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JOHN DOVE ISAACS III March 2S, Z 913-June 6, ~ 980 BY WILLARD BASCOM T O H N D O V E ~ S A A C S ~ ~ ~ was born in Spokane, Washing- ~Jton, anct he was raised in Oregon where his maternal grandparents had locater! after crossing the plains by wagon train. His paternal grandfather, John D. Tsaacs, Sr., was chief consulting engineer for the Southern Pacific and Union Pa- cific systems, which was of particular import to John who vastly enjoyed travels with his grandfather in his private rail- roac! car. A bronze plaque at Stanford University credits the senior Isaacs with conceiving ancT developing the principle of making motion pictures; the first photographic experiments were carried out with Edward Muybriclge at Leland Stan- ford's farm in Palo Alto, California. Johns father, also a rail- roac! engineer, client in a hunting accident when John was six. During his chilclhooct, John liver! on the 20,000-acre Hay Creek Ranch in central Oregon with his mother, his sister Emily, and his favorite aunt ant] uncle. Later he movecT to his pioneer grandparents' first ranch home near PendIeton, Or- egon. Ranch life gave him a solid background in practical ecology as well as an opportunity for his strong naturalist instincts to clevelop. Early in life John showoct intense scientific curiosity and a capacity for invention. As a PencIleton High School student in the early 1930s, he proposed to his physics teacher a way 89

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go BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of detecting ctistant objects by means of reflected ractio waves. (Unfortunately, the fellow clict not grasp the possibilities anct thereby lost an opportunity to become a coinventor of radar.) To his chemistry teacher, he had to confess that his chemistry lab was the scene of the procluction of the hydrogen-plus- acetylene balloons that had recently been exploding over PendIeton and that had even ripped the shingles off the min- ister's roof. Young John enjoyed reading encyclopedias, and he had an excellent memory. As an aclult he would sometimes launch into detailed dissertations on esoteric subjects such as the complex life cycles of oriental parasites that he had read twenty to thirty years earlier. In 1933 he joiner! the new Civilian Conservation Corps. He became a camp office manager and because there was a good supply of logging and construction accidents as well as stabbings anct shootings- an accident investigator. Two years later John became camp manager at Cape Perpetua, Oregon, a Resettlement Administration facility. (The Reset- tlement Administration was a New Deal agency that resettled low-income local families on more productive lands.) By the following year he had saved enough money to return to col- lege at Oregon State, where one of the attractions was Mary Carol Zander. When school was out, John got a job as a forestry service lookout on Mt. Hebo in the Siuslaw National Forest. When it wasn't raining, this meant twenty-four hours a day atop a high tower accompanied only by Sampson, his trusty cat. During the period Tsaacs spent in Oregon's coastal forest, he Earned not only the names of all the trees and the under- growth plants but also the intricate relationship among them ant! how it changed with logging and fires. In later life when he would drive along the highway, he would amuse himself,

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JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 91 and sometimes his companions, by intoning the Latin names of each species of passing tree. One of the monuments he leaves behinct is the stand of one thousand trees he planted on his estate in Rancho Santa Fe, California. In 1938 he moved to Astoria, Oregon, just as a great run of albacore tuna appeared offshore. It was said that everyone in Oregon who tract a lettuce crate went after the albacore; John was no exception. He joiner! with a friend who owned a small boat just a little bigger than a lettuce crate. After long hours of work to make it reacly for fishing, John took the boat well out to sea for a test run. Coming back into the Columbia River entrance always a scary experience in a small boat events occurred] that almost proved fatal. The boat's engine coughed ancI stopped dead in the turbulent waters of the bar. After frantic work, John realizect there was no chance of getting it running again and that the boat would soon crash on the jetty. He stripper! off his shoes anct pants, put on a life jacket, anct committed himself to the river. He vaguely remembered seeing one large wave fling the boat on the unforgiving rocks anc! watching splinters drift away. After half an hour in the icy waters he was picked up by a passing tug. The crew put him in a cold shower to warm him up; he remembered it as scalding in relation to the river. It was thought at the time that one couIc! not survive in those rough frigid waters more than 10 minutes, but he knew by his watch otherwise. His body was black and blue, totally bruised from head to foot, anc} he was harcIly able to walk for some time after the orcleal. The next clay John ancT Mary Carol walkecI out on the jetty. She found the only surviving relics of the wreck: his trousers with his wallet in the pocket, and in it his social se- curity caret. He carried the caret for the rest of his life as a reminder of his good luck that near-tragic day. Later in that

