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ARTHUR FRANCIS BUDDINGTON November29, 1890-December25, 1980 BY HAROLD L. JAMES ARTHUR FRANCIS BUDDINGTON was one of the most respected and most effective teachers of geology of his generation and a productive research scientist whose contri- butions spanned a wide segment of the geologic spectrum. For nearly sixty years he was iclentifiec! with Princeton Uni- versity, where he is remembered with pride anc! honor; he tract a parallel career as a field geologist with the New York State Museum and the U.S. Geological Survey, organizations that would also gladly claim him as one of their own. He was a man of parts, and he left his mark on geologic science in America. Bucictington, known affectionately if somewhat irrever- ently as "Bud" to his friends, colleagues, anct ex-stuclents, was born in Wilmington, Delaware, the son of Osmer G. Buct- dington, a Baptist minister, and Mary Salina Buclclington, nee Wheeler. Although the family was temporarily domiciled in Delaware, its roots were set firmly in New EnglancI: Bud- dingtons (also speller! Budington or Boddington) and Wheel- ers had lived in Connecticut since the 1600s, and men from both sides of the family served in Connecticut contingents of the Revolutionary Army. In 1904 Osmer Buddington re- turned with his family to Connecticut, where he became min- ister of the country church at Poquonnock Bridge. He aug- 3

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4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS mented his salary with commercial gardening and poultry culture, activities that involved but did not enchant his teen- age son. Young Arthur's early education was in the public schools of Wilmington (Delaware), Mystic (Connecticut), and West- erly (Rhode Island). In 1908 he graduated from Westerly High School and entered Brown University. After a year in the liberal arts curriculum (during which he acquired an often expressed lifelong distaste for Latin and Greek), he began to specialize in the sciences, first in botany and chem- istry, then in geology. He graduated in 1912, second in his class, and continued his studies, receiving the M.S. degree in 1913. Buddington's master's thesis was a geobotanical study of fossiliferous Carboniferous shales exposed in a newly driven tunnel on College Hill his first and only venture into the arcane realms of paleontological research. The same year- 1913 also marked the beginning of his long association with Princeton University, where he had been awarded a fellow- ship. He became a member of the 1913 Princeton field party in Newfoundland and began a field study that developed into his doctoral thesis. He was awarded the degree in 1916. At Princeton, Buddington was probably influenced most strongly by two individuals: A. H. Phillips, an able chemist- mineralogist active in both departmental and civic affairs, and C. H. Smyth, a distinguished petrologist of broad inter- ests and in Buddington's words "the epitome of a scholar and a gentleman." But it is likely that much of his intellectual growth during this period should be attributed to close as- sociation with other budding scientists and scholars in the newly constructed residential Graduate College. This group included men such as Harlow Shapley in astronomy, Alan Waterman and Arthur Compton in physics, and William Cumberland in economics.

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ARTHUR FRANCIS BUDDINGTON 5 For the next several years, however, Buddington's course was irregular, doubtless a direct or indirect reflection of the turmoil of World War I. After receiving the Ph.D. clegree from Princeton, he held a postdoctoral fellowship there for a short period and, uncler the auspices of the New York State Museum, began his first studies in Adirondack geology. In 1917, after briefly considering a career in the burgeoning petroleum industry, he accepted a position at Brown only to return the following spring to Princeton to teach aerial observation uncler his friend Ec~warct Sampson. This Prince- ton tenure was again brief for Buddington: in April 191S, with the United States now in the war, he enlisted as a private in the Signal Corps. Because of his chemistry background, he was transferred within months to the Chemical Warfare Service and assignee! research duties under R. C. Tolman. Mustered out at war's encT with the rank of sergeant, Buct- ctington returned to Brown to finish the academic year as an Instructor. In 1919 Buddington accepted an appointment to the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution, then (and now) one of the reacting experimental geology labora- tories in the world. It was a decisive move. Not only clicI it lead to personal acquaintance anct lasting friendship with some of the nation's outstanding geochemists (inclucling N. L. Bowen, C. N. Fenner, H. E. Merwin, anct H. S. Washing- ton), but it also expanclec! his aireacly strong background in chemistry with "hancls-on" experience in mineralogical ex- perimentation and the preparation of phase equilibria dia- grams. With chemist I. B. Ferguson, he completect what was then a definitive stucly of the melilite group of minerals be- fore returning to Princeton in 1920 as an assistant professor. Buciclington remained! at Princeton for the next half century to provide leadership in the study of rocks as chemical and physical systems.

