NATIONAL NEED AND PRIORITIES FOR VETERINARIANS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH

Committee on Increasing Veterinary Involvement in Biomedical Research

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research

Division of Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research NATIONAL NEED AND PRIORITIES FOR VETERINARIANS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH Committee on Increasing Veterinary Involvement in Biomedical Research Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Division of Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, DC www.nap.edu

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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the American College for Laboratory Animal Medicine, the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, the American Veterinary Medical Association, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck and Co., Pfizer, Inc, and Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, Task Order 87 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institutes of Health. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09083-0 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-52772-4 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research COMMITTEE ON INCREASING VETERINARY INVOLVEMENT IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH James Fox (Chair), Divisions of Comparative Medicine and Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts John Harkness, Office of Research, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi William Hill, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina Alan Kelly, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Kathy Laber, Department of Comparative Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina Fred Quimby, Laboratory Animal Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York Abigail Smith, Laboratory Animal Health and Husbandry Research, The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine John Vandenbergh, Department of Zoology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina Staff Jennifer Obernier, Study Director Kathleen Beil, Administrative Assistant Marsha Barrett, Project Assistant Susan Vaupel, Editor Norman Grossblatt, Senior Editor

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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Peter A. Ward (Chair), Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan Stephen W. Barthold, Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California, Davis, California Rosemary W. Elliott, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York Michael F. Festing, Leicester, United Kingdom Janet C. Gonder, Pinehurst, North Carolina Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Central Animal Laboratories, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands Jay R. Kaplan, Department of Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina Hilton J. Klein, Department of Laboratory Animal Resources, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania William Morton, National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Randall J. Nelson, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee Emilie F. Rissman, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Lilly-Marlene Russow, Department of Philosophy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana William S. Stokes, Animal and Alternative Resources, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina Michael K. Stoskopf, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina Thomas Wolfle, Cambridge, Maryland Staff Joanne Zurlo, Director Ralph Dell, Associate Director Jennifer Obernier, Study Director Marsha Barrett, Senior Project Assistant Kathleen Beil, Administrative Assistant Susan Vaupel, Managing Editor, ILAR Journal

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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research Preface The Committee on Increasing Veterinary Involvement in Biomedical Research was commissioned to examine a highly relevant issue facing the biomedical research community both in academia and industry: How can more veterinarians be prepared for careers in biomedical research? A report written by Weigler et al. in 1997 concluded that the marketplace for veterinarians with specialty training in laboratory animal medicine had reached a steady state by 1995, when the national supply of and demand for veterinarians with this expertise were closely aligned (Weigler et al., 1997). Their analysis suggested that the balance of supply and demand would not change in any substantive way in the years 1995-2005. However, their report could not predict several pivotal issues that changed the need for veterinarians trained for careers in biomedical research. One of the most compelling was the dramatic increase in the use of genetically engineered animals, particularly mice. Such use has escalated during the last 5 years, further fueled by the publication of the mouse and human genomes. It has been estimated that 60 million genetically engineered mice may be needed to study every gene in the mouse genome (Knight and Abbott, 2002). The rapid increase in rodent-based biomedical research is accompanied by the need to monitor and prevent the introduction of infectious agents into established rodent colonies and biologic products that are shipped in increasing numbers nationally and internationally. Translational research, in which knowledge derived from molecular and cellular biology is being applied in studies involving systems and integrative biology, is burgeoning. Those applications rely heavily on the use of

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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research animals, particularly rodents. Indeed, between 1990 and 2002, there was a 60% increase in the number of competitive grants that utilize animals. All those factors in the aggregate have affected the need for veterinarians with specialty training in biomedical research, and the supply of veterinarians with this training has not kept pace with demand. Compounding the increased need for veterinary scientists’ involvement in biomedical research is the ever-increasing requirement of veterinarian oversight of compliance with state and federal regulations regarding animal-based research. This report is intended to document the need for veterinarians with specialty training and to recommend ways to alleviate the veterinary personnel shortage. The committee acknowledges the assistance and advice offered by various people who provided their time, professional experience, and insight. On October 4, 2002, several individuals with acknowledged expertise in academic veterinary medicine or biomedical research and in training of veterinarians in biomedical research delivered formal presentations to the committee and other interested parties who attended the open session of the committee’s first scheduled meeting. The committee appreciates their thoughtful and informative presentations. Linda Cork, Department of Comparative Medicine, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California Henry Baker, Scott-Ritchey Research Center, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama Fern Tablin, Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, University of California, Davis, California Douglas McGregor, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Joseph Bielitzki, Metabolic Engineering Program, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Virginia We also acknowledge the financial support of the following institutions: The American College for Laboratory Animal Medicine; the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics; the American Veterinary Medical Association; GlaxoSmithKline; Merck and Co., Inc.; NIH; and Pfizer, Inc. Representatives of some of those organizations provided critical data for the committee: Lynn Anderson, Merck and Co., Inc., Rahway, New Jersey Nelson Garnett, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland Franziska Grieder, National Center for Research Resources, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland

