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J. GEORGE HARRAR December2, 1906April 18, 1982 BY JOHN ]. McKELVEY, JR. T GEORGE HARRAR lect from strengthfrom many J strengths. He loved a battle; he expected to win, and few indeed were the battles that he lost. Intuitively and with un- canny accuracy, he assessed his odcis for success in whatever endeavor he contemplatecT. Quick in minct, he reached de- cisions easilya quality most evident in the formative years of his career. He never lost this quality, but sometimes it was masked later in his life by the subtleties of many situations he had to face. Born on December 2, 1906, in Painesville, Ohio, George shared with his brother Ellwooc! Scott, Jr., two years older, and his sister Marjorie, three years younger than he, the pa- rental guidance typical of an Ohio family at that time. Reg- ular attendance at church school was a must. There, as in his high school, the younger chilctren in the group would cluster around him. E. S. Harrar, Sr., George's father, had earner! his degree in electrical engineering from Lehigh University. When the family lived in Painesville, he worker! to establish ore docks in nearby Ashtabula. When George was three years oIcl, the family movect to Ashtabula; six years later, Youngs- town became their permanent home. In Youngstown Mr. Harrar was instrumental in the electrification of steel mills for the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company. George's 27

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28 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS mother, Lucetta Sterner, taught school briefly but gave up teaching after her marriage to devote herself exclusively to her family. George's father was a Boy Scout leader and stimulated his sons' interest in nature. Both relished the merit badge chal- lenges of the program and went beyond Eagle Scout rank. As a Boy Scout, George became the troop bugler. His interest in the bugle led him to cornet lessons, and soon he was play- ing in the school band. He loved good music; he could iden- tify almost any composition and its composer after hearing only a few measures. The Scout sports program also ap- pealed to George. Through its activities he became a fine swimmer and diver. A nearby tennis court sparked his inter- est, and he spent many hours practicing there. He also man- aged the basketball team in high school. From riflery and target practice he developed a penchant for hunting. During the summer months, George turned his interest in sports to good advantage, earning his spending money as a golfer's caddie and trying golf himself with his own homemade golf club. George also read from the best of the literature in the . family library, but at an early age his reading interests turned to biology and the sciences. The two brothers chose Oberlin for college, George en- rolling at age sixteen in 1923, a year after his brother. Scott, as a sophomore, suffered a serious automobile accident that took him out of Oberlin; but he went on to study forestry at Syracuse University and ultimately to serve as dean of the College of Forestry at Duke University. George stayed at Oberlin; he could have graduated in 1927 after the custom- ary four-year period but remained for a fifth year to take additional courses and to captain the track team. Throughout his life, George was "George" to almost everyone, but he was "Dutch" to the few who knew of his prowess on the Oberlin track team. At college he earned the

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]. GEORGE HARRAR 29 sobriquet "The Flying Dutchman" (shortened to Dutch) for the records he set in 1928 in the 440-yard dash and as an- chorman on the record-setting mile relay team. One of his classmates wrote recently, "l remember 'Dutch' Harrar very well and always enjoyed attending track meets when he ran. He seemed to give every ounce of energy to it and ~ always feared whether his endurance could hold out" an assess- ment of performance that was characteristic of George's en- tlre career. Oberlin taught George academic rigor; it blessed him also with the love and friendship of two persons who were to influence his entire life Georgetta (Georgie) Steese, then a student in the Conservatory of Music, and Frederick Grover, emeritus head of the botany department. Georgie became his wife, whose love and support he thoroughly appreciated. Grover, a classical botanist and an impressive teacher, rec- ognizec} George's intellectual talents and cultivated his inter- est in botany. An intense mutual admiration developed be- tween the two. The twinkle in Grover's eye when he later spoke of George told of the human as well as of the intellec- tual traits he knew George possessed and that he, Grover, understood. (Perhaps from his Oberlin classmates or from his colleagues at the Youngstown steel mills where he earned money sharpening tools during the summer monthshe further acquired a colorful vocabulary and the art of telling stories risque onesthat might deceive those who were unaware of his high moral standards.) Following graduation from Oberlin, George had hoped to enroll in medical school, but the Depression precluded such a long and expensive period of education. Instead he won a teaching fellowship in plant pathology at {owe State University where he studied under the direction of I. E. Mel- hus, the head of the department, and John Aikman, a plant ecologist. Within nine months he completed the require-