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6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS BucIdington's parallel career as a field geologist also took shape about this time. His career in this area tract sputtered along (luring the years previous to ant! (luring WorI<1 War 1, but in 1921 he received an appointment to the U.S. Geolog- ical Survey ant! began an association that wouIct last for more than forty years. His first assignment for the Survey was the geologic mapping of southeastern Alaska; he attributed this assignment (perhaps rightly) more to his NewfounclIand ex- perience in hanctling small boats than to his technical quali- fications. The work occupier! five seasons during which some 4,000 miles of rugged coastline were mapped, with traverses up the glacially oversteepened slopes of the Alaskan Jorcis and occasional ventures across glacial ice. Conditions often were atrocious Buddington recorded that in 1921 it rained eighty-seven of the ninety days spent in the fielcI. Yet later he would say that these five seasons were the most satisfying of . . nits entire career. This sort of devotion to field studies is perhaps clifficult for a laboratory scientist to understancI, and, considering that it often calls for exhausting physical effort under conditions that may be far from benign, perhaps not too easy to explain either. Part of the lure uncloubtedly is aesthetic the creep emotions evoked by close contact with nature in all its variety. Beyond that, however, are the excitement, the challenge, anct the intellectual satisfaction that comes from seeing a geologic story emerge, outcrop by outcrop. In any case, field studies were an activity to which Burlington remained devoted throughout his life. Buciclington's teaching load at Princeton, even cluring his fourteen-year tenure as departmental chairman, was never light. Normally it consisted of one senior-level undergradu- ate course in petrology and, at the graduate level, courses given in alternate years in chemical geology and petrology. His impact on stuclents, particularly in graduate classes, was

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ARTHUR FRANCIS BUDDINGTON 7 profound; yet there was no Bucl(lington "school" of petro- logic thought. What was implantecT in students was not a set of organized conclusions but a method of approach that would outlast the concepts of any given Late. BucIdington place(1 heavy emphasis on the application of theoretical and experimental chemistry to the understanding of natural sys- tems. Such emphasis, however, always carried the expressed recognition that the rocks themselves represent completed experiments of far more complex design. Because Buddington's petrology had no artificial limits, the coverage in his courses was broad, inclucting ore deposits and chemical sedimentary rocks along with the traclitional igneous and metamorphic suites. His graduate-level lectures, generally two hours in length, were meticulously prepare(1 ant] clelivered, even though the class might consist of fewer than a dozen students, and they were illustrated with black- boarc] diagrams ctrawn with care ant! precision. Bubclington never resorted to dogmatic assertion: the door was always left open for reconsideration basecI on new evidence. After presenting an experimentally derives! phase diagram per- haps of sulfate assemblages and discussing with some en- thusiasm its application to certain natural deposits, he might conclude: "But ~ clon't say," he would caution, waving at the blackboard illustration, "that this necessarily pertains. But ~ do say" and his voice wouIct become emphatic "that this is the sort of thing that pertains!" lit left the student with the zeal to discover for himselfjust what "sort of thing" might in fact apply. Robert Hargraves (1984) records that 174 Ph.D. (legrees in geology were awarded during the Buddington years. Of these, 100 were in petrology, ore cleposits, and related fielcis. It is safe to say that Bucldington's influence, whether direct or indirect, was important to all of them. Buddington strove mightily during his long tenure as a

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8 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS lead professor and as departmental chairman ~ ~ 936-l 950) to establish Princeton as a center of excellence in petrology and ore depositsin general, the study of chemical processes in rock formation. Progress was macle, but it was an uphill battle for many years in a department with long-establishecl traditions in vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology. In the mict-1920s BucIdington induced Norman L. Bowen, the dis- tinguishec] petrologist of the Geophysical Laboratory, to pre- sent a series of lectures at Princeton, which were published in 1928 by the Princeton University Press. This thin volume, Evolution of the Igneous Rocks, is a masterly exposition of the application of experimental data to natural systems. It be- came a veritable Bible to petrologists of that day, anc} Prince- ton shone in reflected glory. By the mid-1930s, with the acl- dition of Harry Hess to the stab, Princeton was recognized as one of the nation's leading schools in "hard rock" geology. But it was not until 1949 that BucIdington's ambitions were fully realizecI, ant] the ciepartment's first program in experi- mental geology using high-temperature-high-pressure ap- paratus was inaugurated uncler John C. Maxwell. BucIdington briefly resumed work with the U.S. Geologi- cal Survey in 1930 when he spent a most enjoyable season mapping the Bohemia and North Santiam mining districts of the Oregon Cascades. But his major post-Alaska involve- ment with the Survey began in 1943, when he accepted the leadership of a program of field research on iron ores of the northeastern states. This program, with some redirection in its later stages, was to continue for the next seventeen years. It involved many geologists, among them H. E. Hawkes, A. W. Postel, Cleaves Rogers, B. F. Leonard, P. K. Sims, P. E. Hotz, and D. R. Baker. (The latter four subsequently earned the Ph.D. degree at Princeton using material derived from the Survey studies as bases for doctoral dissertations. The fielct studies of regional geology and iron cleposits,

