Index

A

Accidents and injuries, 29, 50, 92, 93, 95, 97, 106, 129

Adolescents, 29

alcohol and drug use, 129

contraceptive use, 138

delinquent behavior, 35

depression, 137

diabetes, 37

personal ties, 36, 54, 74-75

positive health, 52, 54

predisease pathways, 29, 34-35, 36, 37

pregnancy, 138-139

sexually transmitted diseases, 122, 138-139

smoking, 34-35, 128

socioeconomic status, 104

Adrenal gland, 33, 45, 80, 168

epinephrine, 27, 37, 39, 80, 172, 174

norepinephrine, 27, 37, 66, 74, 172, 174

see also Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

African Americans,

see Black persons

Age factors, 4, 45

alcohol abuse, 129

cumulative risk and aging, 27

diet, 139

disability/disease onset, 2, 5, 10, 46, 47, 48, 64, 81, 131, 134, 136, 149, 165

gene expression in midlife, 65-66

fertility, 135

midlife, 65-66, 105

personal ties, 74

smoking, 128

temperament, 34

see also Adolescents;

Children;

Elderly

persons;

Infants;

Life expectancy;

Pregnancy and prenatal development

AIDS,

see HIV/AIDS

Alameda County Study, 105, 185

Alcohol and drug use, 34, 35, 129

adolescents, 129

community-level factors, 92

interventions, 35, 151

mother-child relations, 30

positive health, 52

pregnancy and prenatal development, 35

racial/ethnic factors, 106

social factors, 36

time horizons, 4, 22, 40

Allostasis and allostatic load, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 18, 46, 70, 126, 172-175, 186, 187

gender factors, 174-175

personal ties, 83-84



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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach Index A Accidents and injuries, 29, 50, 92, 93, 95, 97, 106, 129 Adolescents, 29 alcohol and drug use, 129 contraceptive use, 138 delinquent behavior, 35 depression, 137 diabetes, 37 personal ties, 36, 54, 74-75 positive health, 52, 54 predisease pathways, 29, 34-35, 36, 37 pregnancy, 138-139 sexually transmitted diseases, 122, 138-139 smoking, 34-35, 128 socioeconomic status, 104 Adrenal gland, 33, 45, 80, 168 epinephrine, 27, 37, 39, 80, 172, 174 norepinephrine, 27, 37, 66, 74, 172, 174 see also Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis African Americans, see Black persons Age factors, 4, 45 alcohol abuse, 129 cumulative risk and aging, 27 diet, 139 disability/disease onset, 2, 5, 10, 46, 47, 48, 64, 81, 131, 134, 136, 149, 165 gene expression in midlife, 65-66 fertility, 135 midlife, 65-66, 105 personal ties, 74 smoking, 128 temperament, 34 see also Adolescents; Children; Elderly persons; Infants; Life expectancy; Pregnancy and prenatal development AIDS, see HIV/AIDS Alameda County Study, 105, 185 Alcohol and drug use, 34, 35, 129 adolescents, 129 community-level factors, 92 interventions, 35, 151 mother-child relations, 30 positive health, 52 pregnancy and prenatal development, 35 racial/ethnic factors, 106 social factors, 36 time horizons, 4, 22, 40 Allostasis and allostatic load, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 18, 46, 70, 126, 172-175, 186, 187 gender factors, 174-175 personal ties, 83-84

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach predisease pathways, 20, 26-27, 35-40 race/ethnicity, 97 socioeconomic status and, 48-49, 103, 104 Alternative medicine, 141-142, 144 Alzheimer's disease, see Dementia American Indians, see Native Americans Amino acid regulation, 32 Animal models, 179 colony infrastructure, 6, 13, 70, 184, 186, 188 environmentally induced gene expression, 6, 66-69, 70, 77 environmental stressors, 33, 37 exercise and neurogenesis, 169 intergenerational transmission of behavior, 67-68 mother-child behavior, 28-30, 31, 32, 66-69, 77, 78-79 personal ties, 7, 76, 77, 84 positive health, 46-47, 169-170 recovery from disease, 33 self-efficacy and recovery from disease, 33 social relations, 6, 7, 13, 76, 77, 84, 170, 184, 186; see also “personal ties” above socioeconomic hierarchies, 9, 103 substance abuse during pregnancy, 35 Anxiety, 31, 32, 33, 50, 142 Asians and Pacific Islanders, 107, 110 Assessment, see Research infrastructure; Research methodology Asset and Health Dynamics Survey, 133 Asthma, 10, 126, 134-135, 143, 148 Attitudes stigmatization, 3, 9, 23-29, 107, 109-110, 111, 155 toward cancer and HIV patients, 155 see also Emotional factors; Racism and discrimination B Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, 185 Behavior, individual, 1-2, 17-18, 20, 40, 188 community-level factors, 91 cumulative risk, 26 gene expression, 64, 129-130, 149 intergenerational transfer, 30, 31, 34, 67-68 interventions, general, 11, 12, 149-152, 156, 160; see also Health promotion personal ties, 74-75, 82 population surveys, 10, 11, 118, 143 positive health, 5, 47, 52-53, 56, 57 predisease pathways, 3-4, 25, 32, 34-36, 176-177 primary prevention, 52-53 research methodology, 176-177, 179, 180 socioeconomic hierarchies, 9, 102-103 see also Alcohol and drug use; Exercise; Mental illness; Nutrition; Personal ties; Primary prevention; Psychological factors; Sexually transmitted diseases; Smoking; Social factors Benzodiazapine system, 32 Birth cohorts, see Cohort studies Birth weight, 36, 65, 91, 92, 93, 96, 119, 125, 134, 138 Black persons, 106, 108-111 mortality, 106, 108, 110 occupational hazards, 108 Brain function and structure, 171-172, 173 child-mother interactions, 29 hippocampus, 26, 77 historical perspectives, 17 medulla, 29, 31, 33, 168 epinephrine, 27, 37, 39, 80, 172, 174 norepinephrine, 27, 37, 66, 74, 172, 174 personal ties, 7, 73, 77-79, 84 positive health, 46-47, 171 prenatal development, 28 Breast cancer, 35, 50, 75, 129, 155 Britain, see United Kingdom C Cancer, 173 attitudes toward patients, 155 breast, 35, 50, 75, 129, 155 diet, 129 early childhood experiences and, 29 genomics, 69-70, 155 interventions, general, 151, 157 lung, 22, 75, 126, 132 National Cancer Act, 1, 19 National Cancer Institute, 1, 19, 45, 157-158 ovarian, 155 personal ties, 75, 151-153 population-level health, 129, 131 positive health, 52