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92 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS year the two were married. The young pair occupied the captain's cabin and officer's quarters aboard the sailing ship William Taylor, which was moored in Young's Bay near Astoria. As a young commercial fisherman working out of the Co- lumbia River, Isaacs was outraged one day by a passing tourist who said something to the effect that "these fishermen don't know much about what they're doing." Johnwith a 6-foot 3-inch frame and one of the highest recorded I.Q.'s in the state of Oregon rather firmly suggested that this unwary soul sit down and observe while he dissected a salmon and explained in detail the function of each organ and tissue. John Isaacs was a fisherman throughout his life, and he appeared to enjoy cold, wet, miserable weather as long as he could fish. He felt he could think better with a fishing pole in hand. Some of his best thoughts about who eats whom in the sea, under what conditions, and how the sea's biological energy is distributed were developed over fifty years of ran- dom observations. These were set down finally in a landmark piece in Scientific American entitled "The Nature of Oceanic Life" illustrated, of course, with photos of deep sea crea- tures taken by his monster camera. But that was much later. As a commercial fisherman with a boat that was consid- ered large for the pre-World War IT period, John and oc- casionally Mary Carol would fish out of the Columbia River, sometimes going north to Grays Harbor or the QuilIayute River, or south to TilIamook Bay. It was the perfect school for a future oceanographer and it left him with an ever-ready bag of stories, as well as a good sense of the lore of the sea. After two years of commercial fishing John and Mary Carol returned to school and spent the academic year of 1940-41 at Oregon State University. Afterward John took a job with a survey crew on the construction of Tongue Point Naval Air Station near Astoria, Oregon. As various construc- tion problems arose, John devised solutions that moved him

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JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 93 rapidly up the job ladder. For example, the ceiling beams in one of the buildings under construction flexed excessively because of poor design. To solve the problem, Isaacs derived the formula for computing bending stresses in beams and redesigned the offending structure "so the plaster below would stay on." When the chief engineer unexpectedly quit, he was offered the job. In 1943-44 Isaacs studied at the Uni- versity of California at Berkeley, receiving a B.S. in civil en- gineering, his only degree. While at Berkeley he came to know and appreciate Dean Morrough (Mike) O'Brien who greatly influenced his life. Thereafter he spent his life with the University of Cali- fornia, beginning as a research engineer on the WAVES Proj- ect at Berkeley, which is where ~ met him. {ohn's enthusiasm for the sea and his sense of humor attracted me to him at once. After listening to him for two hours on our first en- counter in 1945, ~ switched immediately from mining to oceanography. The following week we began surveying the beaches of northern California, Oregon, and Washington using amphibious trucks (DUKWS), seaplanes, radio-con- trolled cameras, and a small party of men who didn't mind daily dousings in cold seawater. In the late 1940s at Berkeley he invented such things as a wave direction indicator using a Rayleigh disc, several varieties of wave meters, a wave- propelled "sea-sled" to carry surveying rods through the surf zone, and a means of measuring and modeling stress in tor- pedo nets. Later he and T worked together measuring the effects of nuclear explosions in Eniwetok and Bikini. John Isaacs was present at four nuclear test series; he es- pecially distinguished himself during two of them. The first was Crossroads in 1946 for which {ohn's job was to measure waves from the blasts. For this purpose he arranged to have large aerial cameras (with a film size of 9 by ~ ~ inches) set up on two camera towers on Bikini Island. These cameras were

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94 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS to be started a little before the explosion, simultaneously tak- ing a picture every three seconds for several minutes. This wave-measuring technique had previously been tested on the northern California coast, but at Bikini the problem was a little different. Because the objective of that first test was to learn the ejects of an airburst anc! an underwater burst on a fleet of warships, it was necessary to know the exact distances be- tween the explosions and specific parts of each ship. The ships were to be anchored, and the original plan hacI been to run aerial photo sorties over the fleet a day or two before the shot. These were to have been assemblec} in a mosaic in order to determine the distances from ship to shot. As any seaman knows, however, ships at anchor move about in a "watch circle" whose radius is the anchor line, which is at least three times the depth of the water (some 200 feet in Bikini lagoon). it. . .. . it. ~ . . AS a result, matching successive lines ot pictures was impos- sible; between photo runs some ships had moved several hun- cirect feet. Weapons effects decrease as the cube root of the distance; thus such errors in position were unacceptable. At the uncomfortable moment when this funciamental flaw in the great test was discoverecI, Isaacs' proposal to use the wave-measuring cameras to triangulate ship positions was gratefully accepted. For months afterward he had a group of people using a traveling microscope mounted on a large steel micrometer stage measuring photos and precisely com- puting the position of ships in the test fleet. The wave mea- surements became almost inciclental. Using automatic cam- eras that fire every three seconds he had the fantastic luck to get a picture of the Baker shot's lightect bubble breaking the surface. During the Castle series at Bikini in 1954, John became very concerned about the possibility of the shots causing a tidal wave that wouIc} wash over some of the islets on which