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30 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS meets for the master's degree and was on his way to the Uni- versity of Puerto Rico as professor of biology in the College of Agriculture; shortly thereafter, Georgie, his bride, joined him. His subsequent four years in Puerto Rico gave him a love of the I,atin temperament and facility with the Spanish language. George left Puerto Rico in 1934 to accept a Firestone fel- lowship and to become an instructor in plant pathology at the University of Minnesota. He went there because he wanted to work toward his Ph.D. degree with E. C. Stakman (Stak), the eminent wheat pathologist and a man with inter- national interests who would later receive world recognition as the elder statesman in his discipline. As in the case of Fred- erick Grover, George and Stak became fast friends; once again a relationship of mutual admiration and loyalty devel- opedeach would pick on the other's weaknesses but pas- sionately defend the other from outside attack. Like George, Stak had a powerful and intensely compet- itive intellect. One day when Stak and ~ were sitting in the lobby of a hose] in New Delhi, India, amidst the haze of blue smoke from his pipe, he blurted out, "John, have you ever had an argument with George?" T answered, "No, not a real argument. After all, first as one of his graduate students and now in his employ, ~ have never been in a position to have an argument with George." After a long silence, Stak offered, "Well, an argument with George is not an argumentit's a battle." And Stak halfway around the globe from George who was then in New Yorkmust have been nursing some wounds from an "argument" he had lost and mulling over what he should- have said and did not. v George went from the University of Minnesota to Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPl) in Blacksburg in 1935 to teach plant pathology. ~ first met George in 1939 at the Interna- tional Microbiology Congress in New York. A melange of

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J. GEORGE HARRAR 31 impressions struck me then: his youthfulness; his slight build and small features; his thinning hair, fine, slightly recictish, and wavy; his conservative ciark-blue suit; and eyes, as blue and sharp as ~ tract ever encountered, that ctivinec! instantly what one might be thinking. Seater! in the back of George's classroom at VPI, one had difficulty in following his lectures because he spoke in such a steady, low voice. Yet discipline never got out of hanct in his classes an amazing fact given the nonacademic interests of most of the VPI cadet corps "Highly Tighties," as they called themselves in the 1930s. George said to me one clay, "If trouble is brewing in my class, ~ just Took for the biggest and roughest in the bunch and take him on; then the others behave." No smart aleck lasted long in George's graduate studies program, either. He demanded loyalty and work to the best of one's ability. Whether or not an inclividual was an A student clid not matter as long as one strove to clo one's best. Anct George cared deeply about his graduate students. He insisted that they participate at national scientific meet- ings, where he made certain to introduce them to his col- leagues. He sought job opportunities for them diligently, even if an available job would! carry a student into a different but related discipline. George, Georgie, anc! their two children Cynthia Ann and Georgetta Louise, born in Roanoke loved Blacksburg. Although for George the academic pace set by the easygoing heact of the Department of Biology I. D. Wilson was too slow, the surroundings nevertheless offerect a spectacular succes- sion of black locust, reel buct, clogwood, azalea, and rhoclo- clendron in blossom. In the fall, the hunting for quail and grouse was goocl. As a volunteer, George coached the VPI track team. The Harrars built a home in Blacksburg, but by 1941 the challenges clearly lay elsewhere. So after six years at VPI,

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32 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS George accepted! the positions of professor and head of the Department of Plant Pathology anct head of the Division of Plant Pathology of the Agricultural Experiment Station at Washington State College. (This prestigious set of posts had previously been helct by F. D. Healct, whose text on plant pathology had become the Bible of plant pathologists.) Dur- ing these years, George and his brother Scott at Durham, North Carolina, worked intensively on their book, Guide to Southern Trees. The Harrars stayer! less than two years at Washington State College because George accepted] an offer to become the local director of the Mexican Agricultural Program, which the Rockefeller Foundation had clecicled to initiate in 1943. This program had originated in discussions among the U.S. Vice-Presiclent Elect Henry Wallace, certain Mexican of- ficials, ant! the Foundation's president (then Raymond B. Fosdick). The talks explorecl how the Rockefeller Foundation might be able to help bring Mexico out of its slump in agri- cultural production to the point where it couict produce the basic foods it needed corn, beans, and wheat. The Foun- ciation callect on three eminent agriculturists E. C. Stak- man, who was the project's Pearler; P. C. Mangelsdorf, pro- fessor of botany at Harvard University; and Richard Bradfielcl, head of the Department of Agronomy at Cornell University to advise on the feasibility of the Foundation's entering into an agreement with the Mexican government to builct a program of research dealing with the basic fooct crops. Strange that the Foundation should have chosen George to heacI a practical program in agriculture. He was city bred; he had no farm experience; he had graduatecl from a liberal arts college; and in his research in graduate school and his subsequent assignments at the University of Puerto Rico and VPI, he had focuses! and publishectmainly on mycologi-