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach psychological factors, 151, 155 race/ethnicity and, 106, 107, 108 recovery, 33, 75 Cardiovascular disease, 25, 130-131, 148, 149, 173 community-level factors, 95 cost of interventions, 139-140, 152 cumulative risk, 26, 27 diet, 129, 130-131, 139 emotional regulation and, 33 interventions, 139-140, 148, 149, 152 parenting and, 29 personal ties, 76, 83 positive health, 50, 52 psychological factors, 1, 33, 34, 38, 50, 76, 152 racial/ethnic factors, 106, 108-109 recovery from, 50 smoking, 22, 140 social factors, 22; see also“personal ties” above socioeconomic status, 101, 106 see also Hypertension; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Catecholamines, 32, 74, 77 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 122, 134 Child-mother interactions, 28-31, 68 -69, 76, 77, 143 alcohol abuse, 30 animal models, 28-30, 31, 32, 66-69, 77, 78-79 brain development, 29 environmentally induced gene expression, 29-30, 32, 66-68 immune response, 77 socioeconomic status and, 103 Children, 45, 167-168, 174 asthma, 10, 126, 134-135, 143, 148 cancer, 29 chronic diseases and disabilities, 10, 29, 126, 127 developing countries, 135, 136 disabled, parents of, 126 divorce, effects on, 52, 74 early life experiences, 4-5, 6, 22, 28-32, 39-40, 103, 104, 133, 167-168 genetic factors, 29-30 genomics, 134-135 interventions, 153 longitudinal studies, 133 mental illness, 51 obesity, 153 personal ties, 73-75; see also Parents and parenting population-level health, 10, 118-119, 125-126, 133, 134-135, 136, 168 resilience, 48 school-based interventions, 11, 54 socioeconomic status, 48, 103, 104, 134 see also Adolescents; Birth weight; Infants; Pregnancy and prenatal development Cholesterol, 25, 27, 33, 51, 139-140, 149, 153, 165, 173 Chronic disease and disability, 45, 168-169 alternative medicine therapies, 142 childhood, 10, 29, 126, 127 elderly persons, 120, 130, 131, 132, 136-137 interventions, general, 11, 151 onset of, 2, 5, 10, 46, 47, 48, 64, 81, 131, 134, 136, 149, 165 pain and pain management, 50, 127, 142, 148, 151, 152 population-level health, 119-121, 126, 127, 130-133 psychological factors, 34 quality of life, 51 socioeconomic status, 101, 131-132 see also specific diseases and body systems Cities, see Urban areas Clinical practice guidelines, 36 Cognitive factors, 169 cumulative risk, 26 mind/body centers, 2, 19, 55, 142, 188 personal ties, 74 positive health, 50, 52 predisease pathways, 26, 32 recovery from disease, 50 social relationships, 22, 74 socioeconomic status, 104 see also Educational attainment Cohort studies, 13, 104-106, 110, 130, 165-167, 172, 185, 186 Communicable disease, see Immune system and infectious diseases Community-level factors, 3, 8, 18, 23, 91-99, 143 alcohol and drug use, 92 children, 48 interventions, general, 11, 13, 91, 153-154, 156, 158, 187

