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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report Committee on the Review of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Zoological Park Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, DC www.nap.edu
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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. F0336CC10376 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Smithsonian Institution, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the US government. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09583-2 Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org
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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report COMMITTEE ON THE REVIEW OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION’S NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK R. Michael Roberts (Chair), University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri Joseph W. Alexander, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma Bradford S. Bell, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Kurt Benirschke, University of California, San Diego, California Janet Brannian, University of Sioux Falls, Sioux Falls, South Dakota Charles Capen, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio Rhetaugh Graves Dumas, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan Lester Fisher, Chicago, Illinois Harold F. Hintz, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Maxim Kiefer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Rebecca Remillard, Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Angell Animal Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts Bernard A. Schwetz, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland Thomas Yuill, University of Wisconsin, Gaylord Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, Mapleton, Utah Stephen L. Zawistowski, American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, New York, New York Consultant Samuel H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Staff Jennifer Obernier, Study Director Jamie Jonker, Study Director (until June 2004) Tanja Pilzak, Research Associate Donna Lee Jameison, Senior Project Assistant Kathleen Beil, Administrative Assistant Norman Grossblatt, Senior Editor Susan Vaupel, Editor Kori Brabham, Intern Johnny Hernandez, Intern Tasha Sassville, Intern
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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES May Berenbaum (Chair), University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois Sandra Bartholmey, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois Deborah Blum, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin H. H. Cheng, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota Barbara P. Glenn, Biotechnology Industry Organization, Washington, DC Linda F. Golodner, National Consumers League, Washington, DC W. R. (Reg) Gomes, University of California, Oakland, California Perry R. Hagenstein, Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts Janet C. King, Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, California Daniel P. Loucks, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Whitney Macmillan, Cargill, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota Terry L. Medley, DuPont Agriculture and Nutrition, Wilmington, Delaware Ole Nielsen, Ontario Veterinary College, Canada Alice N. Pell, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Bobby Phills, Florida AandM University, Tallahassee, Florida Sharron S. Quisenberry, Virgnia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia Sonya B. Salamon, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois G. Edward Schuh, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Minneapolis, Minnesota Brian J. Staskawicz, University of California, Berkeley, California Jack Ward Thomas, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana James H. Tumlinson, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania B. L. Turner, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts STAFF Robin Schoen, Director Karen L. Imhof, Administrative Assistant
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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Peter A. Ward (Chair), University of Michigan Medical School, Pathology Department, Ann Arbor, Michigan Stephen W. Barthold, University of California, Center for Comparative Medicine, Davis, California William C. Campbell, Drew University, Madison, New Jersey Jeffrey Everitt, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Comparative Medicine and Investigator Support, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina Michael F. Festing, Leicestershire, United Kingdom Estelle B. Gauda, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland Janet C. Gonder, Pinehurst, North Carolina Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Central Animal Laboratories, Bilthoven, Netherlands Jay R. Kaplan, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Comparative Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina Hilton J. Klein, Merck Research Laboratories, Department of Laboratory Animal Resources, West Point, Pennsylvania William Morton, University of Washington, Regional Primate Research Center, Seattle, Washington Randall J. Nelson, University of Tennessee, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Memphis, Tennessee Abigail Smith, University of Pennsylvania, University Laboratory Animal Resources, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Michael K. Stoskopf, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina Peter Theran, Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Angell Animal Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts STAFF Joanne Zurlo, Director Kathleen Beil, Administrative Assistant
