MAKING THE NATION SAFER

THE ROLE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN COUNTERING TERRORISM

Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism MAKING THE NATION SAFER THE ROLE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN COUNTERING TERRORISM Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided with institutional funds. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Making the nation safer : the role of science and technology in countering terrorism / Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism, National Research Council. p. cm. ISBN 0-309-08481-4 (perfect) 1. Terrorism—Prevention—Technological innovations. 2. Terrorism—United States—Prevention. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism. HV6431 .M354 2002 363.3′2′0973—dc21 2002011495 Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 The National Academies Press 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR COUNTERING TERRORISM LEWIS M. BRANSCOMB, Harvard University, Co-chair RICHARD D. KLAUSNER, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Co-chair JOHN D. BALDESCHWIELER, California Institute of Technology BARRY R. BLOOM, Harvard School of Public Health L. PAUL BREMER III, Marsh Crisis Consulting WILLIAM F. BRINKMAN, Lucent Technologies (retired) ASHTON B. CARTER, Harvard University CHARLES B. CURTIS, Nuclear Threat Initiative MORTIMER L. DOWNEY III, PB-Consult RICHARD L. GARWIN, Council on Foreign Relations PAUL H. GILBERT, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc. M.R.C. GREENWOOD, University of California, Santa Cruz MARGARET A. HAMBURG, Nuclear Threat Initiative WILLIAM HAPPER, Princeton University JOHN L. HENNESSY, Stanford University JOSHUA LEDERBERG, Sackler Foundation at the Rockefeller University THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland MAXINE F. SINGER, Carnegie Institution of Washington NEIL J. SMELSER, University of California, Berkeley (retired) PHILIP M. SMITH, McGeary & Smith P. ROY VAGELOS, Merck & Co., Inc. (retired) VINCENT VITTO, Charles S. Draper Laboratory, Inc. GEORGE M. WHITESIDES, Harvard University R. JAMES WOOLSEY, Shea & Gardner Staff RONALD D. TAYLOR, Study Director ELIZABETH L. GROSSMAN, Program Officer MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant IAN M. CAMERON, Project Assistant

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Foreword This report reflects the commitment of the U.S. scientific, engineering, and health communities to help our country respond to the challenges made evident by September 11. It is a contribution from the National Academies—the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council—which initiated this critical effort and paid for it. But this report is also a contribution to the nation from many distinguished individuals, each of whom dedicated a great deal of time to the production of the report. In all, there were 24 members of the main committee, 94 additional individuals who served on its eight subpanels, and 46 expert reviewers who provided critical feedback on the committee’s draft report. These 164 individuals were motivated solely by a commitment to public service, and all of them made personal sacrifices to do their part on a very tight schedule. The great enthusiasm and dedication with which the above groups approached their tasks are but one indication of the strong interest that Americans have shown in contributing to counterterrorism efforts. The vigorous science and technology community in our nation is ready, willing, and able to be called into service, and this report focuses on strategies for harnessing the vast talent and energy available. This report is about the contributions of science and technology to countering terrorism, but we recognize that they are only one element of a broad array of important responses. These must include, for example, diplomacy, military actions, intelligence, and an understanding of how terrorism originates and is sustained. Because of the fast-track nature of this effort, it has necessarily focused on the homeland security of the United States. But we must not forget that, with

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism respect to terrorism, the nations of the world share a common set of enemies. Many of the technical solutions that we develop in the United States to make our nation safer will also be useful for protecting the citizens and facilities of other nations. And the efforts of the scientists, engineers, and health professionals in many nations will be important for bringing the best of science and technology to bear on the world’s counterterrorism efforts. The National Academies have built strong relationships of trust over the years with colleagues around the world. Whether these colleagues are in the United Kingdom, Brazil, Russia, China, India, or elsewhere, we all share the same perspectives and hopes for a better world. This report therefore represents only the first step in what must become a long and continuing global effort to spread peace and prosperity to every nation. Bruce Alberts President National Academy of Sciences Wm. A. Wulf President National Academy of Engineering Kenneth I. Shine President1 Institute of Medicine 1   Through June 30, 2002.