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JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 95 people were intending to stay during the shot. Some of us thought there was little likelihoocT of that happening because John was jokingly known as a "calamatologist" (who often foresaw unlikely calamities). Nevertheless, he tract the ear of the acimiral, and at the last minute, just to be on the safe sicle, that worthy orderer! everyone except the firing team off the atoll. The first shot of the series (Bravo) went with about twice the expected yield. When it diet, it destroyed many camp builctings on the islancts and dumped heavy radioactivity on the atoll. The firing party was trapped in the bunker for a time, ant! no one went back ashore for several days. There was no substantial ticial wave, but ~ am convinced that if Isaacs' hunch tract not been followed, lives would have been lost both to the blast and the subsequent radioactivity. John Isaacs likect to think, ant! the more complex the sub- ject, the better he liked it. Some of his favorite topics were far from oceanography. They incluclect such diverse matters as black holes in space, the groun(lwaters of the upper Indus valley, growing foot] plants in saline water, and esoteric as- pects of mine warfare. He clip not think in mathematical terms, but in later fire he wrote equations for ideas that to him were self-eviclent. . John philosophizect about a great many diverse subjects ~nclucting economics ("The more money is expended for nothing, the more it approaches nothing as a value," and Whiteheact's universe where "the possibilities are not only in- finite but actually. He revitalizect Epimetheus, the hincI- thinker, rampant on a field of greenbacks, who proposed panaceas for vaguely clefined scientific problems. Ant! he worried about the communications disjuncture between those who possess scientific unclerstancting and those who are responsible for the direction of governmental action. John was a big man with quick reactions, but he was not

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96 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS especially athletically inctinecI. Insteact he playecI games like "slaphancts" in which two persons face each other and extend their hands, each parallel to the other's, but with the hancts below, palms up. The object is for the hands below to slap the back of the hancis above. No one came close to beating Isaacs at this. He was also expert at ping pony and clelightect in "teaching" it to graduate students who had an overly high opinion of their prowess. He lovect chess, including blind chess, Kriegspiel, and triple cylinclrical chess, but he often had a hard time fincting worthy opponents. Isaacs tract a marvelous sense of humor that began with outrageous puns and extencled upward to jokes that were so sophisticated that almost no one wouIct get the point. Having deliverecl some such witicism he would cautiously look arounc! the audience to see if anyone had caught on. On such occasions ~ would just perceptibly move my head from sicle to side to show that his remarks tract not gone completely unnoticed but as a matter of principle ~ never cracked a smile. Isaacs was in his glory when it became fashionable to devise a horrid form of joke known as a Tom Swifty. As with puns he was always trying to invent ones with double anct triple meanings. These were marvelously idiotic, and when we all laughed he would be encoura~er1 to attempt an even more outrageous version. John Isaacs moved from Berkeley to the Scripps Institu- tion of Oceanography in 1948. From this vantage point he conic! involve himself wholly in all aspects of sea studies. About that time he heard of the existence of huge fresh- water icebergs in the Antarctic, some ten miles long and a mile wicle. He promptly set about thinking of ways in which they could be used to increase California's water supply. Isaacs posited that they could be towed into the Peru current, which wouIct move them north to the equatorial currents, which wouIc! carry them westward] and into the Kuro Siwa,

