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R E V I E W O F RECREATIONAL FISHERIES SURVEY METHODS Committee on the Review of Recreational Fisheries Survey Methods Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report is funded in part by a contract from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its subagencies. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10193-X Cover: Image provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON THE REVIEW OF RECREATIONAL FISHERIES SURVEY METHODS PATRICK J. SULLIVAN (Chair), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York F. JAY BREIDT, Colorado State University, Fort Collins ROBERT B. DITTON, Texas A&M University, College Station BARBARA A. KNUTH, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York BRUCE M. LEAMAN, International Pacific Halibut Commission, Seattle, Washington VICTORIA M. O'CONNELL, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Sitka GEORGE R. PARSONS, University of Delaware, Newark KENNETH H. POLLOCK, North Carolina State University, Raleigh STEPHEN J. SMITH, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada S. LYNNE STOKES, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas STAFF CHRISTINE BLACKBURN, Study Director DAVID POLICANSKY, Scholar SUSAN PARK, Associate Program Officer JODI BOSTROM, Research Associate PHILLIP LONG, Program Assistant CARRIE WALL, Student Volunteer iv

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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD SHIRLEY A. POMPONI (Chair), Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institu- tion, Fort Pierce, Florida LEE G. ANDERSON, University of Delaware, Newark WHITLOW AU, University of Hawaii at Manoa ROBERT G. BEA, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT DUCE, Texas A&M University, College Station MARY (MISSY) H. FEELEY, ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, Texas HOLLY GREENING, Tampa Bay Estuary Program, St. Petersburg, Florida DEBRA HERNANDEZ, Hernandez and Company, Isle of Palms, South Carolina CYNTHIA M. JONES, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia WILLIAM A. KUPERMAN, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California FRANK E. MULLER-KARGER, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg JOAN OLTMAN-SHAY, NorthWest Research Associates, Inc., Bellevue, Washington ROBERT T. PAINE, University of Washington, Seattle S. GEORGE H. PHILANDER, Princeton University, New Jersey RAYMOND W. SCHMITT, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachussets DANIEL SUMAN, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Florida STEVEN TOMASZESKI, U.S. Navy (retired), Fairfax, Virginia ANNE M. TREHU, Oregon State University, Corvallis STAFF SUSAN ROBERTS, Director FRANK HALL, Program Officer SUSAN PARK, Associate Program Officer ANDREAS SOHRE, Financial Associate SHIREL SMITH, Administrative Coordinator JODI BOSTROM, Research Associate NANCY CAPUTO, Research Associate SARAH CAPOTE, Senior Program Assistant v

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Preface The science and management of marine fisheries depend upon having clear and well-documented information. The task of collecting and maintaining this information falls to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin- istration. This task is daunting given that the type and volume of information continually expand along with the needs of fisheries man- agers to formulate more timely and area specific management actions. The National Research Council (NRC) has provided many fisheries and fisheries-related reviews in the last decade for Congress and NMFS. These reviews have included a summary review of the science, data, models, and processes used to guide NMFS resource management (National Research Council, 2002); an examination of how to address the legal mandate to use the best scientific information available in fisheries management (National Research Council, 2004); and a critical look at improving the collection, management, and use of marine fisheries data (National Research Council, 2000). The current report is in response to a request from NMFS for a review of the methods used to collect and analyze recreational marine fisheries data for application to fisheries management. While recreational fisheries have long been an important component of marine fisheries resource utilization, increased fishing pressure on many stocks has heightened the demand for information from all sources. At the same time, it has become increasingly complex and challenging to assess the catch and effort associated with recreational angling. The committee recognizes that NRC reviews add new tasks to NMFS's already hectic schedule, and we appreciate the information and responsiveness to requests that NMFS personnel provided. In particular, we thank Dr. David Van Voorhees, chief of the Fisheries Statistics Division, for his patience and openness in addressing questions about the vii

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viii PREFACE program, and Dr. Steve Murawski, director of the Office of Science and Technology, for setting the stage for this review. The committee also recognizes the important contribution made to this report by many individuals from regional councils, state fisheries agencies, recreational and commercial fisheries organizations, environ- mental conservation organizations, and others who attended and pro- vided input to our deliberation. The people who made presentations to the committee are listed in the acknowledgments. Finally, the committee sincerely thanks the NRC staff for their valu- able support and extra efforts to facilitate the rapid completion of the report without compromising quality: David Policansky and Christine Blackburn (study directors), Susan Park (associate program officer), Jodi Bostrom (research associate), Carrie Wall (student volunteer), and Phillip Long (program assistant). Patrick J. Sullivan, Committee Chair

