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Arthur C. Gossard
Professor of Materials, Electrical, and Computer Engineering
University of California at Santa Barbara


Washington, D.C.

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Page i SEVENTH LECTURE INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE LECTURE SERIES ADVANCED EPITAXY FOR FUTURE ELECTRONICS, OPTICS, AND QUANTUM PHYSICS     by Arthur C. Gossard Professor of Materials, Electrical, and Computer Engineering University of California at Santa Barbara NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Page ii NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This work was performed under Department of the Navy Grant N00014-98-I-0901, issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07265-4 Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Page iii THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Page iv NAVAL STUDIES BOARD VINCENT VITTO, Charles S. Draper Laboratory, Inc., Chair JOSEPH B. REAGAN, Saratoga, California, Vice Chair DAVID R. HEEBNER, McLean, Virginia, Past Chair ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ARTHUR B. BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute JAMES P. BROOKS, Litton/Ingalls Shipbuilding, Inc. NORVAL L. BROOME, Mitre Corporation JOHN D. CHRISTIE, Logistics Management Institute RUTH A. DAVID, Analytic Services, Inc. PAUL K. DAVIS, RAND and RAND Graduate School of Policy Studies SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Chevy Chase, Maryland, Special Advisor DANIEL E. HASTINGS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology FRANK A. HORRIGAN, Bedford, Massachusetts RICHARD J. IVANETICH, Institute for Defense Analyses MIRIAM E. JOHN, Sandia National Laboratories ANNETTE J. KRYGIEL, Great Falls, Virginia ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University HARRISON SHULL, Monterey, California JAMES M. SINNETT, The Boeing Company WILLIAM D. SMITH, Fayetteville, Pennsylvania PAUL K. VAN RIPER, Williamsburg, Virginia VERENA S. VOMASTIC, The Aerospace Corporation BRUCE WALD, Center for Naval Analyses MITZI M. WERTHEIM, Center for Naval Analyses Navy Liaison Representatives RADM RAYMOND C. SMITH, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 RADM PAUL G. GAFFNEY II, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 (through June 7, 2000) RADM JAY M. COHEN, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 (as of June 8, 2000) Marine Corps Liaison Representative LTGEN JOHN E. RHODES, USMC, Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command (through August 17, 2000) LTGEN BRUCE B. KNUTSON, JR., USMC, Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command (as of August 18, 2000) RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director CHARLES F. DRAPER, Senior Program Officer MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant

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Page v COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, XR Ventures, LLC, Co-chair WILLIAM H. PRESS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Co-chair WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR., The Aerospace Corporation SHIRLEY CHIANG, University of California at Davis MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University SAMUEL H. FULLER, Analog Devices, Inc. MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California at Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR., Carnegie Institution CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota JOHN R. KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company (retired) MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado DUSA M. McDUFF, State University of New York at Stony Brook JANET L. NORWOOD, Former Commissioner, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory ROBERT J. SPINRAD, Xerox PARC (retired) JAMES F. HINCHMAN, Acting Executive Director

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Page vi

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Page vii Preface The International Science Lecture Series (ISLS) was established in 1990 at the request of (then) Chief of Naval Research RADM J.R. Wilson, Jr., USN. The ISLS is a cooperative venture between the National Research Council (NRC) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR). The primary objectives of the series are to facilitate the exchange of basic research knowledge and to identify opportunities for cooperative research on a global scale. Specifically, the ISLS is chartered to (1) advance free and open communication within the international scientific community at the basic research level; (2) assist ONR and the nation in keeping abreast of international scientific research directions and results; and (3) serve as a mechanism through which collaborative research projects can be identified. To achieve these objectives, distinguished lecturers are identified by a committee operating under the auspices of the National Academies in scientific areas of interest to the ONR, such as materials science, information science and technology, oceanography, atmospheric sciences, and remote sensing. The lecturers travel abroad to provide formal lectures to host nations and participate in both formal and informal discussions with senior scientific representatives (including government, industrial, and academic representatives) in the host countries. The countries in which the lectures are delivered are selected on the basis of consultations with the international scientific community, including science attachés in U.S. embassies and senior representatives of ONR and its International Field Office. In addition, opportunities for reciprocal visits and lectures, collaborative research projects, and similar activities are identified during these interactions. A monograph of the lecture published at the conclusion of each lecturer's tour serves as the public record of the tour. Advanced Epitaxy for Future Electronics, Optics, and Quantum Physics, by Arthur C. Gossard, professor of materials, electrical, and computer engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara, is the seventh lecture in the series. Previous lectures in the series were the following: The Heard Island Experiment, by Walter H. Munk, Secretary of the Navy Research Chair at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego; Fountainhead for New Technologies and New Science, by Rustum Roy, Evan Pugh Professor of Solid State Physics and professor of geochemistry at Pennsylvania State University;