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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research John Strandberg, National Center for Research Resources, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland Mary Ann Vasbinder, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina Two other colleagues, Ben Weigler and Leslie Colby, were extremely helpful in providing survey data that they had gathered and tabulated on laboratory animal veterinary personnel needs. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspective and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: William J. Heuston, Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina Robert O. Jacoby, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Leticia V. Medina, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois John G. Miller, AAALAC International, Rockville, Maryland Nathaniel Powell, Jr., Army Veterinary Corps, Fort Detrick, Maryland Glenn A. Reinhart, Pharmaceutical Products Division, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois Janice D. Wagner, Department of Comparative Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by: Harold J. Fallon, University of Alabama, School of Medicine (emeritus), Birmingham, Alabama William R. Brinkley, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried

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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. I extend my deep appreciation to the committee members, staff, and those who presented information at our initial committee meeting. Members of the committee devoted considerable time and effort in deliberating on and analyzing the data included in this report. I also want to thank the reviewers for their timely and thoughtful comments; their insightful comments enhanced the value of this report. I particularly want to acknowledge the considerable skills and tireless efforts of Jennifer Obernier in assembling and composing the committee report. Kathleen Beil provided logistical support by arranging travel and lodging throughout, which made the committee’s tasks easier. Thanks are also extended to Marsha Barrett and Stephanie Thuemmler, who provided project support and assisted in generating the graphics in the report, and to Norman Grossblatt and Susan Vaupel, who edited the manuscript. And I also thank Joanne Zurlo and Ralph Dell for providing counsel to the committee during its deliberations. James Fox, Chair Committee on Increasing Veterinary Involvement in Biomedical Research

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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   7      Mission of the Veterinary Profession,   7      Veterinarians as Principal Investigators,   8      Veterinarians in Roles that Support Biomedical Research,   10      Scope of this Study,   11      Defining the Population of Veterinarians Involved in Biomedical Research,   13 2   ADEQUACY OF THE CURRENT COMPARATIVE MEDICINE VETERINARY WORKFORCE   15      Laboratory Animal Medicine Veterinary Workforce,   16      Veterinary Pathologists,   22      Veterinarians as Principal Investigators,   24 3   THE FUTURE OF THE COMPARATIVE MEDICINE VETERINARY WORKFORCE   27      Supply of Comparative Medicine Veterinarians Entering the Workforce,   28      Additional Factors Affecting Future Demand for Comparative Medicine Veterinarians,   36

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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research 4   GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   43      Raising Awareness,   44      Acquainting Students with Career Opportunities in Comparative Medicine,   45      Veterinary-School Recruitment,   46      Changes in Veterinary-School Curriculum,   47      Mentoring,   48      Financial Issues,   48      Postgraduate Training,   50      Attracting Veterinarians into Roles that Support Biomedical Research,   58      Recommendations,   60     REFERENCES   63     APPENDIXES     A   Specialized Veterinary Manpower Needs Through 1990   67 B   Biomedical Models and Resources: Current Needs and Future Opportunities   72 C   The Supply and Demand for Laboratory Animal Veterinarians from 1980 to 2005   78 D   Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   85

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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research TABLES AND FIGURES FIGURE 2-1   Historical trends of animal use in NIH grant portfolio,   18 FIGURE 2-2   Total budget for the National Institutes of Health, by fiscal year,   19 TABLE 2-1   Active ACLAM Diplomates,   20 FIGURE 2-3   Number of position announcements for laboratory animal medicine veterinarians, 1980-2001,   21 TABLE 2-2   Active ACVP Diplomates,   23 FIGURE 2-4   Annual budgets of NIH, NCRR, and NCRR Division of Comparative Medicine,   25 FIGURE 2-5   RO1 grant awards categorized by degree of principal investigator,   26 TABLE 3-1   Clinical Residency Programs in Laboratory Animal Medicine,   29 FIGURE 3-1   Number of individuals that completed a residency in laboratory animal medicine at an ACLAM-recognized program,   30 FIGURE 3-2   Type of veterinary pathology training program by specialty,   34 TABLE 3-2   PhD Programs in Comparative Medicine, Biomedical Science, Pathology/Pathobiology, or Laboratory Animal Science at Veterinary Medical Colleges or Schools and Departments of Veterinary Science or Comparative Medicine,   35 TABLE 3-3   NRSA: Institutional Research Training Grant (T32) Awards Funded by NCRR, 1994-2002,   36 TABLE 3-4   Biologic Terrorism Agents List,   37 TABLE 4-1   NRSA: Professional Student Short-Term Research Training Grant (T35) Awards Funded by NCRR, 1995-2002,   46 TABLE 4-2   NRSA: Individual Research Training Grant (F32) Awards Funded by NCRR, 1995-2002,   52 FIGURE 4-1   Total NIH grant awards versus NIH grant awards to veterinary schools,   53 TABLE 4-3   Special Emphasis Research Career Award (K01). SERCA Awards Funded by NCRR, 1995-2002,   54 TABLE 4-4   Mean Number of Employment Advertisements per Year (± SEM), by Sector, from COMPMED List-serv in 1999-2002,   57 TABLE 4-5   Employers of active ACLAM diplomates by sector,   58

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