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COMPUTING, COMMUNICATION, AND THE INFORMATION AGE THIRD LECTURE INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE LECTURE SERIES COMPUTING, COMMUNICATION, AND THE INFORMATION AGE by John E. Hopcroft Joseph C. Ford Professor of Computer Science Cornell University NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994
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COMPUTING, COMMUNICATION, AND THE INFORMATION AGE The National Research Council serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on scientific and technical questions of national importance. Established in 1916 under the congressional charter of the private, nonprofit National Academy of Sciences, the Research Council brings the resources of the entire scientific and technical community to bear on national problems through its volunteer advisory committees. Today the Research Council stands as the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering and is administered jointly by the two academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Research Council has numerous operating units. One of these is the Naval Studies Board, which is charged with conducting and reporting upon surveys and studies in the field of scientific research and development applicable to the operation and function of the Navy. A portion of the work done to prepare this document was performed under Department of Navy Contract N00014-87-C-0018 issued by the Office of Naval Research and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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COMPUTING, COMMUNICATION, AND THE INFORMATION AGE NAVAL STUDIES BOARD David R. Heebner (Chair), Science Applications International Corporation George M. Whitesides (Vice Chair), Harvard University Albert J. Baciocco, Jr., The Baciocco Group, Inc. Alan Berman, Center for Naval Analyses Ruth M. Davis, Pymatuning Group, Inc. Seymour J. Deitchman, Institute for Defense Analyses John F. Egan, Lockheed Electronic Systems Group Ralph R. Goodman, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University Sherra E. Kerns, Vanderbilt University David W. McCall, Basking Ridge, New Jersey Irwin Mendelson, Singer Island, Florida George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation Alan Powell, University of Houston Herbert Rabin, University of Maryland Robert L. Silverstein, Northrop Corporation Keith A. Smith, Vienna, Virginia Robert C. Spindel, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington H. Gregory Tornatore, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University Richard H. Truly, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology J. Pace VanDevender, Sandia National Laboratories Vincent Vitto, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Navy Liaison Representatives Nat Kobitz, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Ronald N. Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Staff Lee M. Hunt, Staff Director
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COMPUTING, COMMUNICATION, AND THE INFORMATION AGE COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS Richard N. Zare (Chair), Stanford University Richard S. Nicholson (Vice Chair), American Association for the Advancement of Science Stephen L. Adler, Institute for Advanced Study John A. Armstrong, IBM Corporation (retired) Sylvia T. Ceyer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Avner Friedman, University of Minnesota Susan L. Graham, University of California at Berkeley Robert J. Hermann, United Technologies Corporation Hans Mark, University of Texas at Austin Claire E. Max, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Christopher F. McKee, University of California at Berkeley James W. Mitchell, AT&T Bell Laboratories Jerome Sacks, National Institute of Statistical Sciences A. Richard Seebass III, University of Colorado Leon T. Silver, California Institute of Technology Charles P. Slichter, Loomis Laboratory of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Alvin W. Trivelpiece, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Norman Metzger, Executive Director
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COMPUTING, COMMUNICATION, AND THE INFORMATION AGE Preface The International Science Lecture Series (ISLS) operates as a special project of the National Research Council's Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications. The series was established in 1990 at the request of the Office of Naval Research, joined in 1992 by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research for the express purpose of advancing communication and cooperation within the international scientific community. A search committee established by the National Research Council selects prominent U.S. scientists to lecture in each of three areas of basic scientific endeavor: ocean sciences, materials sciences, and information sciences. The countries in which the lectures are to be given are worked out in consultation with representatives of the international scientific community, with the science attaché inthe relevant U.S. embassies, and with senior representatives of the Office of Naval Research-Europe, the Office of Naval Research-Asia, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. When appropriate, each lecture is followed by formal and informal discussions with senior representatives of the scientific community in the host country to expand the dialogue on research progress, problems, and plans of common interest. Following each tour, the lecture is published for wider international distribution. Presented here is the third and final lecture in the first cycle of the series. Entitled Computing, Communications, and the Information Age, this lecture on the information sciences was given by John E. Hopcroft, Joseph C. Ford Professor of Computer Science and associate dean for College Affairs in the College of Engineering at Cornell University. The first lecture, The Heard Island Experiment, was presented by Walter H. Munk, holder of the Secretary of the Navy Research Chair at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, and the second lecture, Fountainhead for New Technologies and New Science, was presented by Rustum Roy, Evan Pugh Professor of the Solid State and professor of geochemistry, Pennsylvania State University. Professor Hopcroft's lecture began, as do all ISLS lectures, in the auditorium of the National Academy of Sciences building in Washington, D.C. The lecture was presented on October 23, 1992, to approximately 100 members of the Washington information sciences community and was then presented outside the country in two tours. On November 2, the lecture was presented at the National University of Singapore (NUS). The briefing team also visited the Institute of Systems Science at NUS, the National Computer Board of Singapore, the Nanyang Technological University of Singapore, and the NUS Information Systems and Computer Science Department. On November 5-6 Professor Hopcroft delivered the ISLS lecture and a technical lecture (“Toward a Science Base for Electronic Prototyping”) at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and visited the United Nations University International Institute for Software Technology in Macau. On November 7-11 he gave the ISLS lecture at the Seoul National University and the technical lecture at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology in Taejon.
