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Air Quality Management in the United States AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES Committee on Air Quality Management in the United States Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Air Quality Management in the United States THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Grant No. X-82822101-0 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Air quality management in the United States / Committee on Air Quality Management in the United States, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Division on Earth and Life Studies. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-08932-8 (hardback)—ISBN 0-309-51142-9 (pdf) 1. Air quality management—United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Air Quality Management in the United States. TD883.2.A64325 2004 363.739′25′0973—dc22 2004014594 Additional copies of this report are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Air Quality Management in the United States THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Air Quality Management in the United States COMMITTEE ON AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES WILLIAM CHAMEIDES (Chair), Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta DANIEL GREENBAUM (Vice-Chair), Health Effects Institute, Boston, MA CARMEN BENKOVITZ, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY EULA BINGHAM, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH MICHAEL BRADLEY, M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, MA RICHARD BURNETT, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario DALLAS BURTRAW, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC LAURENCE CARETTO, California State University, Northridge COSTEL DENSON, University of Delaware, Newark CHARLES DRISCOLL, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY JANE HALL, California State University, Fullerton PHILIP HOPKE, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY ARNOLD HOWITT, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA C.S. KIANG, Peking University, Beijing, China BEVERLY LAW, Oregon State University, Corvallis JAMES LENTS, University of California, Riverside DENISE MAUZERALL, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ THOMAS MCGARITY, University of Texas School of Law, Austin JANA MILFORD, University of Colorado, Boulder MICHAEL MORRIS, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington SPYROS PANDIS, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA P. BARRY RYAN, Emory University, Atlanta, GA ADEL SAROFIM, University of Utah, Salt Lake City SVERRE VEDAL, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO LAUREN ZEISE, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland Project Staff RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Project Director LAURIE S. GELLER, Senior Program Officer K. JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer AMANDA C. STAUDT, Senior Program Officer KARL E. GUSTAVSON, Program Officer CHAD A. TOLMAN, Staff Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor RAMYA CHARI, Research Assistant MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Research Assistant EMILY L. BRADY, Senior Program Assistant DOMINIC A. BROSE, Program Assistant Sponsor: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
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Air Quality Management in the United States BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Members JONATHAN M. SAMET (Chair), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD DAVID ALLEN, University of Texas, Austin THOMAS BURKE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD JUDITH C. CHOW, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV COSTEL D. DENSON, University of Delaware, Newark E. DONALD ELLIOTT, Willkie, Farr & Gallagher, LLP, Washington, DC CHRISTOPHER B. FIELD, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, CA WILLIAM H. GLAZE, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton SHERRI W. GOODMAN, Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria, VA DANIEL S. GREENBAUM, Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, MA ROGENE HENDERSON, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM CAROL HENRY, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA ROBERT HUGGETT, Michigan State University, East Lansing BARRY L. JOHNSON Emory University, Atlanta, GA JAMES H. JOHNSON, Howard University, Washington, DC JUDITH L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens PATRICK Y. O’BRIEN, ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Company, Richmond, CA DOROTHY E. PATTON, International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, DC STEWARD T.A. PICKETT, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY ARMISTEAD G. RUSSELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta LOUISE M. RYAN, Harvard University, Boston, MA KIRK SMITH, University of California, Berkeley LISA SPEER, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY G. DAVID TILMAN, University of Minnesota, St. Paul CHRIS G. WHIPPLE, Environ Incorporated, Emeryville, CA LAUREN A. ZEISE, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland Senior Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Sciences and Engineering KULBIR BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology ROBERTA M. WEDGE, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis K. JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Program Officer EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor