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ARTHUR FRANCIS BUDDINGTON 9 couplet] with use of the newly available airborne fluxgate magnetometer uncler the direction of J. R. BalsIey, resulted in the discovery of several ore bodies of small to moderate size (Hawkes and Balsley 19461. The economic success of the program was gratifying to Buddington's canny New Englanct instincts. The work also resulted in a plethora of good scien- tific reports and papers, among them one by Preston Hotz that provicled a definitive answer to the question of the origin of Cornwall-type magnetite deposits (Hotz 19501. The field program also nurtured two other significant clevelopments in geology. One (noted above) was aerial magnetic surveying using equipment that had been cleveloped for wartime sub- marine detection; it was first usec! systematically on low-level flights in the Adirondacks in 1944, often with Bu~ctington aboard as an observer. The other significant development was exploration geochemistry, in large part the brainchilcl of project member H. E. Hawkes (Hawkes 19761. Buddington's contributions to regional geology are re- cordect in a number of major documentary-type publications, notably: Geology and; Mineral Deposits of Southeastern Alaska (U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 800, with T. Chapin); Metal- liferous Mineral Deposits of the Cascade Range in Oregon (U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 893, with E. Caliaghan); Geology and Mineral Resources of the Hammond, Antwerp, and Lowville Quadrangles, N.Y (New York State Museum Bulletin 2961; Re- gional Geology of the St. Lawrence Magnetite District, N.Y (U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 376, with B. F. Leon- arct); Ore Deposits of the St. Lawrence Magnetite District, N.Y (U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 377, with B. F. Leonard); anct Geology of the Franklin and Part of the Hamburg Quadrangles, N.~. (U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 63S, with D. R. Baker). These ciata-laclen reports are not stimulating reading and are rarely referencecl; nevertheless they are recognized as the stuff of which the nation's geologic

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10 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS clata base has been built. Not so evident, and often over- lookoct, is the linkage between these field studies and Bud- dington's better known topical papers in which new concepts and new ideas are introduced. A few illustrative examples follow. BucIdington's ~ 959 paper delineating ancI explaining depth-relatect differences among igneous intrusives a most useful and illuminating concept is base(1 on his perceptive field observations of igneous intrusives in the greatly cliffer- ent geologic environments of NewfouncIland, the Alaska Coast Ranges, the Oregon Cascades, anc} the Adirondacks of New York. (Bucictington's acicTitional observation of the pro- gressive changes, west to east, in the dominant composition of the Coast Range batholith of Alaska wouIcI have to wait forty years for explanation. Not until the concepts of plate tectonics anc! subduction zone geometry were clevelopect wouIct this progressive change be understoocI.) Another pa- per, published in Economic Geology in 1935, introcluced the concept of a "xenothermal" (shallow clepth, high-tempera- ture) class of hydrothermal ore deposits, an idea clearly based on observations of the character of the shallow intrusives ant! associated ore deposits of the Oregon Cascades. This repre- sents perhaps the first formal break with the then-clominant but now largely superseclect I~in(lgren-Emmons classification, in which depth of emplacement and temperature of forma- tion were assumer! to vary sympathetically. Bu~clington's pio- neer contribution was explicitly noted in R. W. Hutchinson's 1983 presidential acictress to the Society of Economic Geol- ogists (Hutchinson 19831. The systematic descriptions of and distinctions between anorthosite of Grenville-type massifs and that of layered gabbroic complexes were expressed most completely in Bucl- dington's 1960 paper published by the Geological Survey of India. These finclings obviously derive from field. studies in