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JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 97 which would move them eastward toward Vancouver and eventually south along the California coast. The ice wouIct take on a streamlinecl form as it moved, powered by a tem- perature-di~erence "engine"; and it would produce more water from rain than from ice melt. Eventually somehow- the berg would be parked behinct Catalina Islanct. The worst objection to this plan was that it would change the weather in southern California. In a year or so we founct that this idea hac! been invented several times before, but by then Isaacs had gone on to bigger schemes. Isaacs' curiosity about the animals that live in the depths lee! to the development (with Lewis Kidd) of the Isaacs-Kictd mic~water trawl. This net had a hyctrodynamic depressor across the bottom to hold it down while being towoc! at a depth of several hundrecI meters. He was also keen on mak- ing photos of the animals that live on the creep-sea bottom. In the late 1960s, in association with Richard SchwartzIose, Richard Shutts, anct others, he developed baited automatic cameras that were freely released in water as much as 7 km deep and recovered a clay later. In several places he photo- graphec3 a surprisingly large number of active invertebrates, fishes, and some gigantic sharks that changed man's thinking about the sparsity of life at such depths. The nets anct the cameras were extensions of his senses as he sought to fincI out: What's going on down there? In ~ 958 he became head of the Marine Life Research Pro- gram, which was concerned! with discovering whether man's overfishing or pollution hac] caused sarclines to disappear from California waters in the early 1950s. His unconven- tional approach was to examine (with Andrew Soutar) the yearly layers of unclisturbed sediment layers in the Santa Bar- bara Basin. These layers contained the scales of fish species going back for some 1,200 years. Counting the scales, year by year, showed that sardines tract for natural reasons-

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98 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS come anct gone many times before man arrived. This led to a new question: Why were sardines so plentiful when they were present? The answer is not yet known. In 1950 ~ invented the deep taut-moorect buoy and usect it for wave measurements at the nuclear shots. The buoy was helc! about 100 feet beneath the sea surface by a slencler steel wire some 6,000 feet long; the wire connected the buoy to a heavy anchor clump installed on a sea-mount, which fur- nishec! a steady platform for instruments in creep water. John always wanted to "go me one better," and in 1966 he devisecI the "sky hook." The sky hook was a taut-moored earth sat- ellite that was to be helct just beyond synchronous orbit by a wire. If it couic! be built it wouIc! permit large amounts of material to be moved into space without the use of rockets. Aside from the problem of actually constructing this device, however, the wire into space required a tensile strength far beyond any known material. Someday it may be possible; in the meantime the idea has been duly credited in Arthur CIarke's book, The Fountains of Paract~se. While thinking about how to deal with sea mines activated by a ship's pressure signal, Isaacs also devised a ship hull that trapper! its own waves. This was basically an ordinary hull, "sliced" clown the midctle, with the pieces transposed and separated by a closed bottom so that only straight sides were exposed. The propeller was between the hulls, and the ship carried a substantial breaking wave just inside the stern, the forward] part being a raceway. ~ pilotect a mocle! of it through a number of test runs without disturbing the surface of a glassy reservoir. Later, Isaacs anct Hugh Bradner proposed that the earth might be appreciably heated by neutrinos. John Isaacs also gave a good clear of thought to the matter of extracting power from the sea. In 1954 he studiect the CIaucle thermal differ- ence process and started to build a resonant wave pump for

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J fOHN DOVE ISAACS III 113 1961 Underwater inspection methods. In: Syllabus of On-Site Inspection of Unidentified Seismic Events, pp. 141-50. Stanford, Calif.: Stan- ford Research Institute. Capacity of the oceans. Int. Sci. Technol. (prototype):38-43. With G. B. Schick. Underwater remote programming. Undersea Technol., 2~6~:29-32. 1962 With L. M. K. Boelter, D. M. Bonner, L. A. Bromley, D. E. Carritt (chairman), B. F. Dodge, E. Epstein, H. P. Gregor, G. A. Jeffrey, J. J. Katz, K. A. Kraus, G. W. Murphy, and T. K. Sherwood. Desalination Research and the Water Problem. (Presented at Desal- ination Research Conference, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, June-July 1961.) NAS-NRC Publ. no. 941. 85 pp. Note on an association of cumulus clouds and turbid water. I. Geo- phys. Res., 67~5~:2076-77. Editor. Disposal of Lozo-Level Radioactive Waste into Pacific Coastal Waters. (A report of a working group of the Committee on Oceanography.) NA~NRC Publ. no. 985. 87 pp. Mechanism and extent of the early dispersion of radioactive prod- ucts in water. (Revision of 1955 report.) Operation Wigwam, MA 1955, Proj. 2.6-1. Defense Atomic Support Agency Report WT-1014. 1963 With I. L. Faughn, G. B. Schick, and M. C. Sargent. Deep-sea moorings: Design and use with unmanned instrument stations. Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., 8~3~:271-312. Deep-sea anchoring and mooring. In: The Sea, vol. 2, ed. M. N. Hill, pp. 516-27. New York: Interscience; John Wiley & Sons. The water dilemma. In: The Impact of Science, pp.41-49. (Proceed- ings of conference no.4 of the conference series, California and the Challenge of Growth, San Diego, University of California, Berkeley, June 1963.) With W. R. Schmitt. Resources from the sea. Int. Sci. Technol., ~une:39-45. Atmospheric jet streams. Science, 141~35851: 1045-46.