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Preface INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States galvanized the nation to strengthen its homeland defenses and to pursue those responsible for the terrorist acts. The United States now leads a global effort against terrorism. The aim is to eliminate worldwide terrorist networks and reduce the effectiveness of terrorist threats. Success will depend not only on the leadership, initiative, and capabilities of the United States, but also on the cooperation and capabilities of its international partners and allies. Immediately following the events of September 11, the presidents of the National Academy of Sciences (Bruce Alberts), the National Academy of Engineering (Wm. A. Wulf), and the Institute of Medicine (Kenneth I. Shine) collectively wrote to President George W. Bush. Stating that the new war against terrorism would “demand a focus on the complex interplay between technological, sociological, and political issues,” they offered to provide the nation with the advice and counsel of the National Academies (which includes the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council). Historically, the National Academies have long recognized the important role of science and technology in helping the nation meet its security needs. The ability to create, maintain, and draw from a reservoir of science, engineering, and medical knowledge has underpinned many of the nation’s efforts to combat adversaries. Such a reservoir was the basis for the great science, engineering, and medical contributions made during World War II. It must be recognized, however, that successful application then required dedicated financial resources, sci-

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism entists, engineers, and physicians who directed themselves to the tasks at hand, and organization and leadership to effectively deploy both knowledge and people in the wartime science effort. The science and engineering community responded in a similar way to the shock of Sputnik and the growing technical capability of the USSR, then our adversary, and the Cold War required a sustained effort by this community over four decades. More recently, the national and international response to AIDS by scientists and physicians has demonstrated once again that science can mobilize to respond to a threat. The response has benefited from a reservoir of knowledge accumulated through two decades of sustained biomedical science that has been well supported financially in the United States and other industrialized nations. A successful response to the threat of catastrophic terrorism will require the same type of long-term dedication and focus. The security threat the nation now faces affects every phase of domestic life and demands that technical solutions that might be deployed relatively quickly be readily accessible to local and state entities, as well as to the federal government. The challenge is to identify the threats (and the nation’s vulnerabilities), to identify responses to those threats, and to organize properly the nation’s immense science and engineering capabilities to meet both short- and long-term needs. The scientific enterprise is enormously complex—consisting of universities, industry, government, professional societies, and such. Although capable of meeting the research and development challenges posed by the threat of terrorism, it is highly fragmented. The institutional, managerial, and public policy problems that must be solved are daunting. They include (1) defining criteria for setting the nation’s research priorities, (2) identifying those research priorities, and (3) proposing new institutional arrangements and entities that will enable a stronger interaction between the nation’s science and technical enterprise and its security apparatus. From its vantage point as an adviser to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine, the National Academies have been working diligently since September 11 to marshal a substantial number of the most knowledgeable experts to address how the scientific and technological capabilities of the United States can best be harnessed for the many challenges ahead. TERMS OF REFERENCE In December 2001, the National Academies, using institutional funds, initiated this project. The aim was to help the federal government—and, more specifically, the Executive Office of the President—to enlist the nation’s and the world’s scientific and technical community in a timely response to the threat of catastrophic terrorism. A committee of distinguished scientists and engineers was established to help the government develop an integrated science and technology program plan and a research strategy for combating terrorism.

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism The terms of reference called for the following three tasks to be completed within 6 months: (1) prepare a carefully delineated framework for the application of science and technology for countering terrorism, (2) prepare research agendas in nine key areas, and (3) examine a series of crosscutting issues. More specifically, The framework should characterize the range of threats to the nation’s security (in terms of targets, weapons, and delivery systems, and the possible points of intervention). Research agendas should be developed in areas of vulnerability related to biological sciences; chemical sciences; nuclear and radiological sciences; information technology and telecommunications; transportation; energy facilities; cities and fixed infrastructure; behavioral, social, and institutional issues; and systems analysis and systems engineering. For each area, the research agenda should identify highly leveraged opportunities for using science and technology in countering terrorism. Multidisciplinary research topics that cut across the above domains and the threats that arise from the interdependence of these areas should be considered in developing the final program plan and research strategy. The objective of this study has been to strengthen the government’s ability to use science and technology for combating terrorism. Critical questions also exist about how a comprehensive national counterterrorism effort involving research, development, and deployment can be planned and executed. Many of these questions remain to be addressed, but this study did define a number of the important issues in this area. THE COMMITTEE’S APPROACH A committee of 24 of the nation’s leading scientific, engineering, medical, and policy experts conducted the study described in this report. The range of expertise on the committee reflected the broad array of scientific and technical topics to be covered under its charge. The committee also included members with the expertise necessary to address issues related to the context in which the research priorities would be set and implemented (e.g., experts in science and technology policy, national security, and public health). Finally, many of the committee’s experts were or are active advisers to federal agencies, and they brought to this project an awareness of ongoing governmental counterterrorism efforts. Biographies of the committee are provided in Appendix A. To supplement the committee’s own expertise, eight panels were separately appointed and asked to provide input on the specific topical areas identified in the committee’s charge. The panels were (1) Biological Sciences, (2) Chemical Issues, (3) Nuclear and Radiological Issues, (4) Information Technology, (5)