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ARTHUR FRANCIS BUDDINGTON 11 the Aclironciacks, coupled with observations on the Stillwater Complex of Montana that were made during his supervision of the thesis studies of Princeton graduate students A. L. HowlancI and I. W. Peoples. BucicTington's conclusions were summarized in a 1970 symposium paper: massif-type anor- thosite is clerived by fractional crystallization of gabbroic an- orthosite magma, genetically distinct from associated rocks of the quartz syenite-mangerite series. Although this finding was challengect by other workers in the 1960s, it has since been affirmed by studies of rare-element distribution. Buclclington also proclucect a series of papers, variously coauthored with I. R. Balsley, D. H. LinctsIey, anc! others, that describect mineralogical variations in the Fe-Ti-O system anct their significance. These contributions stemmed from the ex- tensive field program of the U.S. Geological Survey in New York-New Jersey, which was lee! by Buddington. Many con- cepts of value were produced, among them the relationship between mineralogy and magnetic anomalies. (For example, it was discovered that reverse remanent magnetism was a characteristic property of Ti-bearing hematite, information of great value in the interpretation of measured magnetic anomalies in the region.) Buciclington himself valuecI most highly the 1964 paper with D. H. Lindsley of the Geophysical Laboratory in which it was shown that compositions of min- erals of the ilmenite-titaniferous magnetite suite couIcI be used as a measure of partial pressure of oxygen and of tem- perature at the time of origin. The paper drew worIc~wide attention and stimulated extensive follow-on research. BucIdington tendec] to be somewhat orthodox and con- servative in his scientific thinking clisciplined rather than venturesome; yet he was not bounct by orthodoxy. New con- cepts were examined critically anct without bias; those aspects that were found to be supported by empirical ciata or cogent theoretical analysis were woven into existing theory, expancl-

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12 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ing rather than replacing. For example, without changing his basic thesis that massif-type anorthosite originates] by frac- tionation of gabbroic anorthositic magma, he fount! that the concept of "flow clifferentiation," which was advanced in the late 1950s by W. R. A. Baragar in Canada (Baragar 1960), provided an acceptable mechanism for separation of a pla- giocIase-rich fraction. He consequently incorporated the con- cept into his mocle! for origin. During the great "granitization" debate of the 1940s and 1950s, a number of well-known geologists in Europe anct North America were converted to the radical doctrine that large bodies of granitic rock were formed by metasomatic replacement of pre-existing materials rather than by crystal- lization from silicate melts. Buciclington, however, emerged as he ha(1 entered; a staunch magmatist. But even so, his rejection of the hypothesis as a major geologic process was not out-of-hancI; it came only after the examination of pos- sible examples of granitization in the Adirondacks and the viewing of cited field evidence elsewhere and after many a spirited! discussion with more "heretical" colleagues. It is likely that most geologists and geochemists today would share Buddington's skepticism of the importance of the granitiza- tion process. Somewhat ironically, however, with respect to the Adironciacks, it is also likely that Bu~clington's strictly magmatic interpretation of certain bocties of alaskite and lay- erect gneiss in the dominantly metasedimentary terrane of the Adirondack Lowlands will have to yield to a more com- plex model: one that involves partial melting, (liapiric move- ment, and at least some degree of high-temperature meta- somatic replacement. Exclusive of abstracts, medal presentations, and the like. Buclctington's bibliography consists of about seventy papers, twenty-three of them published after his formal retirement in 1959. What is impressive about this list is not the number

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ARTHUR FRANCIS BUDDINGTON 15 the chairmanship of the Geology Section (1954-57) of the National Academy of Sciences; anc! membership on the Act- visory Boarct (1950-61) of the Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. He also served as associate editor of American Journal of Science ~ ~ 950 - 69) and American Scientist ~ ~ 96 I-621. In ~ 924 Arthur Bucictington marriec! Jene Elizabeth Muntz of David City, Nebraska, whom he had met while with the Geophysical Laboratory in Washington, D.C. She was to be his loved ant! treasured helpmate until her death in 1975. Buddington depenclect on her absolutely in social affairs, and she was a gracious hostess to generations of Princeton gracl- uate studentsfor years the Buciclingtons regularly visited and in turn entertained incoming students and their wives, engendering an esprit de corps at Princeton rarely matcher! in academic circles. Mrs. Buciclington also served as a loyal chauffeur cluring Aclirondack fielc! work, "driving over all kinds of roacis in all kinds of weather," because Buddington, ocIdly enough, never learner! to drive a car even though he was entirely at ease at the helm of a motor-driven small boat in rough water. The Bucldingtons tract one daughter, Eliza- beth Tene (Mrs. Lyle Branagan), who now lives in Cohasset, Massachusetts. Honesty and integrity are two of the best remembered elements of Bu~clington's character. He was a man of true modesty, a trait that led him to give fair hearing to views with which he disagreed, whether expressed by lowly student or professional peer. He dicI enjoyboth as a participant anti as a listener a brisk exchange of opinions, particularly in the fielcI, but he was not of an argumentative disposition. He hac! a loud anc! gusty laugh that often echoed down the cor- ri(lors of Guyot Hall, and even if sometimes it seemed at odds with his quiet speech and manner, it was nonetheless entirely genuine. These personal characteristics, coupled with a com-