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4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS World Book Encyclopedia contributions (since 1958~: Aegean Sea, Sea of Azov, Bay of Biscay, Bosporus, Caspian Sea, River Derwent, English Channel, Fiord (Fjord), Inchcape Rock, Ionian Sea, Sea of Marmara, Strait of Messina, North Sea, Ruhr River, Scapa Flow, and White Sea. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1964 Discussion of "Considerations on the siting of outfalls for the sea disposal of radioactive effluent in tidal waters" by R. T. P. Whip- ple. In: Advances in Water Pollution Research, vol. 3, ed. E. A. Pearson, pp. 26-35. (Proceedings of the International Confer- ence, London, September 1962.) Oxford: Pergamon Press. California and the world ocean. In: Proceedings of the Governor's Con- ference, Colloquy, and Forum. Los Angelo T~n,,~rv .31_ F~hr'~nrv 1, pp. 97-106. Explosively created harbors. In: Engineering with Nuclear Explosives, pp. 335-54. (Proceedings of the Third Plowshare Symposium, University of California, Davis, April 1964.) U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information no. TID-7695. Washington, D.C. Night-caught and day-caught larvae of the California sardine. Sci- ence, 144~3622~: 1132-33. The planetary water problem. In: Proceedings of the First Interna- tional Conference of Women Engineers and Scientists, New York, June, pp. II-1 to II-13. With H. Bradner. Neutrino and geothermal fluxes. I. Geophys. Res., 69~181:3883-87. ~ o ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ^ ~ 1965 Possible oceanographic and related observations from satellites. In: Oceanography from Space, ed. G. C. Ewing, p.51. (Proceedings of Conference on the Feasibility of Conducting Oceanographic Explorations from Aircraft, Manned Orbital, and Lunar Lab- oratories, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, August 1964.) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Reference no. 65-10. With B. Polk. New techniques, new esthetic. Landscape, 14~31:3- 5. Larval sardine and anchovy interrelationships. Calif. Coop. Oce- anic Fish. Invest. Rep., 10: 102-40.

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JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 115 With R. A. Schwartzlose. Migrant sound scatterers: Interaction with the sea floor. Science, 150~37051:1810-13. With G. B. Schick, M. H. Sessions, and R. A. Schwartzlose. Devel- opment and testing of taut-nylon moored instrument stations (with details of design and construction). Scripps Institution of Oceanography, SIO Reference no. 65-5. An historical study of the eastern North Pacific. In: Final report, Junior College Workshop in Biology, pp. 23-29. California De- partment of Education. 1966 With A. C. Vine, H. Bradner, and G. E. Backus. Satellite elongation into a true "sky-hook." Science,151~37111:682-83. (Further dis- cussion in: Science, 152~3723]:800 and 158~3803l:946-47.) The sea and man. Portal (first edition), pp. 18-28. With I. L. Reid, fir., G. B. Schick, and R. A. Schwartzlose. Near- bottom currents measured in 4 kilometers depth off the Baja California coast. J. Geophys. Res., 71~18~:4297-303. With D. M. Brown. Isaacs-Brown opening, closing trawl. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, SIO Reference no. 66-18. 1967 Food from the sea. Int. Sci. Technol., April: 61-68. Large-scale anomalous sea surface conditions in the North Pacific. In: Proceedings of the Fourth U.S. Navy Symposium on Military Oceanography, Washington, D.C., May. With R. Radok and W. Munk. A note on mid-ocean internal tides. Deep-Sea Res., 14: 121-24. Remarks on some present and future buoy developments. In: Transactions of the Second International Buoy Technology Symposium, Washington, D.C., September, pp. 503-29. Marine Technology Society. The oceans and man. Ariz. Eng. Sci., December:4, 6. 1968 With G. B. Schick and M. H. Sessions. Autonomous instruments in oceanographic research. In: Marine Sciences Instrumentation, vol. 4. ed. F. Alt, pp. 203-30. (Proceedings of the Fourth Na-