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Air Quality Management in the United States BOARD ON ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AND CLIMATE Members ERIC J. BARRON (Chair), Pennsylvania State University, University Park RAYMOND J. BAN, The Weather Channel, Inc., Atlanta, GA ROBERT C. BEARDSLEY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA ROSINA M. BIERBAUM, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor RAFAEL L. BRAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge CASSANDRA G. FESEN, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH MARGARET A. LEMONE, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO MARIO J. MOLINA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge WILLIAM J. RANDEL, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO RICHARD D. ROSEN, Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, MA JOHN C. WYNGAARD, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Ex Officio Members EUGENE M. RASMUSSON, University of Maryland, College Park ERIC F. WOOD, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ Staff CHRIS ELFRING, Director JULIE DEMUTH, Program Officer SHELDON DROBOT, Program Officer AMANDA STAUDT, Senior Program Officer ELIZABETH A. GALINIS, Senior Program Assistant ROB GREENWAY, Senior Program Assistant DIANE L. GUSTAFSON, Administrative Coordinator ROBIN A. MORRIS, Financial Associate
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Air Quality Management in the United States OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin: Causes of Decline and Strategies for Recovery (2004) Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003) Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002) Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002) Ecological Dynamics on Yellowstone’s Northern Range (2002) The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002) Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001) Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001) A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (3 volumes, 2000–2003) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Modeling Mobile-Source Emissions (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (4 volumes, 1998–2003) Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline (1999) Arsenic in Drinking Water (1999) The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (5 volumes, 1989–1995) Review of EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 volumes, 1994–1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994)
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Air Quality Management in the United States Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from The National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu
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Air Quality Management in the United States Preface Recognizing the central role that science and engineering plays in air quality management and anticipating the next congressional reauthorization of the Clean Air Act and its amendments, the United States Congress directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to arrange for a study by the National Academy of Sciences (1) to evaluate from a scientific and technical perspective the effectiveness of the major air quality provisions of the Clean Air Act and their implementation by federal, state, tribal, and local government agencies; and (2) to develop scientific and technical recommendations for strengthening the nation’s air quality management system with respect to the way it identifies and incorporates important sources of exposure to humans and ecosystems and integrates new understandings of human and ecosystem risks. In response, the National Research Council established the Committee on Air Quality Management in the United States, which prepared this report. Biosketches of the committee members are presented in Appendix A. In the course of preparing this report, the committee met in public sessions in Washington, D.C.; Denver, Colorado; Los Angeles, California; and Atlanta, Georgia, where local, state, and federal officials and representatives from the private sector and nongovernmental organizations, including regulated industries and advocacy groups, were invited to meet with the committee and present their views on air quality management. Interested members of the public at large were also given an opportunity to speak on these occasions. The committee received oral and written presentations from the following individuals:
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Air Quality Management in the United States Acknowledgment of Review Participants This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: William Agnew, General Motors (retired); Thomas Burke, Johns Hopkins University; Paul Crutzen, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry; Gregory Dana, Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers; E. Donald Elliott, Willkie, Farr & Gallagher, LLP; David Hawkins, Natural Resources Defense Council; Walter Heck, North Carolina State University; Timothy Larson, University of Washington; Leonard Levin, Electric Power Research Institute; Arthur Marin, Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management; Michael Myer, Georgia Institute of Technology; Joseph Norbeck, University of California, Riverside; John Seitz, Sonnenschein, Nath & Rosenthal, LLP; Thomas Tietenberg, Colby College; John Watson, Desert Research Institute; Catherine Witherspoon, California Air Resources Board; Terry Yosie, American Chemistry Council.