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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report Preface The U.S. House of Representatives Committee on House Administration, chaired by U.S. Representative Robert W. Ney (Ohio-18th district), is responsible for oversight of the Smithsonian Institution, which administers the National Zoological Park (National Zoo) and the Conservation and Research Center (CRC). Following a hearing held by the Committee on March 5, 2003, in which House Representatives questioned the zoo director regarding concerns about animal care and management, Congress requested a science-based review of the quality and effectiveness of animal care and management at the zoo by the National Academies. In response to this request, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources and Institute for Laboratory Animal Research convened a committee to conduct the review. The detailed charge to the committee is as follows: “A committee of experts will be appointed to assess the quality and effectiveness of animal management, husbandry, and care at the Smithsonian Institution's National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C. and the Conservation and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia. The study will identify strengths, weaknesses, needs, and gaps in the current infrastructure and provide recommendations on changes needed to ensure effective management and care of the NZP's animal collection. The study will provide a description of the system currently in place, the elements and characteristics of that system, and the changing nature of concerns surrounding the system. The committee will examine the historic and recent problems with animal health and animal science practices at the zoo, including recent reports on zoo operations and a scientific examination of the causes of recent animal deaths. The committee will review the NZP within the context of the larger zoo community, identifying unique aspects of the environment in which the NZP operates. The committee will evaluate the communication and coordination of the various divisions of the zoo that impact animal care, analyze the use of resources, and outline attributes of an enhanced system to ensure the health and well-being of the animals at the NZP. In addition, the committee will evaluate recent and ongoing changes in zoo operations. An interim report identifying the most pressing issues in animal care and management and aspects of the system in need of immediate attention, will be delivered at the end of the initial 6 months of the study. A final report that provides a comprehensive assessment of the zoo, outlines attributes of an enhanced system to ensure the health and well-being of the animals, and includes the committee's final recommendations, will be delivered at the end of 12 months.” In view of the complexity of the National Zoo, any review of it, even the current one, which is focused narrowly, requires a wide array of expertise. Accordingly, those recruited to form the Committee on the Review of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Zoological Park included persons experienced in zoo management and operations, nutrition, veterinarian medicine, pathology, industrial management, leadership and group relations, toxicology, safety issues in the workplace, animal disease, zookeeping, animal welfare, and animal physiology. Dramatic changes have occurred in animal care and management at zoos over the last few decades as procedures have become more science-based and as deeper knowledge about the captive needs of individual species has
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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report appeared in peer-reviewed, accessible literature. Accordingly, professional standards have changed, and the bar on accreditation has been raised substantially. More is demanded of staff in training and expertise. The design of exhibits is expected to be educational and humane and to be responsive to the needs of the captive animals they hold. Specific regulatory standards have been established by the Animal Welfare Act and are enforced by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and by the requirements of the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. National Research Council reports provide science-based guidelines for all institutions that maintain animals, including industry, universities, and zoos on animal nutrition (the Animal Nutrition Series) and the care and use of animals used in research (Institute for Laboratory Animal Research publications). Additional standards and guidelines have been developed by professional organizations such as the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA), American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, the Zoological Registrars Association, the American Veterinary Medical Association, and the Nutrition Advisory Group of the AZA. Many of those organizations have annual proceedings that contain new and revised opinions on how to care for zoo animals and manage them appropriately. The committee has reviewed much of that literature and has judiciously used various sources of information to formulate its findings. In addition to its reliance on published information on how zoos should operate, valuable information was obtained from experts at two National Research Council-sponsored workshops and from previous evaluations of the NZP by AZA, USDA, and the Smithsonian Institution itself. Committee members visited the zoo’s Rock Creek Park (Washington, DC) and Front Royal, VA, campuses to view the facilities and to meet staff members on all levels of management and animal keepers. The first visit to the Rock Creek Park campus was in August 2003 at the beginning of the committee’s deliberations, the second in April 2004, a few weeks after the publication of its interim report. Some of the meetings were arranged and organized by the Research Council staff; others were informal and spontaneous and occurred as the result of chance encounters when committee members were walking through the grounds and buildings. Committee members had open access to the entire NZP operation and had the opportunity to inspect the facilities much as the public views them but also behind the scenes in areas that the public rarely visits. Many one-on-one interviews with NZP employees were conducted to gain insight into perceived weaknesses and strengths of the NZP operation. In addition to those interviews, NZP staff members were encouraged to submit information to the committee through Research Council staff in such a manner that their identities could be protected. Their impressions were discussed during the committee’s deliberations, and lists of concerns were identified. As a result, several thousand pages of records and documents were requested from NZP management and were carefully reviewed. After its earliest deliberations in the late summer and fall of 2003, the committee decided which concerns were most pressing and described them, with a series of recommendations, in its interim report, Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Interim Report. The final report of the committee details a more comprehensive evaluation of animal care and management at the zoo. This is an especially opportune time to explore the weaknesses and strengths of operations at the zoo, and the committee hopes that its final report will provide a balanced evaluation to provide a foundation on which the National Zoo can move forward with confidence to make it a first-rate institution. We believe that the report will also be of value to other zoos, many of which may have problems similar to those discussed in the interim and final reports. R. Michael Roberts, Chair Committee on the Review of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Zoological Park