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COMPUTING, COMMUNICATION, AND THE INFORMATION AGE Professor Hopcroft's second tour covered the period May 23 through June 7, 1993, with lectures presented in Bonn, Germany; Warsaw, Poland; Budapest, Hungary; Moscow, Russia; and Kiev, Ukraine. In Bonn the lecture was presented at the German National Research Center for Informatics and Information Technology (GMD) and was followed by a roundtable discussion with GMD representatives (May 23-24). On May 24-27 Professor Hopcroft lectured at the Polish Academy of Sciences, with discussions continuing at the University of Warsaw. During the May 28-31 visit to Hungary he presented the lecture at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, followed by a visit with further discussion at the Computer and Automation Research Institute. Continuing to Moscow (June 1-5), he lectured at and visited Moscow State University (Research Computer Center and the Department of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics), Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Lebedev Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Technology, the Computer Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Moscow Center of SPARC-Technologies. In Kiev on June 6-7, he presented the lecture, with discussions following, at the V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of the Ukranian Academy of Sciences. The sponsors would like to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of the many individuals who assisted with the arrangements for Professor Hopcroft's several lectures and discussion meetings. Prominent among these was Dr. Bernard J. Zahuranec of ONR, who made site visits in most of the host countries to confirm arrangements. Dr. Sachio Yamamato and Dr. David Kahaner, ONR-Asia; Mr. Ralph Boyce, U.S. Embassy, Singapore; and Mr. Kenneth D. Cohen, U.S. Embassy, Korea, were invaluable in making onsite arrangements for the tour of the Pacific Rim, as were Dr. Arthur Diness and Dr. Lawrence Rosenblum of ONR-Europe; Dr. Richard R. Ries, U.S. Embassy, Bonn; Mr. James Dillon, U.S. Embassy, Warsaw; Mr. Stephen H. Miller, U.S. Embassy, Kiev; CAPT Peter Galbraith, USN, U.S. Embassy, Moscow; and Ms. Anna Maria Furst, U.S. Embassy, Budapest, in making European arrangements. The sponsors would also like to thank their scientific colleagues in all of the host countries for their warm hospitality and for the many business and social arrangements: Professor Bernard Tan Tiong Gie (dean, Faculty of Science) and Dr. Juzar Motiwalla (director, Institute of Systems Science) of the National University of Singapore; Mrs. Tahn Joo Chin (senior director), National Computer Board, Singapore; Professor Harcharan Singh (dean, School of Applied Science), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Professor Vincent Yun Shen (Department of Computer Science) and Professor H.K. Chang (dean, School of Engineering) of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Professor D. Bjorner (International Institute for Software Technology), The United Nations University, Macau; Professor Jung Wan Cho (dean, Research Affairs), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology; Dr. Ha-Jine Kimn (president), Korea Information Science Society; Professor Chan Mo Park (dean, Graduate School for Information Technology), Pohang Institute of Science and Technology; Professor Dmitry Kostomarov (dean, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics), Moscow University; Professors Dmitrij Korjagin and Victor Ivannokov of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Professor Victor Sadovnichy (rector), Dr. Vladimir Repin (director, Research Computing Center), Professor Oleg B. Lupanov (Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics Faculty), and Professor Dmitrij Kostomarov (dean, Department of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics), Moscow State University; Professor V. Ivannokov, Lyceum of Information Technologies; Professor Sergey Kurdumov (director), Professor Yuri Evrushenko (director, Computing Center), and Professor Anatoly Dorodnizyn (honorary director, Computing Center) of the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Academician Domokos Kosary, president, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Professor Arpad I. Csurgay, deputy secretary general, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Academician Vladimir S. Mikhalevich, director, V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics, Kiev; Professor Leszek Kuznicki, president, Polish Academy of Sciences; Professors Wladyslav M. Turski, Professor Jurek Tyszkiewicz, and Professor Antoni Mazurkiewicz, University of Warsaw; and Dr. Gilbert Kalb, GMD, Germany.