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]. GEORGE HARRAR 33 cal problems associated with plant disease agents rather than on pragmatic problems of producing basic food crops. The choice was not so strange, however, when one considers three things: George's total clectication to a task at hand; his grow- ing awareness through his lanct-grant college assignments of the vital importance of a healthy agriculture to the welfare of a country; and his reputation as a proven scientist. Free to builct a program in Mexico, George sharpened his talents in administration and diplomacy. He exercised his in- spirational leadership abilities, his deftness in the choice of colleagues, and his ability to maintain a coo! exterior while burning inside. Innate patience never figured among George's strengths, but he click have a miraculous contro!- in public of a fiery temperament. He hated to be kept "on hold" outside the offices of Mexican officials, but he would wait and burn. While he burned, he wouIcl exercise his charm, wit, and diplomacy on the junior functionaries who ofttimes held the keys to the inner sancta, whether of the secretary, subsecretary, or other agricultural official. George often got past those Coors when others couIct not. In selecting the scientists anc! other staff for the Mexican Agricultural Program, George exhibited one of his strongest suits: the ability to choose the right person for the right job. Most of those he selected spent their entire careers in one or another of the Founciation's programs. One of his earliest choices, Norman E. BorIaug, later received the Nobel Peace Prize for his contributions not only in Mexico but worIcl- wicleto the alleviation of hunger through the production of varieties of high-yielcling wheat resistant to disease. No one, however, can achieve a perfect score in the choice of inclivicluals for specific assignments. Once in a while a staff member had to go. In such cases George wouIct fee} a re- sponsibility toward that individuaT's career, and he would in- variably work out an easy transition for the person leaving

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34 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the Foundation. The Mexican civil service system, from which it was almost impossible to fire an indiviclual, may have reinforced this compassionate feeling. In that system an in- ctividual who was unsatisfactory in his post likewise would eventually fins] himself transferred! to another. George set the life-style, the ethic, of the Mexican Agri- cultural Program; to wit, "work harcI, play hard, but above all, work hard." Even socializing at frequent house parties (discotheques in a sense) and at bowling parties took on value greater than merely releasing tensions engendered cluring the work of a highly competitive group of colleagues. It was a mechanism for achieving interdisciplinary cooperation and for bringing wives into a full knowleclge of and participation . . . . In program activities. Although George hac! found his metier in Mexico, toward the close of his nearly ten years there he had obviously out- grown the program. By 1952 the Mexican Agricultural Pro- gram tract proliferatect. A similar effort was under way in Colombia, anct arrangements hacl been macle to create an additional program in Chile. Brazil, Ecuador, ancT Peru, among other countries, were clamoring for assistance for their agricultural, educational, and research institutions; anc} a program in India was uncler consideration. Warren Weaver, director of the Foundation's Natural Sciences Division, de- cidec! he neecled George at headquarters in New York. Reluctantly, George went to New York; but his heart never left Mexico. The move to New York meant that those occa- sional sorties at dawn, slogging through the marshes of To- luca Valley to hunt clucks, would have to go. So would the lilt of the mariachi music from the itinerant bands of Mexico City. Something else wouIcl have to replace the satisfaction of outfoxing the foxes who might-try to torpedo parts of his program, the occasional lesser officials who cticl not always appreciate George's motives and those of his colleagues. The

