Recruiting Fishery Scientists: Workshop on Stock Assessment and Social Science Careers

Ocean Studies Board

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.



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Recruiting Fishery Scientists: Workshop on Stock Assessment and Social Science Careers Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C.

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report was supported by a grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07308-1 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD KENNETH BRINK, (Chair), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ARTHUR BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge DANIEL BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison OTIS BROWN, University of Miami, Florida JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge CORTIS COOPER, Chevron Petroleum Technology, San Ramon, California G. BRENT DALRYMPLE, Oregon State University, Corvallis EARL DOYLE, Shell Oil (retired), Sugar Land, Texas D. JAY GRIMES, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs RAY HILBORN, University of Washington, Seattle EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland, Solomons CINDY LEE, State University of New York, Stony Brook ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Manoa NANCY MARCUS, Florida State University, Tallahassee BONNIE MCCAY, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey RAM MOHAN, Gahagan & Bryant Associates, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland SCOTT NIXON, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett NANCY RABALAIS, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin WALTER SCHMIDT, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee PAUL TOBIN, Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, Fairfax, Virginia KARL TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Workshop Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Board Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Study Director SUSAN LAESSIG, Graduate Intern JODI BACHIM, Project Assistant

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COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER (Chair), University of Virginia, Charlottesville RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), S. Charleston, West Virginia LYNN GOLDMAN, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut THOMAS J. GRAFF, Environmental Defense Fund, Oakland, California EUGENIA KALNAY, University of Maryland, College Park DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. BRAD MOONEY, J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia HUGH C. MORRIS, El Dorado Gold Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens MILTON RUSSELL, Joint Institute for Energy and Environment and University of Tennessee (emeritus), Knoxville ROBERT J. SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado ANDREW R. SOLOW, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY H. SYMMES, Associate Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer CHRISTINE HENDERSON, Scientific Reports Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in their review of this report: Lee Anderson, University of Delaware, Newark Keith R. Criddle, Utah State University, Logan Cynthia Jones, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia Michael K. Orbach, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Andrew Solow (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), appointed by the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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CONTENTS     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   SUMMARY OF WORKSHOP PRESENTATIONS   4     Introduction   4     NMFS Activities and Plans   7     Survey of Fishery Scientists   9     Student Career Choice   11 2   SUMMARY OF WORKSHOP DISCUSSIONS   14     Conceptualizing the Human Resource Problem   14     Breadth of the Problem   20     Implications of Career Development Models   20     Questions to Consider   20     REFERENCES   22     APPENDIXES   23 A   Workshop Agenda   23 B   Workshop Participants   24 C   Tier Goals and Assessment Levels in NMFS’ Stock Assessment Improvement Plan   25

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