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Acknowledgments This report was greatly enhanced by the participants of the five meetings held as part of this study. The committee would first like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at these meetings: Allen Bingham (Alaska Department of Fish and Game), Harry Blanchette (Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries), Dick Brame (Coastal Conservation Association), Bob Bryant (recreational fisherman), Jennifer Cahalan (Washington Department of Fish and Wild- life), Felicia Coleman (Florida State University), Gordon Colvin (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation), Steve Crooke (California Department of Fish and Game), Mike Dennis (Knowledge Networks), Dave Donaldson (Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission), Mark Fisher (Texas Parks and Wildlife Conservation Commission), Robert Fletcher (Sportfishing Association of California), Tom Fote (Jersey Coast Anglers Association), Daniel Furlong (Mid-Atlantic Marine Fisheries Council), Jeff Goebel (U.S. Department of Agri- culture), John Hoey (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admini- stration), Cynthia Jones (Old Dominion University), Bruce Joule (Maine Department of Marine Resources), Chris Keller (Wostmann and Assoc- iates), Alec MacCall (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admini- stration), Herb Moore (Recreational Fishing Alliance), Steve Murawski (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Michael Nussman (American Sportfishing Association), Joe O'Hop (Florida Fish and Wild- life Conservation Commission), Vince O'Shea (Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission), Maury Osborn (Atlantic Coastal Cooperative Statistics Program), Preston Pate (North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries), Bonnie Ponwith (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admini- stration), Russell Porter (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission), Robin Reichers (Gulf of Mexico Fisheries Management Council), Ronald Salz (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Eric Schindler (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife), Richard Stone ix

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (private fisheries consultant), Cynthia Thomson (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), David Van Voorhees (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Bobbi Walker (Gulf of Mexico Fisheries Management Council and National Association of Charterboat Operators), and Robert Zales II (National Association of Charterboat Operators). These talks helped set the stage for fruitful discussions in the closed sessions that followed. The committee is also grateful to the many people who provided important discussion during the public comment periods. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: John Annala, Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Portland, Maine James R. Chromy, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina John Mark Dean, University of South Carolina, Columbia John E. Halver, University of Washington, Seattle David K. Loomis, University of Massachusetts at Amherst Kenneth E. McConnell, University of Maryland, College Park Jean Opsomer, Iowa State University, Ames Maury Osborn, Atlantic Coastal Cooperative Statistics Program, Washington, DC Russell Porter, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Portland, Oregon Norman H. Sleep, Stanford University, California Bobbi Walker, National Association of Charterboat Operators, Orange Beach, Alabama Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Andrew Solow, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, appointed by the Divison on Earth and

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xi Life Studies, and John Dowling, Harvard University, appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 15 What Data are Collected from Anglers 19 How Catch is Estimated from Recreational Fisheries Survey Data 19 Why Recreational Fishing Data are Difficult to Collect 20 Scientific Issues Affecting Survey Design 23 Existing Surveys 26 Committee Approach and Report Organization 28 2 CURRENT SITUATION AND PROBLEMS IN EFFORT AND CATCH ESTIMATION 31 Bias and Precision 35 General Procedural and Estimation Issues 42 New Demands on Recreational Fishing Data 48 Incorporating New Ideas and Testing Old Ones 51 Outreach 52 Conclusions and Recommendations 53 3 REMOVAL ESTIMATION: ALTERNATIVE SURVEY DESIGN AND ANALYSIS METHOD 57 Small- to Large-Scale Surveys for Sound Fisheries Management 58 Angler Survey Frames 61 Other Survey Designs 67 Analysis and Estimation Techniques 76 Conclusions and Recommendations 81 4 DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR POPULATION ASSESSMENT 83 Effort and Catch per Unit Effort Calculations 85 Catch and Release 89 Conclusions and Recommendations 91 5 HUMAN DIMENSIONS 93 Management Uses for Data 95 Economic Data and Models 97 Conclusions and Recommendations 104 xiii

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xiv CONTENTS 6 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT 107 Research Needs and Problem Solving 107 A National Statistical Program 108 Interim Sources of Program Support 114 Conclusions and Recommendations 116 7 COMMUNICATION AND OUTREACH 117 Communication Goals and Stakeholders 119 Data Collection Efforts 120 Data Interpretation and Application Efforts 122 Communication and Outreach Approaches 124 Conclusions and Recommendations 130 REFERENCES 133 APPENDIXES A Committee and Staff Biographies 143 B Existing Marine Recreational Surveys 147 C Fisheries Case Studies 161 D Acronyms 185