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]. GEORGE HARRAR 35 lightheartedness, the companerismo, among staff families wouIc! have to give way to a New York sedateness and for- mality. Nevertheless, in New York his drive to inform staff wives ant! to involve them in Foundation affairs lingered. It cropped up in the occasional get-togethers at George's house in Scarsdale ant] in the banquets at the Tower Suite of the Time anct Life Builcling in New York. In New York as deputy director for agriculture, George sometimes chafed under Warren Weaver's clirection. Weaver's program on molecular biology was well establishecT, ancT the two programs were in a sense competitive for the same functs. Moreover, Weaver, of diminutive physique, was another in- tellectual giant, a mathematician with sparkling clarity in his thinking and writing. He was charming, but he, too, could inclulge in intellectual skirmishes with punitive results to his adversary. It tickler! George that E. C. Stakman coup exas- perate Weaver, who would lay a neat trap in an argument only to finct that Stak was "batting on another wicket" by the time Weaver thought he tract him in his clutches. "Ouchy" about pain himself, George admired Weaver for his inure- ment to it. For example, Weaver in shorts wouIcl tramp through the brambles of his seven acres on Second Hill in New Milforct, Connecticut, unmindful of the blooct trickling down his legs from his brush with the thorns of those bushes. Weaver hac! become the most powerful of the clirectors of his time within the Founclation. He accepted the groundswell of trustee and public concern about agricultural research and development, even though it promised to engulf his cher- ished program in molecular biology. Shrewdly he developecT companion interests that he labelect "nonconventional agri- culture," which was somewhat competitive with George's practical program. Unpiler this rubric, Weaver couIcl support research on solar energy for agricultural uses; on Chlorella, an alga, for producing proteinaceous food under laboratory

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36 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS conditions; on discarded pea pods and vines ground and compressed into pellets that when liberally doused with curry were supposed to be palatable; and on Torula yeasts for con- verting sawdust and similar cellulose waste products into highly proteinaceous foods for human consumption. During his years as Weaver's deputy director for agricul- ture (1952-55), and subsequently as director of agriculture (1955-59) in his own right, George brought to realization his concept of international institutions devoted to practical re- search for the improvement of basic food crops. The first of these, the International Rice Research Institute (TRRI) in the Philippines, had its origin partly in the successes of the Mex- ican Program on wheat improvement. It also came partly from the idea that an international effort might offer free- dom from the constraints of operating at national levels through the bureaucracies of foreign countries; but mainly TRRI arose out of the need to improve rice production in Asia. Harrar, whose vision always sought the financial hori- zon beyond existing monetary barriers, knew that the Rocke- feller Foundation could not by itself finance the first of the international agricultural research centers- let alone those to follow. Since Vice-President F. F. Hill of the Ford Foun- dation shared George's belief that something should be done about rice jointly, with USAID and other donor agencies par- ticipating later, they could and ctid establish IRRI. Once a professional, always a professional. While involved with the administration and execution of the Foundation's agricultural program, George collaborated with Stak to pro- duce their text, Principles of Plant Pathology. George and Warren Weaver never developed a "Frederick Grover" relationship, although Warren became one of George's most ardent mentors. When in 1955 Weaver became vice-president for medical, natural, and agricultural sciences under President Dean Rusk's administration of the Founda-

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J. GEORGE HARRAR 47 1973 "Rafael Uribe Uribe" Order of Merit in Agriculture, Re- public of Colombia 1974 Wilbur O. Atwater Medal 1974 Americas Award 1975 Underwood-Prescott Memorial Award, Massachusetts Insti- tute of Technology 1980 Harrar Hall (training and dormitory complex of the Inter- national Rice Research Institute) named in honor of Dr. I. George Harrar 1980 Order of the Aztec Eagle, Government of Mexico, Mexican Embassy, Washington, D.C.