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach longitudinal studies, 8, 92, 98, 105, 143, 185-186 positive health, 5, 8, 57 predisease pathways, 2, 39, 97 racial segregation, 9, 92, 93, 108, 111 research infrastructure, 13, 185-186, 187, 188 animal colonies, 6, 13, 70, 184, 186, 188 research methodology, 8, 95-97, 98, 164, 170 resilience, 48 socioeconomic status, 92-95, 97-98, 102-103, 106, 108 see also Rural areas; Urban areas Comorbidity, 20, 27 community-level factors, 92 mental illness, 51 Contraceptive use, 138 Co-occurring risk factors, see Allostasis and allostatic load Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 37, 66 Cortisol, 32, 74, 76, 172 Cost and cost-benefit factors, 158, 167 adolescents, contraceptives, 138-139 adolescents, smoking cessation, 150 alternative medicine therapies, 142, 144 asthma, 143 cardiovascular disease interventions, 139-140, 152 cholesterol therapy, 139 community-level interventions, 91 disabled children, parents of, 126, 143 elderly, care of, 136-137 health promotion, 138-139 managed care, 10, 140-141, 144 medical interventions, 138, 139-140, 142, 144, 152; see also Health insurance nutrition interventions, 53 population-level health, 126, 136-137, 139-140, 142, 143, 144, 153-154 tobacco tax, 150, 154, 157 Council of Public Representatives (COPR), 14-15, 53, 56 committee study methodology, xii, 14 Crime and criminal behavior, 8, 92, 108, 129 adolescent delinquence, 35 homicide, 91, 92, 95, 106 smoking laws, 154 suicide, 29, 92, 106, 110, 111 see also Alcohol and drug abuse Cultural factors, 10, 17, 52, 75, 92, 93-94, 97, 111 language, 73-74 religion, 111 violence, 8, 94 see also Social factors D Dementia, 39, 65, 77, 80, 165, 173 Demographic and Health Surveys, 119 Demographic factors migration, 110 see also Age factors; Community-level factors; Educational attainment; Elderly persons; Gender factors; Population health; Race/ethnicity; Rural areas; Socioeconomic status; Urban areas Depression, 29, 32, 33, 34, 40, 45, 105, 137, 142, 171 Developing countries, 101, 135, 136 Diabetes, 26, 36, 37, 48, 106, 130-131, 148 Diet, see Nutrition Differential survival processes, 5, 8, 49, 50, 82, 101 Disabilities and disabled persons, see Chronic disease and disability Discrimination, see Racism and discrimination Dopamine regulation, 32, 34, 35 Drug use, see Alcohol and drug use E Eating disorders, 9, 75, 148, 152, 156, 157 Economic factors population health and macroeconomy, 10, 106, 118, 131-132, 135-137, 143-144 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Employment and unemployment; Funding; Socioeconomic status; Taxation, tobacco Education, see Health promotion; Professional education; Public education

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach Educational attainment, 9, 100, 101, 102, 107, 108, 111, 132 smoking, 128 Elderly persons, 10, 45, 165, 169, 174-175, 187 chronic diseases and disabilities, 120, 130, 131, 132, 136-137 comorbidity, 27 dementia, 39, 65, 77, 80, 165, 173 disabled, 120 female family caregivers of, 39 gender factors, 39, 174-175 resilience, 55 self-efficacy, 32-33 temperament, 34 personal ties, 74 Emotional factors, 5, 7, 84, 179 anxiety, 31, 32, 33, 50, 142 cancer, 75 depression, 29, 32, 33, 34, 40, 45, 105, 137, 142, 171 disabled children, parents of, 126 neurological factors, 33, 77-78 positive health, 50-51, 52, 54-55 recovery from disease, 50-51, 75 regulation of emotions, predisease pathways, 29, 30, 32, 33 see also Personal ties Employment and unemployment, 8, 9, 38-39, 100, 102, 103, 111, 168-169 cancer/HIV patients, discrimination, 155 disabled children, parents of, 126 fertility and, 135 gender factors, 38-39, 133 interventions, worksite, 11, 154, 158 positive health, 11, 52 race/ethnicity, 108 Environmental factors, general, 3, 11-15 (passim), 17, 21, 22, 45, 126 animal models, 6, 33, 37, 66-69, 70, 77 gene expression, 3, 6, 17-18, 23, 26, 29-30, 32, 40, 63-72, 76, 77, 166, 172 animal models, 6, 66-69, 70, 77 children, 29-30, 32, 66-68 population-level health, 10, 118 positive health, 5, 54, 56 predisease pathways, 4, 36-39, 25-26, 32, 36-39, 97 resistance and resilience, 48 see also Community-level factors; Social factors Environmental Genome Project, 134-135 Epidemiology, 22 personal ties, 7, 75, 76, 82 see also Longitudinal studies; Mortality; Population health Epinephrine, 27, 37, 39, 80, 172, 174 Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity; Racism and discrimination Europe, 101-102, 105 see also United Kingdom Exercise, 34, 35, 46-47, 52, 129, 139, 149, 151, 152, 169 F Familial factors, 14, 38, 74-75, 83 dementia, caregivers, 39, 65, 77, 80 interventions, 11, 152-153, 156 predisease pathways, 4, 25-26 working women, 38-39 see also Child-mother interactions; Children; Marriage and marital status; Parents and parenting Federal government Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 122, 134 health insurance, 138; see also Medicare tobacco tax, 150, 154, 157 toxic waste regulations, 132 see also Funding; Legislation; terms with “National Institute” Females, see Gender factors Fertility, 135 Foreign countries, see International perspectives Framingham Study, 105, 143, 185 Funding, 179, 188 historical perspectives, 1, 19 interventions, general, 158 social factors, 186-187 socioeconomic status research, 104-105 see also Research infrastructure G Gender factors adolescent sexual activity, 138-139 allostatic load, 174-175 cancer risk, 47-48 chronic disease, 130