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism ties that will be needed to make the nation safer and improve its ability to succeed in the war on terrorism. But most importantly, the committee outlines a national strategy by which the strengths of U.S. science and engineering can most effectively be brought to bear on the defense of our nation on a continuing basis. FINAL NOTES Although this study is based on the extensive work of the panels and the input that they provided in their domains of expertise, the authorship responsibility for this report rests solely with the committee. While traditional procedures for an independent NRC study, including review of the report by independent experts, were followed, it is important to note that trade-offs were made in order to accommodate the rapid schedule. For example, the report does not provide extensive references to the scientific literature nor does it marshal detailed evidence to support its findings. Rather, it largely presents the consensus scientific views and judgments of the committee members, based on the knowledge that these individuals have accumulated through their own scholarly efforts and professional experience, through formal and informal interactions with the nation’s science, engineering, and medical communities, and through the efforts of the supporting panels. The committee was deeply aware of the difficulty of writing a report that was sufficiently specific about terrorist threats to explain how science and engineering might be helpful, without providing information that might aid terrorists in determining new means of attack. In many cases, quite specific information that was available to the committee is presented in the report in a more generic form. In the area of nuclear and radiological threats, the relevant panel accessed classified information in the course of this study and has produced a classified annex to this report. An unclassified discussion of the issues related to nuclear and radiological threats is provided in Chapter 2 of this report.

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Acknowledgments The Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism witnessed firsthand the scientific, engineering, and medical community’s unstinting commitment to join with the rest of the civilized international community in the global effort against terrorism. Without hesitation the members of the eight panels supporting this study, the individuals asked to brief the panels, those who spoke informally with committee and panel members, and the National Research Council staff supporting the study shared their expertise and insights and offered their best ideas on short notice to inform the committee, the technical community, and the federal government. The committee extends its sincerest gratitude to the many individuals who provided valuable information and support during the course of this study. The panel members are listed in Appendix B. Their work provided much of the intellectual base for the study. The panels in turn received inputs from many briefers on a wide array of topics related to counterterrorism activities across a number of disciplines and infrastructures; these inputs to the panels are acknowledged in Appendix C, “Panel Activities.” Ronald D. Taylor, study director, and Elizabeth L. Grossman, program officer, both of the National Research Council, managed this study and contributed significantly to the ideas and their expression in this report. Without their leadership and dedication, it would not have been possible for this project to achieve its objectives on an exceptionally tight schedule with an unusually broad scope of technical and policy content. The committee is immensely grateful to both of them. The committee also appreciates the support it received from the project staff, Susan G. Campbell, Mary G. Gordon, and Ian M. Cameron, over the course of this fast-track study.

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism The committee is also grateful to have been able to draw on resources from across the National Academies. Individual program staff members from five divisions1 played a vital role in supporting the work of the panels, as listed with the panels in Appendix B. Thanks are also due to Douglas C. Bauer for undertaking research and gathering background information on some of the issues related to the structure of the federal government as well as the government’s interaction with industry. His tireless work in support of the committee is greatly appreciated. The committee was fortunate to engage the services of a highly professional and experienced editorial staff, including Steven J. Marcus (a nationally known technical editor) and Elizabeth Fikre and Susan Maurizi, both of the National Research Council staff. The National Academies gratefully acknowledge David and Katherine Bradley for their financial support of the dissemination of this publication. 1   Program staff from the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Institute of Medicine, and Transportation Research Board participated in this study.

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: John F. Ahearne, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, Alfred V. Aho, Lucent Technologies, Norman R. Augustine, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Mark Y. Berman, BP America, Steven M. Block, Stanford University, Floyd E. Bloom, The Scripps Research Institute, Lillian C. Borrone, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (retired), Norman M. Bradburn, National Science Foundation, John I. Brauman, Stanford University, Donald E. Brown, University of Virginia, George Bugliarello, Polytechnic University, Richard F. Celeste, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, Robert R. Everett, MITRE Corporation (retired), Stanley Falkow, Stanford University, Robert A. Frosch, Harvard University,