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48 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS BIBLIOGRAPHY 1930 With M. M. Evans. Germination of the oospores of Sclerospora gra- minicola (Sacc.) Schroet. Phytopathology, 20. 1935 Boxwood diseases in Virginia. In: The Virginia Fruit, colt 23. 1936 Powdery mildews in Virginia. Plant Dis. Rep., 20. Cercospora leaf spot of Calendula in Virginia. Plant Dis. Rep., 20. Hyphal structures of Fomes lignosus Klotzsch. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:40. With I. M. Grayson. Boxwood blight in Virginia. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:36-37. With R. S. Mullin. Cercospora leaf spot of Calendula spp. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:40-41. With S. A. Wingard. Boxwood diseases in Virginia. Plant Dis. Rep., 20. 1937 Some unusual diseases of ornamentals in Virginia. Plant Dis. Rep., 21. Cladosporium leaf and stem disease of snapdragons. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:52. Infection of Buxus sempervirens by Verticillium sp. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:42-43. Cercospora leaf spot of Calendula. (Abstract.) Phytopathology, 27. Factors affecting the pathogenicity of Fomes lignosus Klotzsch. Minn. Tech. Bull., 123. With S. A. Wingard. Diseases of Virginia ornamental trees. Plant Dis. Rep., 21. 1938 Blue rot of boxwood. (Abstract.) Phytopathology, 28. With I. B. Clark. Inhibition of the growth of Mycobacterium tuber- culosis hominis on protein media by sulfur and its compounds. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:83.

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]. GEORGE HARRAR 49 With L. I. Miller. Studies in the morphology and physiology of a species of EntomopAthora on Typhlocyba pomaria. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:41. With L. I. Miller. Phoma (phyllosticta) artirrhini in Virginia. (Ab- stract.) Phytopathology, 28. With L. I. Miller. A Phoma leaf spot and stem canker of Artirrhinum spp. (Abstract.) Phytopathology, 28. 1939 With S. A. Wingard and L. I. Miller. Cultural studies on a species of Entomophthora from the apple leaf hopper (Typhlocyba po- maria). (Abstract.) Phytopathology, 29. 1945 With E. C. Stakman. Plant pathology in Mexico. In: Plants and Plant Science in Latin America. Waltham, Mass.: Chronica Botanical 1946 With E. S. Harrar. Guide to Southern Trees. New York: McGraw-Hill. 709 pp. (Reissued, New York: Dover Publications, 1962.) 1947 With N. E. Borlaug. Stem rust of wheat in Mexico. Paper presented at the 39th annual meeting of the American Phytopathology Society, Chicago, Illinois, December 30. Phytopathology, 27~1~: 12. 1949 With N. E. Borlaug and I. A. Rupert. Nuevos Trigos para Mexico. Folleto de Divulgacion no. 5. Mexico: Oficina de Estudios Es- peciales, Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia. 1950 With E. C. Stakman, W. Z. Loegering, and N. E. Borlaug. Razas Fisiologicas de Puccinia Graminis Tritici en Mexico. Folleto Tecnico no. 3. Mexico: Oficina de Estudios Especiales, Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia.

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50 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Mexican Agricultural Program. New York: The Rockefeller Founda- tion. 35 pp. 1953 Science and Human Needs. Nellie Heldt lecture presented at Oberlin. Ohio, April 30. Oberlin College. 19 pp. Meeting human needs through agriculture. In: Transactions of the Eighteenth North American Wildlife Conference, March 9-11, pp. 46-50. Washington, D.C.: Wildlife Management Institute. 1954 A pattern for international collaboration in agriculture. Adv. Agron., 6:95 -119. Book review of Indian Corn in Old America by Paul Weatherwax. New York Times Book Review, August 1, p. 12. International collaboration in food production. In: Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the Agricultural Research Institute, pp. 21-27. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council. Book review of New Life in Old Lands by Kathleen McLaughlin. New York Times Book Review, November 21, p. 4. Food for the future. A speech at the symposium, "Natural Re- sources: Power, Metals, Food," which comprised the first part of the AAAS symposium, "Science and Society," Berkeley, Cali- fornia, December 27. 1955 Food for the future. Science, 122~31641:313-16. Fertilizer, pesticide use in Mexico. Agric. Chem., 10~2~:26-28; 137-38. Technical aid and agricultural chemistry. I. Agric. Food Chem. 3:395-98. 1956 Practical suggestions to carry out a well-considered program. In: University Projects Abroad, pp. 23-31. Washington, D.C.: Amer- ican Council on Education. Alimentos pare el future. Turrialba, 6~1-2)( June):6-12. Food and agriculture and man's health. (Speech at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Alumni Day, June 11.) Technol. Rev., 58:479-80; 508-14.