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16 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS plete lack of pomp and ceremony, endeared Buddington to students. That his influence was lasting can be illustrated by a passage in Harry Hess's touching tribute in the 1962 Bud- dington Volume (Hess 1962~. The words are from a letter sent to Harry by a former student unnamed, but at the time of writing a distinguished professor in his own right ,~ ~ He always has been the greatest man I know in science, and I don't lead an isolated life. To me he is, to use his expression, "the pure quill." If I ever do anything worth a damn, it will be largely due to his influence on me. There is nothing like Bud on the market and I go shopping every day. IN PREPARING THIS MEMOIR I have had the advantage of access to autobiographical notes prepared by Buddington in his later years and to a draft of a memorial being prepared by B. F. Leon- ard. I have drawn freely from both sources, generally without at- tribution. I have also incorporated, again without specific credit, thoughts and comments received from others notably, P. E. Hotz, A. E. i. Engel, P. K. Sims, i. C. Maxwell, and M. P. Foose all of whom shared my good fortune in having had Bud as a teacher and as a friend. REFERENCES Baragar, W. R. A. 1960. Petrology of basaltic rocks in part of the Labrador Trough. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 71: 1589-1644. Erd, R. C., D. E. White, l. i. Fahey, and D. E. Lee. 1964. Budding- tonite, an ammonium feldspar with zeolitic water. Am. Min- eral., 49:831-50. Hargraves, R. B. 1984. Memorial to Arthur Francis Buddington. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. Hawkes, H. E. and l. R. Balsley. 1946. Magnetic exploration for iron ore in northern New York. U.S. Geological Survey Strategic Minerals Investigations, Preliminary Report, 3 - 194. Hawkes, H. E. 1976. The early days of exploration geochemistry. I. Geochem. Explor., 6: 1-11. Hess, H. H. 1962. (A. F. Buddington) An appreciation. In: Petro- logic Studies (a volume in honor of A. F. Buddington), ed. A. E.

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ARTHUR FRANCIS BUDDINGTON 17 J. Engel, H. L. James, and B. F. Leonard, pp. vii-xi. Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America. Hotz, P. E. 1950. Diamond-drill exploration of the Dillsburg mag- netite deposits, York County, Pennsylvania. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull., 969-A. Hutchinson, R. W. 1983. Hydrothermal concepts: the old and the new. Econ. Geol., 78:1734-41.

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18 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS BIBLIOGRAPHY 1916 Pyrophyllitization, pinitization and silicification of rocks around Conception Bay, Newfoundland. I. Geol., 24:130-52. 1917 Report on the pyrite and pyrrhotite veins in Jefferson and St. Law- rence Counties, New York. N.Y. State Defense Council Bull. no. 1. 40 pp. 1919 Foliation of the gneissoid syenite-granite complex of Lewis County, New York. In: 14th Report of the Director, N.Y. State Museum, 1917, pp. 101-10. Pre-Cambrian rocks of southeast Newfoundland. J. Geol., 27:449- 79. 1920 With }. B. Ferguson. The binary system akermanite-gehlenite. Am. I. Sci., 199: 131-40. 1922 On some natural and synthetic melilites. Am. J. Sci., 203:35-87. Mineral deposits of the Wrangell district, southeastern Alaska. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull., 739-B:51-75. 1924 Alaskan nickel minerals. Econ. Geol., 19:521-41. 1925 Mineral investigations in southeastern Alaska. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull., 773-B :71-139. 1926 Submarine pillow lavas of southeastern Alaska. I. Geol., 34:824- 28. With C. H. Smyth, Jr. Geology of the Bonaparte quadrangle. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. no. 269. 103 pp. 18