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Air Quality Management in the United States Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert Frosch, Harvard University, and Edwin Clark II, Clean Sites. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Air Quality Management in the United States Contents Executive Summary 3 Summary 8 1 INTRODUCTION 23 Air Pollution Science, 24 Air Pollution Impacts, 28 Air Quality Management in the United States, 29 The Role of Science, 35 Estimating the Costs and Benefits of the Federally Mandated Air Quality Management System, 37 The Future, 39 Charge to the Committee on Air Quality Management in the United States, 41 Report Structure, 43 2 SETTING GOALS AND STANDARDS 45 Introduction, 45 Overview of Air Quality Standards, 46 The Standard-Setting Process, 47 Goals for Mitigating Visibility Degradation, 59 Standards for Mitigating Effects of Acid Rain, 59 The Scientific Basis for Setting Standards, 67 Summary, 86
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Air Quality Management in the United States 3 DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING CONTROL STRATEGIES THROUGH THE SIP PROCESS 88 Overview of SIP Process, 88 The Main Components of an Attainment-Demonstration SIP, 96 The Effectiveness of the SIP Process, 126 Summary, 131 4 IMPLEMENTING EMISSION CONTROLS ON MOBILE SOURCES 133 Introduction, 133 Controlling Emissions through Certification Standards on New Vehicles and Motors, 136 Controlling In-Use Motor-Vehicle Emissions, 148 Behavioral and Societal Strategies to Reduce Mobile-Source Emissions, 162 Critical Discussion of Mobile-Source Emission-Control Programs, 167 Summary, 172 5 IMPLEMENTING EMISSION CONTROLS ON STATIONARY SOURCES 174 Introduction, 174 Permits and Standards for New or Modified Major Stationary Sources, 177 Other Technology-Based Standards Imposed on Major Facilities, 186 Evaluation of Traditional Control Programs for Major Stationary Sources, 188 Compliance Assurance for Traditional Control Programs, 190 Cap-and-Trade Provisions for Major Stationary Sources, 196 Other Trading and Voluntary Stationary-Source Programs, 210 Area-Source Regulations, 212 Summary of Key Experiences and Challenges for Stationary-Source Control, 214 6 MEASURING THE PROGRESS AND ASSESSING THE BENEFITS OF AQM 216 Introduction, 216 Monitoring Pollutant Emissions, 216 Monitoring Air Quality, 220 Assessing Health Benefits from Improved Air Quality, 241 Assessing Ecosystem Benefits from Improved Air Quality, 252 Assessing the Economic Benefits of Air Quality Improvements, 261 Summary, 265 7 TRANSFORMING THE NATION’S AQM SYSTEM TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF THE COMING DECADES 268 Introduction, 268 The Challenges Ahead, 270
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Air Quality Management in the United States Principles for Enhancing the AQM System, 278 Recommendations for an Enhanced AQM System, 283 Conclusion, 313 References 317 Abbreviations 349 Appendix A COMMITTEE BIOSKETCHES 355 Appendix B STATEMENT OF TASK 363 Appendix C 188 HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS 365 Appendix D RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MEASUREMENTS TO DETERMINE STATUS AND TRENDS IN ECOSYSTEM EXPOSURE AND CONDITION 369
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Air Quality Management in the United States Figures and Tables FIGURES ES-1 Idealized schematic showing the iterative nature of air quality management, 4 S-1 Comparison of growth areas and emission trends, 9 S-2 To meet the major challenges that will face air quality management (AQM) in the coming decade, the committee identified a set of overarching long-term objectives, 10 S-3 Plot of the estimated relative trends in emissions versus ambient concentrations of various primary pollutants (PM10, NOx, SO2, Pb, and CO), 14 1-1 Schematic of the factors influencing the pollutant mix in the atmosphere and the resultant impacts of pollution, 25 1-2 National average emission categories for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10), and particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) for 2001, 27 1-3 Idealized schematic showing three of the four sequential activities carried out by the nation’s air quality management system, 34 1-4 Comparison of growth areas and emission trends, 38 1-5 Electricity generation by fuel in billion kilowatt hours, 1949–1999, and projections for the Reference Case, 2000–2020, 40