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach diet, 139 elderly, caregivers of, 39 elderly persons, 174-175 employment, 38-39, 133 HIV, optimism among male patients, 50 life expectancy, 136 personal ties, 74, 75, 83 recovery from disease, 50 sexually transmitted diseases, 133 smoking, 34, 128 see also Breast cancer; Child-mother interactions; Ovarian cancer; Pregnancy and prenatal development Genetics, 47-48 behavioral risk factors, general, 64, 129-130, 149 cancer risk, 47 cumulative risk and, 26 diabetes, 48 emotional regulation, 33 environmentally induced gene expression, 3, 6, 17-18, 23, 26, 29-30, 32, 40, 63-72, 76, 77, 166, 172 animal models, 6, 66-69, 70, 77 children, 29-30, 32, 66-68 historical perspectives, 17 hypertension, 47-48, 67-68 intergenerational transfer of behaviors, 30, 31, 34, 67-68 microarray chip technologies, 6, 64, 70, 166 mother-child interactions and, 29-30 personal ties and, 7, 29, 65-66, 76, 77, 84 positive health, 5, 53, 57 predisease pathways, 4-5, 26, 28, 32, 155 time horizons, 22 Genomics, 45, 69-70, 64, 69-70, 155 allostatic load, 175 cancer, 69-70, 155 child health, 134-135 personal ties, 74 prenatal development, 28 Geographic information systems, 97 Going for the Goal (GOAL) program, 54 Gonorrhea, 121-122 H Harvard Mastery of Stress Study, 185 Health and Retirement Survey, 133, 185 Health care, see Medical interventions Health insurance, 133, 138, 143 managed care, 10, 140-141, 144 Medicare, 133, 137, 140 Health promotion, 1, 5, 11, 12, 19, 148 adolescents, 54 cholesterol reduction, 139-140, 149, 153 cost of, 138-139 research infrastructure, 13, 45 smoking prevention, 35 Public education Heart disease, see Cardiovascular disease Hippocampus, 26, 77 Hispanics, 106, 107, 108, 110, 111 Historical perspectives, 17, 19, 21, 22 alternative medicine therapies, 141-142 chronic diseases, 130-131 communicable disease, 123-125 disability rates, 120-121 life expectancy, 17, 119, 120, 130-131 medical interventions, 17, 130, 138 nutrition, 130-131 personal ties and autonomic activity, 79 racism, 107 socioeconomic status, 100-101 substance abuse, 129 HIV/AIDS, 28, 50, 108, 122, 123, 129, 148, 152, 153, 155, 157 Homicide, 91, 92, 95, 106 HPA axis, see Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis Hypertension, 25, 131, 165 cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions, 139-140 cumulative risk, 26 genetic factors, 47-48, 67-68 intergenerational transfer of behavior, 67-68 occupational stress and, 38, 39 parents and children, 33 personal ties, 75, 76 psychological factors, 1, 33, 38 social isolation, 75 Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 26, 27, 31, 46, 70, 76, 77, 80, 168

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach I Immigration and immigrants, 110 see also Asians and Pacific Islanders; Hispanics Immune system and infectious diseases, 169, 172 children, 77 chronic stress, 6, 37 cumulative risk, 26 personal ties, 65-66, 77, 79-82, 84 population-level health, 118, 121-125, 132, 133-134 positive health, 55 psychological factors, 33-34, 151 tuberculosis, 108, 121, 123-125, 134 see also Neurological factors; Sexually transmitted diseases; specific diseases Indians, see Native Americans Infants, 12 birth weight, 36, 65, 91, 92, 93, 96, 119, 125, 134, 138 mortality, 91, 92, 93, 119, 125, 130, 134, 135 see also Child-mother interactions Infectious disease, see Immune system and infectious diseases Injuries, see Accidents and injuries Insurance, see Health insurance; Managed care Inter-American Development Bank, 135-136 Interdisciplinary approaches committee study at hand, 19, 20 see also Multidisciplinary approaches International perspectives chronic disease and disability, 120-121 cultural factors, 75, 102 life expectancy, 119, 120, 131, 135, 136 macroeconomic effects, 135 medical interventions, 137, 138 mortality, 135, 136 population health, 119, 120-121, 123, 131, 135-136, 153-154, 165-166, 185-186 quality of life, 119 racism, 108 sexually transmitted disease, 122 socioeconomic status, 104-105, 101-102, 119, 130, 131, 135-136 tuberculosis, 123 Interventions, general, 2, 3, 11-12, 24, 148-163, 178-179, 187-188 alcohol and substance abuse, 35, 151 cancer, 151, 157 cardiovascular disease, 139-140, 148, 149, 152 children, 153 chronic diseases and disabilities, 11, 151 community-level factors, 11, 13, 91, 153-154, 156, 158, 187 immigration and immigrants, 110 individual behavior, 11, 12, 149-152, 156, 160 longitudinal studies, 159, 166-167 multidisciplinary, 11, 12, 178-179, 187 nutrition, 53, 149, 151 pain and pain management, 50, 127, 142, 148, 151, 152 population health, 149, 153-154, 158 psychological factors, 11, 12, 148-149, 151-152, 156, 160 school-based, 11, 54 smoking, 35, 128, 148, 150-151, 154, 157 social, 36-37 weight control, 35 worksite, 11, 154, 158 see also Exercise; Health promotion; Medical interventions; Primary prevention; Public education K Kaiser Family Foundation, 121 (n.2) L Language factors, 73-74 Legislation managed care, 140 National Cancer Act, 1, 19 Life expectancy, 2, 17, 118, 119, 120, 130-131, 136, 148 see also Mortality Local factors, see Community-level factors Longitudinal studies, 5, 12, 13, 40, 133, 143, 174, 185, 188 children, 133 cohort studies, 13, 104-106, 110, 130, 165-167, 172, 185, 186