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ARTHUR FRANCIS BUDDINGTON Mineral investigations in southeastern Alaska. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull., 783-B:41 - 62. 1927 19 Geology and mineral deposits of the Salmon River area. Eng. Min. J. Press, pp. 525 - 30. Coast range intrusives of southeastern Alaska. I. Geol., 35:224-46. Coincident variations of types of mineralization and of Coast Range intrusives. Econ. Geol., 22:158-79. 1929 With T. Chapin. Geology and mineral deposits of southeastern Alaska. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. no. 800. 398 pp. Geology of Hyder and vicinity, southeastern Alaska. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. no. 807. 124 pp. Granite phacoliths and their contact zones in the northwest Adi- rondacks. N.Y. State Mus. Bull., 281:51-107. 1930 Molybdenite deposit at Shakan, Alaska. Econ. Geol., 25: 197-200. 1931 The Adirondack igneous stem. I. Geol., 39:240-63. 1932 With I. G. Fairchild. Some Eocene volcanics in southeastern Alaska. Am. I. Sci., 224:490-96. 1933 Correlation of kinds of igneous rocks with kinds of mineralization. In: Ore Deposits of the Western States (Lindgren Volume), pp.350- 85. New York: American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical ~ . Engineers. Gravity stratification as a criterion in the interpretation of the structure of certain intrusives of the northwestern Adiron- dacks. Int. Geol. Congr. 16th Rep., 1:347-52.

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20 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1934 Geology and mineral resources of the Hammond, Antwerp, and Lowville quadrangles. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. no. 296. 215 pp. 1935 High-temperature mineral associations at shallow to moderate depth. Econ. Geol., 30:205-22. 1936 With E. Callaghan. Dioritic intrusive rocks and contact metamor- phism in the Cascade Range in Oregon. Am. I. Sci.,31:421-49. Review of geology and ore deposits of the Montezuma quadrangle, Colorado. Econ. Geol., 31:318-21. Memorial to Alexander Hamilton Phillips. Geol. Soc. Am. Proc., pp. 241 - 48. (Also in: Am. Mineral., 22:1094-98.) 1937 With H. H. Hess. Layered peridotitic laccoliths in the Trout River area, Newfoundland. Am. I. Sci., 33:380 - 88. Geology of the Santa Clara quadrangle, New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. no. 309. 56 pp. 1938 Memorial to Charles Henry Smyth, Jr. Geol. Soc. Am. Proc., pp. 195-202. With E. Callaghan. Metalliferous deposits of the Cascade Range in Oregon. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. no. 893. 141 pp. 1939 Adirondack igneous rocks and their metamorphism. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. no. 7. 354 pp. 1941 With L. Whitcomb. Geology of the Willsboro quadrangle, New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. no. 325. 137 pp. 1943 Some petrological concepts and the interior of the earth. Am. Min- eral., 28:119-40.

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ARTHUR FRANCIS BUDDINGTON 21 1948 Origin of granitic rocks of the northwest Adirondacks. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 28:21-43. 1950 Composition and genesis of pyroxene and garnet related to Adi- rondack anorthosite and anorthosite-marble contact zones. Am. Mineral., 35 (Larsen Volume):659-70. 1952 Chemical petrology of some metamorphosed Adirondack gab- broic, syenitic, and quartz syenitic rocks. Am. J. Sci. (Bowen Volume), part 1:37-84. 1953 With B. F. Leonard. Chemical petrology and mineralogy of horn- blendes in northwest Adirondack granitic rocks. Am. Mineral., 38 (Ross-Schaller Volume) :891-902. Geology of the Saranac quadrangle, New York. N.Y. State Mus. Bull. no. 346. 84 pp. 1954 With }. R. Balsley. Correlation of reverse remanent magnetism and negative anomalies with certain minerals. }. Geomagn. Geo- electr.,6:176-81. 1955 With }. Fahey and A. Vlisidis. Thermometric and petrogenetic sig- nificance of titaniferous magnetite. Am. I. Sci., 253:497-532. (Discussion t1956l, 254:511-15.) 1956 Correlation of rigid units, types of folds, and lineation in a Gren- ville Belt. In: The Grenville Problem, R. Soc. Canada Spec. Publ., 1 :99-118.

