. . . V11
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This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Kristin Conklin, National Governors Assoc Robert I. Lerman, The Urban Institute Roy Radner, New York University iation Although the reviewers listed above have provided many con- structive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Kenneth I. Wolpin, University of Pennsylvania. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were care- fully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Patricia Albjerg Graham, Chair Committee on the Impact of the Changing Economy on the Education System . . . vail PREFACE
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Contents PART I WORKSHOP REPORT The Knowledge Economy and Postsecondary Education Introduction Structure of the Report Five Major Discussion Questions PART II WORKSHOP PAPERS 1 Demographic and Attainment Trends in Postsecondary Education Lisa Hudson Community Colleges in the 21st Century Challenges and Opportunities Thomas Bailey . The Impact of the Changing Economy on Four-Year Institutions of Higher Education: The Importance of the Internet Carol A. Twigg 4 Higher Education, the Emerging Market, and the Public Good Brian Pusser A Role for the Internet in American Education? Lessons from Cisco Networking Academies Richard Murnane, Nancy Sharkey, and Frank Levy 3 3 5 6 13 59 77 105 127 1X
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6 Creating High-Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People Learn John Bransford, Nancy Vye, and Helen Bateman APPENDIX A Workshop Agenda APPENDIX B Workshop Participants 159 199 203 x CONTENTS