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach community-level factors, 8, 92, 98, 105, 143, 185-186 co-occurring risk factors, 12, 27 interventions, 159, 166-167 occupational stress, 38 personal ties, 7, 8, 27, 84 positive health, 12, 13, 49, 51-52, 56 predisease pathways, 4, 40, 56, 165-167, 185 racism and discrimination, 109-110 socioeconomic hierarchies, 9-10, 102, 104-106, 109-110, 111 see also Population health; specific studies and surveys Lung cancer, 22, 75, 126, 132 M MacArthur Study of Successful Aging, 165 Malaysian Life History Survey, 105 Males, see Gender factors Managed care, 10, 140-141, 144 Marriage and marital status, 36, 74, 83 divorce and marital conflict, 31, 52, 74 recovery from disease, 75 Maternal factors, see Child-mother interactions Medical interventions, 11, 132-133, 137-142, 143, 144, 148, 160, 186-187 alternative medicine therapies, 141-142, 144 behavioral interventions integrated with, 156 cost factors, 138, 139-140, 142, 144, 152; see also Health insurance disabled children, parents of, 126 historical perspectives, 17, 130, 138 international perspectives, 137, 138 population studies, 11, 118, 120-121 racial segregation, 108 Medicare, 133, 137, 140 Medulla, 29, 31, 33, 168 epinephrine, 27, 37, 39, 80, 172, 174 norepinephrine, 27, 37, 66, 74, 172, 174 Men, see Gender factors Mental illness, 45, 51-52, 148, 165, 169, 173 children, 51 community-level factors, 92 cumulative risk, 26 dementia, 39, 65, 77, 80, 165, 173 eating disorders, 9, 75, 148, 152, 156, 157 occupational stress and, 38-39 parenting and, 29 personal ties, 74 predisease pathways, 26, 29, 32 primary prevention, 51 socioeconomic status, 103, 105 suicide, 29, 92, 106, 110, 111 see also Alcohol and drug use; Crime and criminal behavior Methodology, see Research methodology Mexican Americans, 111 Mexico, 136 Microarray chip technologies, 6, 64, 70, 166 Migration, 110 Mind/body centers, 2, 19, 55, 142, 188 Minorities, see Race/ethnicity; specific groups Mother-child interactions, see Child-mother interactions; Pregnancy and prenatal development Mortality, 17, 168-169 communicable diseases, 123-125 differential survival processes, 5, 8, 49, 50, 82, 101 environmental exposures, 17 homicide, 91, 92, 95, 106 infant, 91, 92, 93, 119, 125, 130, 134, 135 international perspectives, 135, 136 personal ties and, 75, 76, 82, 153 race/ethnicity and, 9, 106, 107, 108, 110 socioeconomic status, 91, 92, 95, 100-103 (passim), 135 suicide, 29, 92, 106, 110, 111 see also Life expectancy Moving to Opportunity program, 93, 96 Multidisciplinary approaches, 1, 3, 4, 13-14, 18, 21-22, 179-180 committee study at hand, xi-xii, 19, 20, 21 community-level factors, 92-93 environmentally induced gene expression, 64, 70 interventions, 11, 12, 178-179, 187 nonlinearities, 177 personal ties, 84 positive health, 51, 56 primary prevention, 51 professional education, 3, 13, 188