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Page viii Computing, Communication, and the Information Age, by John E. Hopcroft, Joseph C. Ford Professor of Computer Science at Cornell University; Traffic Management for High-Speed Networks, by H.T. Kung, Gordon McKay Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Harvard University; Implementation Challenges for High-Temperature Composites, by Anthony G. Evans, Gordon McKay Professor of Materials Engineering at Harvard University; and Aspects of Weather and Space Weather in the Earth's Upper Atmosphere: The Role of Internal Atmospheric Waves, by Michael C. Kelley, professor of electrical engineering at Cornell University. Dr. Gossard and the accompanying delegation from the United States visited the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, the Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology, and Seoul National University during late September and early October 1999. The lecture tour consisted of the lectures, roundtable discussions, and tours at each institution. Roundtable discussions focused on current research programs and potential areas for collaboration. The U.S. delegation included Professor Gossard; Dr. Ronald Taylor, Naval Studies Board, and Mr. Thomas Munns, National Materials Advisory Board, both from the National Academies; and Dr. Yoon-Soo Park, Office of Naval Research. The lecture was first presented on September 30 to the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) at Taejon. The Optoelectronics Research Center (OERC) hosted the visit to KAIST. OERC is a Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF)-sponsored center where the staff performs multidisciplinary research on optical information processing and optical communications. Prior to Dr. Gossard's lecture, there was a roundtable discussion on September 29 that included representatives from OERC, the Korean Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), and the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI). Also, the KAIST staff provided a tour of the OERC laboratory facilities for the visiting delegation. Dr. Gossard presented his lecture next at the Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology (K-JIST) on October 1. The lecture was hosted by the Research Center for Ultrafast Fiber-Optic Networks (UFON), another KOSEF-sponsored facility for developing fundamental and core optoelectronic technologies required for an ultrafast optical network. Discussions centered on the potential for developing quantum dot structures with the uniformity required for laser applications. The subsequent roundtable discussion included representatives from the department of information and communications at K-JIST, the department of materials science and engineering at K-JIST, Honam University, and Mokpo National University. The visiting delegation also toured the laboratory facilities in the information and communications and materials science and engineering departments of K-JIST. After its session at K-JIST, the group met with the mayor of Kwangju, who described the city's efforts, under a plan entitled “Photonics 2010: Kwangju Creating Light,” to become the center of the Korean photonics industry. On October 4, Dr. Gossard made the third and final presentation of his lecture at Seoul National University (SNU) as part of the visit to the main Kwanak campus in Seoul. This part of the lecture tour was hosted by the Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center (ISRC). ISRC's purpose is to foster collaboration between universities and industries that are affiliated with the center, placing emphasis on fabrication (making and testing materials and devices rather than relying on modeling). At Seoul the roundtable discussion included representatives from the departments of physics, materials science and engineering, and electronics engineering at SNU, the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, and Sogang University. The Naval Studies Board and the Office of Naval Research would like to thank their gracious hosts in Korea: Young-Se Kwon, director of OERC; Hyo-Gun Kim, president of K-JIST; Un-Chul Paek, chairman of the department of information communications, K-JIST; and Jong-Chun Woo, professor of physics and dean of the graduate school, SNU.