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Air Quality Management in the United States 1-6 Counties in the continental United States where any NAAQS were violated in 1999, 40 1-7 High cancer risk counties for urban air toxics in 1996 by county, 41 1-8 Potential violations of the PM2.5 (1999–2000 data) and 8-hr O3 (1997–1999 data) NAAQS by county, 42 2-1 Flow diagram illustrating the process by which the EPA administrator reviews and sets a new NAAQS, 50 2-2 Timeline illustrating historical sequence of the periodic NAAQS reviews and final decisions carried out by EPA since the passage of the 1970 CAA Amendments, 52 2-3 Foliar injury to cotton induced by chronic exposure to ozone, 54 2-4 The impact of haze on visibility, 60 2-5 Anthropogenic sources and natural sources contribute emissions that result in the deposition of acidic compounds, 61 2-6 Trends in nationwide SO2 and NO2 emissions by year since 1940, 63 2-7 Schematic illustrating dose-response relationships between pollutant exposure and (A) human health effects and (B) crop or vegetation effects, 68 2-8 Exercising volunteer being exposed to ultrafine particles and monitored for health response, 69 2-9 Evidence of health impact of ozone on human respiratory system based on an experimental study involving human subjects, 70 2-10 Volunteer wearing a personal exposure monitor to measure actual exposures to PM and gases during daily activities, 72 2-11 Four-chamber greenhouse-based exposure system constructed to study effects of elevated CO2 on plants, 73 2-12 Studies in open-top field chambers have shown the response of plants to ambient levels of O3, 74 2-13 Free air CO2 experiment (FACE) is used to elucidate forest ecosystem responses to elevated CO2, 75 2-14 Concentration-response estimation from the reanalysis of the Pope/ American Cancer Society Study on cardiopulmonary disease mortality (excluding Boise, Idaho), 77 2-15 Schematic diagram illustrating the source of human exposure to indoor PM pollution, 84 3-1 Emission-inventory development, evaluation, and improvement, 101 3-2 Appendix J curve, 109 3-3 Empirical kinetic modeling approach (EKMA) diagram, 109
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Air Quality Management in the United States 4-1 The evolution of California and federal tailpipe standards on passenger car exhaust emissions since the 1960s, 138 4-2 Percentages of U.S. trucks within selected model years (MY) used for various primary daily driving ranges: (1) up to 50 miles, (2) 51 to 100 miles, (3) 101 to 200 miles, (4) 201 to 500 miles, and (5) more than 500 miles, 154 4-3 Blood lead concentrations in the U.S. population from 1976 to 1999, 156 5-1 SO2 emissions from electric utilities in the United States from 1980 to 2001, 199 5-2 Regional SO2 emission from electric utilities, 206 6-1 Scatterplot of estimated trends in pollutant emissions derived from emission inventories and changes in average pollutant concentrations derived from air quality monitoring networks, 220 6-2 Locations of surface O3 monitoring sites and ozonesonde sites in North America, 224 6-3 The PAMS network, 225 6-4 Locations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) monitoring sites in the contiguous 48 United States, 229 6-5 National trend in annual benzene concentrations in metropolitan areas, 1994–1999, 230 6-6 Trends in wet sulfate deposition in the United States using data from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) and the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) (1989–1991 vs. 1997–1999), 231 6-7 (A) Total estimated U.S. lead emissions by major source category from 1970 to 1994, 251 7-1 To meet the major challenges that will face air quality management (AQM) in the coming decade, the committee identified a set of overarching long-term objectives, 269 7-2 Contribution to the sulfate column burden for July 15, 1997, at 00UT (vertical integral of the concentration) from different source regions showing intercontinental transport, 276 TABLES 1-1 Federal Air Quality Management Legislation, 30 2-1 NAAQS in Effect as of January 2003, 49
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Air Quality Management in the United States 3-1 Classification of Nonattainment Areas for O3 and CO Mandated in the CAA Amendments of 1990, 92 3-2 Federal, State, and Local VOC Emission-Reduction Measures in Four Illustrative SIPs, 118 3-3 Federal, Multistate, State, and Local NOx Emission-Reduction Measures in Four Illustrative SIPs, 119 3-4 Classifications and Number of Nonattainment Areas in 1992 Remaining in Nonattainment As of February 6, 2003, 127 4-1 Types of Vehicles and Engines Regulated by AQM in the United States, 134 4-2 Contribution of Nonroad Emissions to Mobile-Source Total and to Manmade Total, 143 4-3A Average PM2.5 Emissions by Vehicle Model Years for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks, 152 4-3B Average NOx Emissions by Vehicle Model Years for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks, 153 4-4 Timeline of Significant Federal and State Regulations for Motor Vehicle Fuels, 156 4-5 Part 1: California and Federal Reformulated Gasoline Programs, 158 Part 2: Future Reformulated Gasoline Program, 159 5-1 Allowable Concentration Increments (micrograms per cubic meter) for Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD), 182 5-2 NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers in 1999 by Vintage, 184 5-3 Open-Market and Other Noncapped Forms of Trading, 211 6-1 Summary of EPA’s Trends in Estimated Nationwide Pollutant Emissions and Average Measured Concentrations, 218 6-2 Summary of Major U.S. Monitoring Networks, 222 6-3 Locations of Initial PM2.5 Supersites, 228 6-4 Ozone Monitoring Sites in the United States, 234
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