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach N National Cancer Act, 1, 19 National Cancer Institute, 1, 19, 157-158 National Cholesterol Education Program, 139 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 123, 185 National Health Interview Survey, 185 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 1, 19, 51, 134, 157-158 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 135 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 134-135 National Longitudinal Survey, 185 National Long Term Care Survey, 105, 120, 133 National Survey of Black Americans, 109-110 National Survey of Families and Households, 185 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, 186 Native Americans, 106, 108, 155 Neurological factors, 6, 27, 31-32, 39, 171-172 alternative medicine therapies, 142 catecholamines, 32 child-mother interactions, 66 chronic stress, 6 dopamine regulation, 32, 34, 35 emotional regulation, 33, 77-78 exercise and neurogenesis, 169 occupational stress, 39 personal ties and, 7, 76, 77-80, 84 positive health, 5, 46-47, 55, 57, 171 serotonergic dysfunction, 29, 30, 32, 35, 168 substance abuse, 35 sympathetic nervous system, 27, 29, 32, 33 see also Allostasis and allostatic load; Brain function and structure Norepinephrine, 27, 37, 66, 74, 172, 174 North Karelia Project, 153-154 Nutrition, 56, 128-129, 130-131 cancer and, 129 diabetes and, 36 eating disorders, 9, 75, 148, 152, 156, 157 food preservation, 130-131 interventions, 53, 149, 151 parenting and behavior, 31, 68-69 personal ties, 75 predisease pathways, 31, 34, 128-129 primary prevention, 52, 53 see also Weight factors O Occupations, see Employment and unemployment Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR), xi, 2 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 120 Ovarian cancer, 155 P Pain and pain management, 50, 127, 142, 148, 151, 152 Pan American Health Organization, 135-136 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 105, 185 Parents and parenting, 7, 28-31, 73, 74-75 cardiovascular disease and, 29 community-level factors, 93 disabled children and, 126, 143 emotional factors and hypertension, 33 intergenerational transfer of behaviors, 30, 31, 34, 67-68 nutrition, 31, 68-69 see also Child-mother interactions Pathways, see Predisease pathways Personal ties, 3, 6-7, 23, 73-90, 168 adolescents, 36, 54, 74-75 allostatic load, 83-84 animal models, 7, 76, 77, 84 brain development, 7, 73, 77-79, 84 cancer and, 75, 151-153 cardiovascular disease and, 76, 83 children, 73-75; see also Child-mother interactions; Parents and parenting chronic disease and quality of life, 51 epidemiology, 7, 75, 76, 82 gender factors, 74, 75, 83; see also Marriage and marital status genetic factors, 7, 29, 65-66, 76, 77, 84 genomics, 74 hypertension, 75, 76

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach immune system and infectious diseases, 65-66, 77, 79-82, 84 individual behavior, 74-75, 82 informational resources, 75-76 interventions, 152-153 language, 73-74 longitudinal studies, 7, 8, 27, 84 mortality and, 75, 76, 82, 153 neurological factors, 7, 76, 77-80, 84 positive health, 82-84 predisease pathways, 4, 7, 25-26, 36-37 see also Familial factors; Marriage and marital status; Parents and parenting Physical activity, see Exercise Pituitary gland, see Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis Population health, 3, 5, 10-11, 24, 37, 118-147 cancer, 129, 131 children, 10, 118-119, 125-126, 133, 134-135, 136, 168 chronic diseases and disabilities, 119-121, 126, 127, 130-133 communicable diseases, 118, 121-125, 133-134 cost factors, 126, 136-137, 139-140, 142, 143, 144, 153-154 elderly persons, 10, 55, 120 environmental factors, general, 10, 118 fertility, 135 individual behavior and, 10, 11,118, 143 international perspectives, 119, 120-121, 123, 131, 135-136, 153-154, 165-166, 185-186 interventions, general, 149, 153-154, 158; see also “medical interventions” below macroeconomy, 10, 106, 118, 131-132, 135-137, 143-144 medical interventions, 11, 118, 120-121 personal ties, 75 psychological factors, 10, 11, 118 research infrastructure, 13, 184-186, 188 research methodology, 143-144, 168, 178 social factors, 10, 11, 75, 118, 143 see also Community-level factors; Epidemiology; Genomics; Longitudinal studies Positive health, xii, 3, 5, 6, 10, 12, 45-62 adolescents, 52, 54 alcohol abuse and, 52 animal models, 46-47, 169-170 brain development, 46-47, 171 cardiovascular, 50, 52 cancer, 52 cognitive factors, 50, 52 community-level factors, 5, 8, 57 defined, 23 emotional factors, 50-51, 52, 54-55 employment, 11, 52 environmental factors, general, 5, 54, 56 genetic factors, 5, 53, 57 individual behavior and, 5, 47, 52-53, 56, 57 longitudinal studies, 12, 13, 49, 51-52, 56 neurological factors, 5, 46-47, 55, 57, 171 personal ties, 82-84 population surveys, 143 research infrastructure, 13, 45, 47, 53, 56-57 research methodology, 12, 13, 56-57, 169-170 social factors, 5, 13, 36, 46, 47, 51, 54-57, 187 see also Health promotion; Quality of life; Resilience and resistance Post-traumatic stress disorder, 37-38 Poverty, Predisease pathways, 3-5, 25-44, 56 adolescents, 29, 34-35, 36, 37 allostatic load, 20, 26-27, 35-40 cognitive factors, 26, 32 committee study methodology, 2, 23 community-level factors, 2, 39, 97 defined, 3-4, 25 emotional regulation, 29, 30, 32, 33 environmental factors, general, 4, 36-39, 25-26, 32, 36-39, 97 familial factors, 4, 25-26 genetic factors, 4-5, 26, 28, 32, 155 genomics, 69-70 individual behavior and, 3-4, 25, 32, 34-36, 176-177 intergenerational transfer of behavior, 30, 31, 34, 67-68 longitudinal studies, 4, 40, 56, 165-167, 185