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Richard A. Gaggioli, Marquette University, Bobby R. Gillham, Conoco, Inc. Ralph E. Gomory, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Andrew J. Goodpastor, Atlantic Council of the United States, Robert J. Hermann, Global Technology Partners, LLC (retired), Robert L. Hirsch, RAND Corporation, Lester A. Hoel, University of Virginia, John P. Holdren, Harvard University, Anita K. Jones, University of Virginia, Thomas J. Kelly, Sloan-Kettering Institute, William Klemperer, Harvard University, Steven E. Koonin, California Institute of Technology, Leslie B. Lamport, Microsoft Research, James S. Langer, University of California, Santa Barbara, Nathan S. Lewis, California Institute of Technology, Barbara H. Liskov, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Richard G. Luthy, Stanford University, Harley W. Moon, Iowa State University, Joseph S. Nye, Harvard University, Thomas D. O’Rourke, Cornell University, George W. Parshall, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (retired), William H. Press, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Henry W. Riecken, University of Pennsylvania (emeritus), James R. Schlesinger, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Lucy Shapiro, Stanford University, Harrison Shull, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School (retired), Jeffrey J. Siirola, Eastman Chemical Company, William Y. Smith, Institute for Defense Analyses (emeritus), Joseph M. Sussman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Alvin W. Trivelpiece, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired), and Harold E. Varmus, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions and recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by R. Stephen Berry, University of Chicago (emeritus), and Gerald P. Dinneen, Honeywell, Inc. (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   25      Context of the Study,   25      Content and Structure of This Report,   30 2   NUCLEAR AND RADIOLOGICAL THREATS   39      The Nuclear and Radiological Threat Matrix,   39      Homeland Security Challenges,   49      Reducing Vulnerabilities,   51      Concluding Discussion,   63      References,   64 3   HUMAN AND AGRICULTURAL HEALTH SYSTEMS   65      Introduction,   65      Intelligence, Detection, Surveillance, and Diagnosis,   69      Prevention, Response, and Recovery,   79      Policy and Implementation,   96      Concluding Remarks,   102      References,   104 4   TOXIC CHEMICALS AND EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS   107      Inroduction,   107      Background: Chemicals as Weapons,   108      General Capabilities Needed to Help Mitigate Vulnerabilities,   113

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism      Mitigating Vulnerabilities of Specific Systems,   121      Responding to Attacks,   127      A Strategy to Develop Economically Viable Counterterrorism Technologies,   132      References,   132      Recommended Reading on Food Safety,   133 5   INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY   135      Introduction,   135      Threats Associated with IT Infrastructure,   136      Short-Term Recommendations,   144      Long-Term Recommendations: Investing in IT Research,   146      Privacy and Confidentiality,   170      Planning for the Future,   171      Implementation,   172      References,   175 6   ENERGY SYSTEMS   177      Introduction,   177      Electric Power,   180      Oil and Natural Gas,   196      References,   208 7   TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS   210      Introduction and Overview,   210      Transportation System Characteristics,   212      Implications for Security Strategies,   214      Research and Technology Needs,   223      Advice to the Transportation Security Administration on Strategic Research and Planning,   231      Concluding Observations,   235      Dedication,   236      References,   236 8   CITIES AND FIXED INFRASTRUCTURE   238      Introduction,   238      Emergency Management and Emergency Operations Centers,   239      Water Supply and Wastewater Systems,   245      Electrical Supply Interruption,   252      Information Technology Systems and Communications,   252      Transportation and Distribution Systems,   252      Major and Monumental Buildings,   252      Stadiums and Other Places for Large Public Gatherings,   258

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism      Underground Facilities, Including Tunnels,   262      References,   265 9   THE RESPONSE OF PEOPLE TO TERRORISM   267      Human Populations as Targets of Terrorism,   268      The Universality of Human Responses,   270      Anticipation and Preparedness,   271      Warnings,   273      The Occurrence of Attack,   274      Recovery,   279      References,   286 10   COMPLEX AND INTERDEPENDENT SYSTEMS   287      Introduction,   287      A Framework for a Systems Approach to Counterterrorism,   288      Systems Management Issues,   290      Counterterrorism Threat Modeling,   294      Infrastructure Modeling,   300      Modeling Challenges for Counterterrorism,   305      Implications for Education,   309      References,   310 11   THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CROSSCUTTING CHALLENGES AND TECHNOLOGIES   313      Introduction,   313      Systems Analysis and Modeling,   315      Integrated Data Management,   317      Sensors and Sensor Networks,   320      Autonomous Mobile Robotic Technologies,   325      Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems,   327      Biometrics,   329      Human and Organizational Factors,   330      Coordination of Programs on Crosscutting Technologies,   331      Conclusions,   332 12   EQUIPPING THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO COUNTER TERRORISM   335      Introduction,   335      Managing the Federal Government’s Program of Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism,   338      The Role of the Federal Agencies in Developing and Using Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism,   350      References,   355

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism 13   ESSENTIAL PARTNERS IN A NATIONAL STRATEGY: STATES AND CITIES, INDUSTRY, AND UNIVERSITIES   357      States and Cities,   357      Industry,   359      Universities,   364      References,   371     BIBLIOGRAPHY   372     APPENDIXES         A  COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES   377     B  PANEL MEMBERS AND STAFF   389     C  PANEL ACTIVITIES   394     D  ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS   399     INDEX   405

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism MAKING THE NATION SAFER

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