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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report Acknowledgments This report represents the integrated efforts of many people. The committee thanks all those who shared their insights and knowledge to bring the document to fruition. We also thank those who provided information at our public meetings and who otherwise participated in our public sessions. During the course of the committee’s deliberations, many people gave generously of their time to provide advice and information that were considered in its deliberations. The following deserve special thanks: Robyn Barbiers, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois Greg Bauman, National Pest Management Association, Raleigh, North Carolina Kathryn A. Bayne, Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, Rockville, Maryland Val Beasley, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois Marc Bekoff, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado Mark Edwards, Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, California David Evans, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC Nathan Flessness, International Species Information System, Apple Valley, Minnesota William Foster, Birmingham Zoo, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama Michael Hutchins, American Zoo and Aquarium Association, Silver Spring, Maryland Don Janssen, San Diego Wild Animal Park, San Diego, California David Jessup, California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, California Lynn Kramer, Denver Zoological Gardens, Denver, Colorado Denny Lewis, American Zoo and Aquarium Association, Silver Spring, Maryland Marty MacPhee, Disney’s Animal Kingdom, Orlando, Florida Terry Medley, DuPont Agriculture and Nutrition, Wilmington, Delaware Tom Meehan, Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, Illinois Linda Munson, University of California, Davis, California Christian Newcomer, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Craig Reed, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia Lee Simmons, Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo, Omaha, Nebraska Henry Sims, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland Lucy Spelman, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC Andrew Teare, Jacksonville Zoological Gardens, Jacksonville, Florida Paul Tesluk, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland Steven Thompson, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois Eduardo Valdes, Disney’s Animal Kingdom, Orlando, Florida Paul Vinovich, US House of Representatives, Washington, DC Ann Ward, Fort Worth Zoo, Fort Worth, Texas Richard Watkins, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC
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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report Rosanne Whitehouse, University of Michigan Hospitals and Health Centers, Ann Arbor, Michigan Thomas Wood, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia The committee is especially grateful to the staff members of the National Zoo who took time to speak with the committee about the zoo and its operations and who provided information essential for the committee’s work. The staff’s candid, timely, and thoughtful input greatly facilitated the committee’s efforts. The committee also appreciates the National Academies staff members who worked diligently to maintain progress and quality in its work. The study and the resulting reports would not have been possible without the dedication and hard work of the two study directors, Jamie Jonker and Jennifer Obernier. A special acknowledgement is also due to Bill Kearney (director, Media Relations), who helped guide the committee through the challenges associated with a highly publicized subject. The report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their review of this report: Val Beasley, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois Scott Carter, Detroit Zoo, Royal Oak, Michigan Victoria Clyde, Milwaukee County Zoo, Milwaukee, Wisconsin Ellen Dierenfeld, St. Louis Zoo, Saint Louis, Missouri Cindy Driscoll, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Oxford, Maryland Timothy Gage, University at Albany, Albany, New York Larry Glickman, Purdue University, Department, West Lafayette, Indiana David Jessup, California Department of Fish and Game, Santa Cruz, California Marcie Jones, Lakeside Nature Center, Kansas City, Missouri Fred Quimby, Rockefeller University, New York, New York Thomas Meehan, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, Illinois Craig Reed, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia Bruce Rideout, Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, California Mark Stetter, Disney’s Animal Kingdom, Lake Buena Vista, Florida Paul Tesluk, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland Steven Thompson, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Dowling, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts and Harley Moon, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author committee and the institution.
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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 11 Zoos 11 Basis of the Interim and Final Reports 12 The National Zoological Park 14 2 Strategic Planning 17 Characteristics of an Effective Strategic Plan 17 Current State of Strategic Planning at the National Zoo 18 Findings and Recommendations 23 3 Communication, Knowledge Management, and Human-Resources Management 25 Communication 26 Knowledge Management 28 Human-resources Planning and Use 31 Training and Development of Animal-care Staff 33 4 Review of Individual Animal Deaths at the National Zoo 41 Evaluation of Animal Husbandry, Management, and Veterinary Care Provided Animals at the Rock Creek Park Facility 41 Evaluation of Animal Husbandry, Management, and Veterinary Care Provided Animals at CRC 43 Individual Case Reviews 43 Summary 59 Findings and Recommendations 59 5 Evaluation of the Conservation and Research Center 61 Current State of CRC 62 6 Occupational Health and Safety Programs 71 Requirements for Occupational Health and Safety 71 Current State of Occupational Health and Safety at the National Zoo 73 Findings and Recommendations 75 7 Recent National Zoo Actions in Response to the Interim Report 77 National Zoo Action Plan 77
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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report Veterinary Care 80 Animal Care 81 Animal Welfare 85 Adherence to Policies and Procedures 86 Recordkeeping 88 Pest Management 89 8 Assessment of Overall Directions in Animal Care and Management 91 References 101 Appendix A – National Zoo Strategic Plan 109 About the Authors 156 Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications 160 Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Publications 162 Interim Report 163