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116 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS tional ISA Marine Sciences Instrumentation Symposium, Cocoa Beach, Florida, January.) New York: Plenum Press. With M. H. Sessions and R. A. Schwartzlose. A camera system for the observation of deep-sea marine life. In: Proceedings of the Underwater Photooptical Instrumentation Applications Seminar, San Diego, California, February. Society of Photooptical Instrumen- tation Engineers. With D. M. Brown. "Bootstrap" corer. I. Sediment. Petrol., 38~1~: 159-62. The North Pacific study. In: Proceedings of the Third Marine Systems and ASW Meeting, San Diego, California, April 29May 1. Am. Inst. Aeronaut. Astronaut., AIAA Paper no. 68-475. Oceans without megohms (a twenty-year baptism of electronics by seawatera report). In: Electronics Serving Mankind, pp. 1-5. (Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics En- gineers, Region Six Conference, Portland, Oregon, May.) New York: IEEE. General features of the ocean. In: Ocean Engineering, ed. I. F. Brahtz, pp. 157-201. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Science and technology: The driving force. In: Revolution, ed. M. D. Generates and {. D. Kitchen, pp. 218-35. (Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Institute on World Affairs, San Diego, California, August.) San Diego, Calif.: San Diego State College Press. Probing the birthplace of American weather. Naval Res. Rev., 2 1(1 1-12): 1-13. The sea and man. Explor. J., 46~41:260-65. With M. W. Evans and R. A. Schwartzlose. Data from deep-moored instrument stations. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, SIO Reference no. 68-17. 1969 With A. Soutar. History of fish populations inferred from fish scales in anaerobic sediments off California. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep., 13:63-70. With R. F. Devereux and F. D. Jennings. Long-distance telemetry of environmental data for the North Pacific study. In: Proceed- ings Oceanology International 69, First International Oceanology

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JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 117 Conference, Brighton, England, February. London: BPS Exhi- bitions Ltd. The North Pacific study. (Revision of 1968 AIAA paper.) J. Hy- dronaut., 3~2~:65-72. With M. W. Evans and R. A. Schwartzlose. Atmospheric effects on the ocean as measured from deep-moored instrument stations. In: Proceedings of the Marine Temperature Measurements Symposium, Miami Beach, June, pp. 71-93. Marine Technology Society. With A. Fleminger and J. K. Miller. Distributional atlas of zoo- plankton biomass in the California current region: Spring and fall 1955 - 1959. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Atlas, 10: i-xxv; 1-252. Role of the NDBS in future variability studies of the North Pacific. In: Proceedings of the First National Data Buoy Systems Scientific Advisory Meeting, U.S. Coast Guard Academy, New London, Connecticut. May, pp. 62-78. With R. A. Schwartzlose. Transient circulation event near the deep ocean floor. Science, 165~3896~:889-91. The nature of oceanic life. Sci. Am., 221~3~: 146-62. (Also in: Read- ings from Scientific American: "Oceanography," 1971, pp. 214 27; see also pare. 4, p.208, for review; "Ecology, Evolution, and Population Biology," 1973, pp. 239-52; see also pare. 2, p. 191, for review; "Life in the Sea," 1981, pp. 4-17; see also pare. 6 et seq., p. 2, for review. Available as Sci. Am. Of~print no. 844.) With W. R. Schmitt. Stimulation of marine productivity with waste heat and mechanical power. I. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer,33~11:20- 29. 1970 With R. F. Devereux, M. W. Evans, R. F. Kosic, and R. A. Schwartz- lose. Telemetering of oceanographic data for the North Pacific study. Telemetry J., 5~2~:19-23, 36. With R. A. Schwartzlose. The operational results from the North Pacific study. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting, Marine Technology Society, Washington, D.C., Tune 29 - July 1, vol. 1, pp. 551-60. Editor. Symposium on population and fisheries. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Conf., Avalon, Catalina Island, California,

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118 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS December 1968. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep.,14:21- 70. With R. M. Born, D. M. Brown, R. A. Schwartzlose, and M. H. Sessions. Deep-moored instrument station design and perfor- mance, 1967 - 1970. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, SIO Reference no. 70-19. 1971 With M. R. Clarke. Other resources of the deep sea. In: Deep Oceans, ed. P. J. Herring and M. R. Clarke, pp.270-76. London: Arthur Barker, Ltd. With W. R. Schmitt. Enhancement of marine protein production. In: Fertility of the Sea, ed. I. D. Costlow, vol. 2, pp. 455-62. Lon- don: Gordon & Breach. With D. M. Brown and M. H. Sessions. Continuous temperature- depth profiling deep-moored buoy system. Deep-Sea Res., 18:845-49. Engineering problems in monitoring the ocean. (Abstract.) In: The Ocean World, ed. M. Uda, pp. 123-24. (Proceedings of the Joint Oceanographic Assembly, Tokyo, September 1970.) Tokyo: ~a- pan Society for the Promotion of Science. With A. Fleminger and J. K. Miller. Distributional atlas of zoo- plankton biomass in the California Current region: Winter 1955-1959. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Atlas, 14:)-xxiv; 1-122. 1972 With R. R. Hessler and E. L. Mills. Giant amphipod from the abys- sal Pacific Ocean. Science, 175~4022) :636 -37. Unstructured marine food webs and "pollutant analogues." Fish. Bull., 70~3~:1053-59. With H. Bradner. Overpressures due to earthquakes project. Final technical report to Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA), December 15, 1968-December 31, 1972. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, SIO Reference no.72-18, AOEL Report no.72. 1973 The ocean margins. (Seminar, University of Washington, Seattle, February 21, 1968.) In: Ocean Resources and Public Policy, ed.