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach mental illness, 26, 29, 32 nutrition, 31, 34, 128-129 personal ties, 4, 7, 25-26, 36-37 psychological factors, 3-5, 25, 32-34, 38, 176, 185 regulation of emotions, 29, 30, 32, 33 research methodology, 12, 13, 49, 164, 165-170, 175, 176-177 social factors, 3-5, 26, 32, 36, 165-166, 176, 185, 186-187; see also“personal ties” above socioeconomic hierarchies, 9, 37, 91, 92, 95, 100-104 (passim), 106, 108109, 110-111 time horizons, 23, 25 see also Primary prevention; Risk factors Pregnancy and prenatal development, 2, 28-32 brain development, 28 chronic maternal stress, 37 fertility, 135 gene expression and, 64-65 genomics, 28 Hispanics, 111 nutrition, 130-131 smoking, 34-35 social factors, 36 socioeconomic status, 103 substance abuse, 35 teenage, 138-139 see also Birth weight; Infants Primary prevention, 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 11-12, 13, 51-54, 130, 148, 149 cost of, 138-140 individual behavior, 52-53 longitudinal studies, 51-52 mental illness, 51 nutrition, 52, 53 sexually transmitted disease, 123 see also Health promotion; Public education Priorities for Prevention Research at the NIMH, 51 Professional education, 13-14, 19 multidisciplinary approaches, 3, 13, 188 Psychological factors, 3, 10, 17-18, 22 cancer, 151, 155 cardiovascular disease, 1, 33, 34, 38, 50, 76, 152 chronic disease, 34 chronic stress, 37-38 hypertension, 1, 33, 38 immune system and infectious diseases, 33-34, 151 interventions, 11, 12, 148-149, 151-152, 156, 160 mind/body centers, 2, 19, 55, 142, 188 occupational stress, 38 population-level health and, 10, 11, 118 positive health, 5, 13, 46, 47, 50-51, 56 predisease pathways, 3-5, 25, 32-34, 38, 176, 185 primary prevention, 51 recovery from disease, 50-51 research infrastructure, 13, 185, 186-187, 188 research methodology, 12, 13, 176, 180 self-efficacy, 32-33, 52, 53, 179 socioeconomic hierarchies, 9, 101, 102, 104, 105, 106 see also Attitudes; Emotional factors; Mental illness; Personal ties; Social factors Public education, 52-54 adolescents, 54 committee study methodology, 21 cost of, 138-139 disabled children, 126 school-based interventions, 11, 54 smoking, 35, 52 see also Educational attainment; Health promotion Q Quality of life, 51, 119, 139, 148 pain and pain management, 50, 127, 142, 148, 151, 152 R Race/ethnicity, 2, 37, 106-111 alcohol and drug use, 106 allostatic loads, 97 cancer, 106, 107, 108 cardiovascular disease, 106, 108-109 employment, 108 mortality rates, 9, 106, 107, 108, 110 prenatal development, 111 resilience and resistance, 110, 111 sexually transmitted disease, 122