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]. GEORGE HARRAR 1957 51 With E. C. Stakman. Principles of Plant Pathology. New York: The Ronald Press. 581 pp. (Also in Russian, Spanish, and Polish translations.) 1958 Food, science, and people. (A speech at a meeting of the New York Academy of Sciences, December 9, 1957.) Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 20:263-77. New scientific developments in the area of food. (A speech at Sarah Lawrence College, August.) In: The American Economy: An Ap- praisal of its Social Goals and the Impact of Science and Technology, pp. 132-38. New York: Joint Council on Economic Education. (Also in: Paper no. 107 of the Agricultural Journal Series Pa- pers of The Rockefeller Foundation.) 1959 Agricultural horizons. (A speech at the 51st annual meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Purdue University, August 5, 1 958.) Agronomy, 51 :1 87-90. An international approach to the study and control of plant dis- ease. (An address at the American Phytopathological Society, Golden Jubilee Meeting, Bloomington, Indiana, August 24-28, 1958.N In: Plant Pathology, Problems and Progress. 1908-1958. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 1960 ~ , Cooperation in the training of scientists and engineers. In: Science in the Americas: Cooperation of the Scientists and Engineers of the Americas in Furthering Scientific Training and Research, pp. 13 - 16. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council. Will there be enough? The Club Dial (magazine of the Woman's Club of White Plains, New York). Portions of articles on plant disease control and bananas. In: McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. New York: McGraw-Hill. Food in national and international welfare. (Reprinted from N.Y. State Agric. Exp. Stn. Geneva Bull., no. 790:44-49, as part of the dedication program for the station's new food research building, May 5.

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52 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1961 Unhappy paradox. (Editorial.) Science, 1 33 (March 10) :67 1. The influence of current social and economic trends on interna- tional health. In: Industry and Tropical Health, vol. 4, pp. 79-83. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard School of Public Health. Socio-economic factors that limit needed food production and con- sumption. (An address to the 5th International Congress on Nutrition, Symposium on World Needs and Food Resources, Washington, D.C., September 6, 1960.) Fed. Proc., 20 (Suppl. 7, no. 1, part III):381-83. Technologic revolution in agriculture; Contributions of science. (An address to a symposium of the Food Protection Committee, Washington, D.C., December 8, 1960.) In: Science and Food; To- day and Tomorrow, pp. 5 - 8. Washington, D.C.: NAS-NRC Publ. 877. Principles and problems of increasing food crops and animals in low production areas. (An address to the Conference on Nutri- tion, arranged by New York Academy of Medicine, Arden House, Harriman, New York, December 15, 1958.) In: Human Nutrition, Historic and Scientific, pp. 171 - 77. New York: Inter- national Universities Press. 1962 Making the most of human resources. (An address to the 90th annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Mi- ami Beach, October 15.) Am. I. Public Health, 53(March):375- 81. Bread and Peace. (An address to the spring meeting of the Nutrition Foundation, March 6.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 16 pp. (Also in: C & E News, April 29, pp. 126-31.) New Ventures for Private Philanthropy. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 9 pp. (Reprinted from New York Times Magazine, June 9, p. 29.) Nutrition and numbers. In: Sixth International Congress of Nutrition, Edinburgh, August 9, pp. 1-6. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 1963 Aid abroad: Some principles and their Latin American practice. Foundation News, September, pp. 1 - 3.

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]. GEORGE HARRAR 53 Selected papers of J. G. Harrar. In: Strategy for the Conquest of Hun- ger. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. (Revised edition, 1967.) 1964 Moving frontiers of applied microbiology. (An address to the con- ference, Global Aspects of Applied Microbiology, Stockholm, Sweden, August 1963.) In: Global Impacts of Applied Microbiology, ed. Mortimer P. Starr, pp. 19-27. New York: John Wiley & Sons. A Commencement Perspective. (Commencement address at the Uni- versity of Florida, Gainesville, April 19.) New York: The Rocke- feller Foundation. 11 pp. Foundations and the Public Interest. (Adapted from an address given at the Cosmos Club, Washington, D.C., November 16.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 11 pp. New nations and new universities. (Paper presented at the general session of the 78th annual convention of the Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, November 8-11.) In: Proceedings of the Association of State Universities and Land- Grant Colleges, pp. 9-13. 1965 The Race Between Procreation and Food Production. (Paper presented at the spring meeting of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 29 pp. 1966 Statement of I. George Harrar. Hearings: War on Hunger, House Committee on Agriculture, February 16, 1966. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 13 pp. Foundations for the Future. (An address to the 17th annual confer- ence of the Council on Foundations, Inc., Denver, Colorado, May 1 1.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 18 pp. The Quality of the Future. (Commencement address at Emory Uni- versity, Atlanta, Georgia, tune 13.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 8 pp. Agricultural Development in Latin America. (Statement of J. George Harrar before the Subcommittee on International Finance of the House Committee on Banking and Currency, August 29.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 15 pp.