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JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 119 T. S. English, pp. 76-93. Seattle: University of Washington Press. With R. I. Seymour. The ocean as a power resource. Int. I. Environ. Stud., 4:201-5. With G. L. Wick. Optimized tactics for open-water marine preda- tors. I. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India, Spec. Publ., May:193-99. Potential trophic biomasses and trace-substance concentrations in unstructured marine food webs. Mar. Biol., 22:97-104. With D. R. Young, I. N. Johnson, and A. Soutar. Mercury concen- trations in dated varved marine sediments collected off South- ern California. Nature, 244~5415) :273 -75. 1974 With G. L. Wick. Tungus event revisited. Nature, 247~5437~: 139. With A. Soutar. Abundance of pelagic fish during the 19th and 20th centuries as recorded in anaerobic sediment off the Cali- fornias. Fish. Bull., 72~2~:257-74. With R. T. Seymour. Tethered float breakwaters. In: Proceedings of the Floating Breakwaters Conference, Newport, Rhode Island, April, ed. T. Kowalski, pp. 55-72. University of Rhode Island Marine Technical Report Series no. 24. (Also, in: University of California Institute of Marine Resources, IMR Reference no. 74-9, Sea Grant Publ. no. 30.) With S. A. Tont and G. L. Wick. Deep scattering layers: Vertical migration as a tactic for finding food. Deep-Sea Res., 21:651- 56. With A. Fleminger and i. G. Wyllie. Zooplankton biomass mea- surements from CalCOFI cruises of July 1955 to 1959 and re- marks on comparison with results from October, January and April cruises of 1955 to 1959. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Atlas,21:i-xx;1-118. 1975 With H. Bradner. A tentative hazard chart for submarines in earth- quake zones. Naval Res. Rev., 28~1~:21-25. With I. W. Stork, D. B. Goldstein, and G. L. Wick. Effect of vorticity pollution by motor vehicles on tornadoes. Nature, 253 (54891: 254-55. With W. R. Schmitt and C. K. Stidd. Ice ages and northern forests.

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120 B I O G RA P H I C A L M EM O I RS In: Climate of the Arctic, ed. G. Weller and S. A. Bowling, pp. 117-19. (Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Alaska Science Conference, August 1973.) College: Geophysical Institute, Uni- versity of Alaska. With R. A. Schwartzlose. Biological applications of underwater photography. Oceanus, 18~3~:24-30. With R. A. Schwartzlose. Active animals of the deep-sea floor. Sci. Am., 233(4):84 - 91. With S. L. Costa. Anisotropic sand transport in tidal inlets. In: Proceedings, Symposium on Modeling Techniques, pp. 254-73. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers. With G. L. Wick. Salinity power. Report based on a study group convened by the University of California Institute of Marine Resources and Oregon State University, San Francisco, Septem- ber 1974. IMR Reference no. 75-9. . ~ . Assessment of man's impact on marine biological resources. In: Marine Pollution and Marine Waste Disposal, ed. E. Pearson and E. Frangipane, pp. 329-40. (Proceedings of the Second Interna- tional Study Congress on Marine Waste Disposal, Sanremo, Italy? December 1973.) London: Pergamon Press. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project findings. In: Marine Pollution and Marine Waste Disposal, ed. E. Pearson and E. Frangipane, pp. 463-71. (Proceedings of the Second Interna- tional Study Congress on Marine Waste Disposal, Sanremo, Italy, December 1973.) London: Pergamon Press. 1976 Sanity and other factors in aquatic resource development. (Plenary, address.) In: Mankind's Future in the Pacific, ed. R. F. Scagel, pp. 72-85. (Plenary and special lectures of the Thirteenth Pacific Science Congress, Vancouver, B.C., August 1975.) Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. With J. W. Stork and G. L. Wick. Tornado forum. Isaacs, Stork & Wick reply to Kessler, Morton, Smith, McIntyre, Manton, Lilly, Darkow & Court. Nature, 260~55501:457-61. Reproductive products in marine food webs. Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. (Carl L. Hubbs Honorary Issue), 75~21:220-23. With D. Castel and G. L. Wick. Utilization of the energy in ocean waves. Ocean Eng., 3:175-87.