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22 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1957 With I. R. Balsley. Remanent magnetism of the Russell belt of gneisses, northwest Adirondack Mountains. Philos. Mag. Suppl., 6:317-22. With I. R. Balsley and I. W. Graham. Stress induced magnetization of some rocks with analyzed magnetic minerals. I. Geophys. Res., 62:465-74. Interrelated Precambrian granitic rocks, northwest Adirondacks. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 68:291-306. 1958 Geologic section at Hibernia Mine, N.~. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap., 287: 147-59. With J. R. Balsley. Iron-titanium oxide minerals, rocks, and aero- magnetic anomalies of the Adirondack area, New York. Econ. Geol., 53:777-805. 1959 Granite emplacement with special reference to North America. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 70:671-747. 1960 With J. R. Balsley. Magnetic susceptibility, anisotropy, and fabric of some Adirondack granites and orthogneisses. Am. I. Sci., 258- A (Bradley Volume):6-20. Norman Levi Bowen. Am. Philos. Soc. Yearb., pp. 113-18. The origin of anorthosite re-evaluated. Geol. Surv. Indian Rec., 86:421-32. 1961 With J. R. Balsley. Microintergrowths and fabrics of iron-titanium oxide minerals in some Adirondack rocks. In: Mahadevan Vol- ume, pp. 1-16. Hyderabad, India: Osmania University Press. With D. R. Baker. Geology of the Franklin and part of the Ham- burg quadrangles, New Jersey. U.S. Geol. Survey Misc. Geol. Inv., Map I-346. 1962 Iron and iron-titanium oxide minerals and concentrations in Pre- cambrian rocks in New York and New Jersey, U.S.A. In: Kor-

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ARTHUR FRANCIS BUDDINGTON 23 zhinsky Volume. Moscow. With B. F. Leonard. Regional geology of the St. Lawrence County magnetite district, N.Y. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. no. 376. 145 pp. 1963 With l. Fahey and A. Vlisidis. Degree of oxidation of Adirondack iron oxide and iron-titanium oxide minerals in relation to pe- trogeny. I. Petrol., 4: 138 - 69. Isograds and the role of H2O in metamorphic facies of ortho- gneisses of the northwest Adirondacks area, New York. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 74: 1155 - 81. Metasomatic origin of large parts of the Adirondack phacoliths- A discussion. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 74:353. 1964 With D. H. Lindsley. Iron-titanium oxide minerals and synthetic equivalents. I. Petrol., 5:310-57. With B. F. Leonard. Ore deposits of the St. Lawrence County mag- netite district, northwest Adirondacks, New York. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. no. 377. 259 pp. Esper S. Larsen, Jr. In: Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 37, pp. 161-84. New York: Columbia University Press for the National Academy of Sciences. Distribution of MnO between coexisting ilmenite and magnetite. In: Advancing Frontiers in Geology and Geophysics (Krishnan Vol- ume), ed. A. P. Subramaniam and S. Balakrishna, pp. 233-48. Hyderabad, India: Osmania University Press. 1965 The origin of three garnet isograds in Adirondack gneisses. Min- eral. Mag., 34 (Tilley Volume):71-81. 1966 The occurrence of garnet in the granulite-facies terrane of the Adirondack Highlands A discussion. {. Petrol., 7:331-35. The Precambrian magnetite deposits of New York and New Jersey. Econ. Geol., 61:484-510.

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24 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1969 With M. L. Jensen and R. C. Manger. Sulfur isotopes and origin of northwest Adirondack sulfide deposits. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. no. 115 (Poldervaart Volume), pp. 423-51. Some problems in estimation of physical conditions for develop- ment of Adirondack rocks. N.Y. State Ed. Dept. Geogram, 7:7- 16. 1970 Adirondack anorthositic series. In: The Origin of Anorthosite and Re- lated Rocks, ed. Y. W. Isachsen. N.Y. State Mus. Sci. Serv. Mem. no. 18, pp. 215 - 31. With R. B. Hargraves. Analogy between anorthositic series on the earth and moon. Icarus, 13:371-82. With D. R. Baker. Geology of the Franklin and part of the Ham- burg quadrangles, N.~. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. no. 638. 1972 Differentiation trends and parental magmas for anorthositic and quartz mangerite series, Adirondacks, New York. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. no. 132, pp. 477-88. 1973 Memorial to Harry Hammond Hess. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 1:18- 26. 1975 Anorthosite bearing complexes: Classification and parental mag- mas. In: Studies in Precambrians, ed. C. Naganna, pp. 115-41. Bangalore, India: Ban~alore University Press.

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