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Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Nemoirs VOLUME 57 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1987

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Con- gress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its cor- porate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAE STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-03729-8 ElBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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CONTENTS PREFACE ARTHUR FRANCIS BUDDINGTON BY HAROLD L. JAMES ]. GEORGE HARRAR BY JOHN J. McKELVEY, JR. PAUL HERGET BY DONALD E. OSTERBROCK AND P. KENNETH SEIDELMANN JOHN DOVE ISAACS III BY WILLARD BASCOM BESSEL KOK BY J. MYERS OTTO KRAYER BY AVRAM GOLDSTEIN REBECCA CRAIGHILL LANCEFIELD BY MACLYN McCARTY HAROLD DWIGHT LASSWELL BY GABRIEL A. ALMOND v V11 3 27 59 89 125 151 227 249

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V1 JAY LAURENCE LUSH BY ARTHUR B. CHAPMAN JOHN HOWARD MUELLER BY A. M. PAPPENHEIMER, jR. C O NTE NTS ROBERT FRANKLIN PITTS BY ROBERT W. BERLINER AND GERHARD H. GIEBISCH JOHN ROBERT RAPER BY KENNETH B. RAPER KARL SAX BY CARL P. SWANSON AND NORMAN H. GILES GERHARD SCHMIDT BY HERMAN M. KALCKAR LESLIE SPIER BY ROBERT F. SPENCER HANS-LUKAS TEUBER BY LEO M. HURVICH, DOROTHEA JAMESON, AND WALTER A. ROSENBLITH WARREN WEAVER BY MINA REES CUMULATIVE INDEX 277 307 323 347 373 399 431 461 493 531

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PREFACE The Biographical Memoirs is a series of volumes, beginning in ~ 877, containing the biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their publishect scientific contributions. The goal of the Academy is to have these memoirs serve as a contribution toward the history of American science. Each biographical essay is writ- ten by an indiviclual familiar with the discipline and the scien- tific career of the deceased. These volumes, therefore, pro- vide a record of the lives and works of some of the most distinguished leaclers of American science as witnessed and interpreter! by their colleagues ant! peers. Though the pri- mary concern is the members' professional lives and contri- butions, these memoirs also inclucle those aspects of their lives in their home, school, college, or later life that led them . ~ to their sclentluc career. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, honorary organization of scientists and engineers electect on the basis of outstanding contributions to knowlecige. Established by a Congressional Act of Incorporation on March 3, 1863, the Academy works to further science and its use for the general welfare by bringing together the most qualified indivicluals to clear with scientific and technological problems of broach . ~ slgnlucance. PETER H. RAVEN Home Secretary CAROLINE K. McEUEN Associate Editor . . V11

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