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JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 121 The sea, the marine mystique, and the challenge to the scientific paradigm. In: Literature and the Sea, ed. R. Astro, pp. 25-30. (Proceedings of a conference at the Marine Science Center, Newport, Oregon, May.) Oregon State University Sea Grant College Program, Publ. no. ORESU-W-76-001. Some ideas and frustrations about fishery science. (Presented at a symposium of the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries In- vestigations Conference on Fishery Science, "Fact, Fiction, and Dogma," San Clemente, California, November 1973.) Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep., 18 :34 - 43. With G. Wick. Salinity power. In: Symposia of Expo '75, pp. 153-65; in Japanese, pp. 320-33. (Official Report: Symposium Section, Japan Association for the International Ocean Exposition, Oki- nawa, 1975.) 1977 With P. F. Tooby and G. L. Wick. The motion of a small sphere in a rotating velocity field: A possible mechanism for suspending particles in turbulence. J. Geophys. Res., 82~15~:2096-100. The life of the open sea. Nature (ocean sciences supplement), 267~56141:778-80. With S. L. Costa. The modification of sand transport in tidal inlets. In: Coastal Sediments '77, pp. 946-65. (Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Divisions, American Society of Civil Engineers, Charleston, South Caro- lina, November 2-4.) Threshold of the future, pp. 58-59; The new resource, pp. 96- 97; and Power from the sea, pp. 98-99. In: The Mitchell Beazley Atlas of the Oceans, ed. M. Bramwell. London: Mitchell Beazley Ltd. (Reprinted in 1979 as The Rand McNally Atlas of the Oceans. Skokie, Ill.: Rand McNally & Co. 208 pp.) 1978 With G. L. Wick. Salt domes: Is there more energy available from their salt than from their oil? Science, 199~4336~: 1436-37. With V. M. V. Vidal, F. V. Vidal, and D. R. Young. Coastal sub- marine hydrothermal activity off northern Baja California. I. Geophys. Res., 83(B4~:1757-74. Power from the sea forms and prospects. In: Proceedings of the

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122 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Spring MeetinglS TAR Symposium, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, New London, Connecticut, April, pp. 5-1- 5-14. With S. Loeb and M. R. Bloch. Salinity power, potential and pro- cesses, especially membrane processes. In: Advances in Ocean- ography (papers presented in general symposia at the Joint Oceanographic Assembly, September 13 -24, 1976, Edinburgh, Scotland), ed. H. Charnock and G. Deacon, pp. 267-88. New York: Plenum Press. With G. L. Wick. Utilization of the energy from salinity gradients. In: Proceedings of the ERDA Wave and Salinity-Gradient Energy Conversion Workshop, University of Delaware, May 1976, ed. R. Cohen and M. E. McCormick. ERDA Report no. C00-2946-1, Conf. 760564. (Also in: University of California IMR Reference no. 78-2 "revision of 76-91.) With G. L. Wick and W. R. Schmitt. Utilization of the energy from ocean waves. In: Proceedings of the ERDA Wave and Salinity- Gradient Energy Conversion Workshop, University of Delaware, May 1976, ed. R. Cohen and M. E. McCormick. ERDA Report no. C00-2946-1, Conf. 760564. (Also in: IMR Reference no. 78- 3 Erevision of 76-10~.) 1979 With M. Olsson and G. L. Wick. Salinity gradient power: Utilizing vapor pressure differences. Science, 206~44171:452-54. 1980 With W. R. Schmitt. Ocean energy: Forms and prospects. Science, 207(4428~:265-73. Challenges of a wet planet. Paper presented at Technology and Ocean Space Conference, Oregon State University Sea Grant Program, April 29, 1978. (Edited version published in Chem- tech, 1 0~31: 14 1-43.) 1981 With V. M. V. Vidal and F. V. Vidal. Coastal submarine hydrother- mal activity off northern Baja California. 2. Evolutionary his- tory and isotope geochemistry. J. Geophys. Res.,86(B 10~:9451- 68.

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