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54 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Principles for Progress in World Agriculture. (An address to the 33rd annual meeting of the National Agricultural Chemicals Asso- ciation, White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, September 8.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 16 pp. 1967 Survival or Fulfillment. (An address to the California Institute of Technology Conference on The Next Ninety Years, March 7.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 15 pp. Education and responsibility. (Commencement address at Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, May 61. Clemson, S.C.: Clemson University. 1968 ~ - cr~ses in human ecology. (Banquet address to the annual meeting of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., April 23.) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 61:357-62. (Also: New York: The Rockefeller Foundation; World Agric., 18~0ctober]: 3-5.) Increasing Food Supplies Through Adaptive Research. (Principal ad- dress, 25th Anniversary Celebration of Texas Research Foun- dation at Renner, Texas, May 22.) Texas Research Foundation, Special Series, no. 5. United States public policy with regard to world food problems. In: The Potential Impact of Science and Technology on Future U.S. Foreign Policy (papers presented at a Joint Meeting of the Policy Planning Council, Department of State, and a Special Panel of the Committee on Science and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., June 16-17~. 1969 With Sterling Wortman. Expanding food production in hungry nations: The promise, the problems. (Paper presented at a meeting of the American Assembly, Columbia University, Oc- tober 31, 1968.) In: Overcoming World Hunger, ed. Clifford M. Hardin. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. (Also in French as Vaincre la Faim, Paris: Editions France-Empire, 1970, pp. 89-135.) Plant Pathology and World Food Problems. (Discourse given before the First International Congress of Plant Pathology, London, July 16, 1968.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 21 pp.

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]. GEORGE HARRAR 55 Statement on foundations and tax exemption before the House Committee on Ways and Means, Washington, D.C., February 19. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. Supplementary statement on foundations and tax exemption be- fore the House Committee on Ways and Means, Washington, D.C., July 9. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. Statement of I. George Harrar on effects of population growth on natural resources and the environment at hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, 91st Congress, 1st session, Septem- ber 16. (Published in complete hearings by the U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969, #35-506, pp. 52-56.) The challenge of hunger. (Banquet address to the annual meeting of the American Chamber of Commerce of Mexico, Mexico City, August 21.) Mex. Am. Rev., October:31-35. 1970 The Green Revolution as an historical phenomenon. In: Symposium on Science and Foreign Policy: the Green Revolution, pp. 16-23. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. The global food supply. (A talk given at the Symposium on Aids and Threats to Society from Technology, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., April 29.) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 67~0ctober):900 - 907. Ecological crisis demands new ethic of responsibility. Catal. Envi- ron.Qual.,1:22 - 24. Education and human ecology. Western Bulletin (Western College for Women, Oxford, Ohio), Summer: 1-4. 1971 Human behavior and the environment. (Commencement address at Utah State University, June 5.) 17 pp. 1972 Raymond Blaine Fosdick. Yearb. Am. Philos. Soc.: 157-65. 1973 Toward the conquest of hunger and malnutrition: The Rockefeller Foundation's worldwide efforts to increase food supplies and

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56 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS improve nutrition. U.S. Information ServiceVoice of America series on nutrition, May 8. Impressions of China (based on a visit to the People's Republic of China on a scientific and scholarly exchange mission under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences, the Social Sci- ence Research Council, and the Council of Learned Societies, May 11-June 17~. 1975 Nutrition and Numbers in the Third World: The 1974 ~ O. Atwater Memorial Lecture. Washington, D.C.: Agricultural Research Ser- vice. 18 pp. Agricultural Initiative in the Third World: A Report on the Conference "Science and Agribusiness in the Seventies." Lexington, Mass.: Lex- ington Books for The Agribusiness Council. 1979 E. C. Stakman Memoir. Yearb. Am. Philos. Soc.: 107-12. Warren Weaver Memoir. Yearb. Am. Philos. Soc.: 1 13-17.

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