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach socioeconomic status, 100, 106-111, 155 see also specific groups Racism and discrimination, 2, 3, 9, 23-24, 107-110, 111 cancer/HIV patients, discrimination, 155 medical interventions, 108 segregation, 9, 92, 93, 108, 111 Recovery from disease, 5, 22, 49-51, 54 animal models, 33 cancer, 33, 75 cardiovascular disease, 50 differential survival processes, 5, 8, 49, 50, 82, 101 emotional factors, 50-51, 75 marital status, 75 socioeconomic status, 48-49, 104 Religion, 111 Reproductive systems and functions, 32 see also Pregnancy and prenatal development Research infrastructure, 13-14, 24, 45, 184-189 animal colonies, 6, 13, 70, 184, 186, 188 community-level factors, 95-97, 188 Council of Public Representatives (COPR), xii, 14-15, 53, 56 health promotion, 13, 45 individual behavior, 176-177, 179, 180 integration with practice, 1, 2-3 interventions, general, 157-158, 160 mind/body centers, 2, 19, 55, 142, 188 population health studies, 13, 184-186, 188 positive health, 13, 45, 47, 53, 56-57 psychological factors, 13, 185, 186-187, 188 social factors, 13, 185, 186-187, 188 see also Multidisciplinary approaches; Professional education Research methodology, 12-13, 24, 143-144, 164-183 allostatic load, 27, 49, 70, 172-175, 180 committee study at hand, xi-xii, 2-3, 19-21 community-level factors, 8, 95-97, 98, 164, 170 environmentally induced gene expression, 70 interventions, 13, 157-160, 166-167, 178-179, 180 neurology, 169, 171-172 personal ties, 84, 164, 168 population health, 143-144, 168, 178 positive health, 12, 13, 56-57, 169-170 predisease pathways, 12, 13, 49, 164, 165-170, 175, 176-177 psychological factors, 12, 13, 176, 180 social factors, 12, 13, 98, 165-166, 169, 180 socioeconomic status, 102, 170 see also Animal models; Longitudinal studies; Multidisciplinary approaches; Population health Resilience and resistance, 3, 5, 23, 47-49, 55, 57, 63, 164, 169-170 children, 48 community-level factors, 48 differential survival processes, 5, 8, 49, 50, 82, 101 microarray chip technologies, 64 race/ethnicity, 110, socioeconomic status, 48-49, 104, 110, see also Immune system and infectious diseases Respiratory system, 29, 45, 47-48, 52, 69-70, 81, 126, 132 asthma, 10, 126, 134-135, 143, 148 lung cancer, 22, 75, 126, 132 see also National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Risk factors, general, 2, 4-5, 9-10, 11, 19, 20 co-occurring, 18, 20, 26-27 cumulative, 9, 13, 26-27 genetics, 64, 129-130, 149 interventions, 12, 148, 150-160 population-level health, 126-130 prenatal and early, 4, 25, 28-32 see also Allostasis and allostatic load; Behavior, individual; Environmental factors; Health promotion; Predisease pathways; Primary prevention; Public education; specific risk factors (e.g., Smoking) Rural areas, 98, 108, 129 S School-based interventions, 11, 54 Serotonergic dysfunction, 29, 30, 32, 168 substance abuse, 35

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), 34, 35, 121-123, 130, 133-134, 138-139 adolescents, 122, 138-139 HIV/AIDS, 28, 50, 108, 122, 123 Sleep, 82-83 Smoking, 22, 29, 34, 52, 92, 126, 128, 132, 140, 150-151, 154, 155 adolescents, 34-35, 128 cardiovascular disease, 22, 140 gender factors, 34, 128 prenatal development, 34-35 tobacco tax, 150, 154, 157 Social factors, 10, 17-18, 20, 22, 97-98 alcohol and drug use, 36 animal colonies, 6, 7, 13, 76, 77, 84, 170, 184, 186 cognitive factors, 22, 74 gene expression, 64 interventions, 11, 12, 51, 149, 151-153, 155, 156, 157, 160 isolation, 4, 26, 74, 75, 82-83, 149, 153, 155 occupational stress, 38 population-level health and, 10, 11, 75, 118, 143 positive health, 5, 13, 36, 46, 47, 51, 54-57, 187 predisease pathways, 3-5, 26, 32, 36, 165-166, 176, 185, 186-187 pregnancy, 36 recovery from disease, 50-51 research infrastructure, 13, 185, 186-187, 188 research methodology, 12, 13, 98, 165-166, 169, 180 see also Child-mother interactions; Community-level factors; Cultural factors; Personal ties; Racism and discrimination Socioeconomic status, 2, 3, 7, 9-10, 19, 23-24, 48-49, 91, 92-95, 97-98, 110-117, 143 adolescent health, 104 allostatic load, 48-49, 103, 104 animal studies of social hierarchies, 9, 103 cardiovascular disease, 101, 106 children, 48, 103, 104, 134 chronic diseases and disabilities, 101, 131-132 community-level factors, 92-95, 97-98, 102-103, 106, 108 educational attainment, 9, 100, 101, 102, 107, 108, 111, 128, 132 historical perspectives, 100-101 immigrants, 110 individual behavior, 9, 102-103 international perspectives, 101-102, 104-105, 119, 130, 131, 135-136 interventions and, 149, 155 life expectancy, 135, 136 longitudinal studies, 9-10, 102, 104-106, 109-110, 111 macroeconomy, 10, 106, 118, 131-132, 135-137, 143-144 mental illness, 103, 105 mortality rates, 91, 92, 95, 100-103, 135 (passim) parenting and, 31 positive health, 52 predisease pathways, 9, 37, 91, 92, 95, 100-104 (passim), 106, 108-109, 110-111 pregnancy, 103 psychological factors, 9, 101, 102, 104, 105, 106 race/ethnicity, 100, 106-111, 155 recovery from disease, 48-49, 104 resilience, 48-49, 104, 110, 111 sexually transmitted diseases, 133 see also Employment and unemployment South Africa, 108 Stanford Five-City Project, 154 Stanford Three Community Study, 153-154 Stigmatization, 3, 9, 23-29, 107, 109-110, 111, 155 see also Racism and discrimination Substance abuse, see Alcohol and drug use Suicide, 29, 92, 106, 110, 111 Surgeon General, 126, 128, 132 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 185 Sustainable Seattle project, 8, 96 Sympathetic nervous system, 27, 29, 32, 33 T Taxation, tobacco, 150, 154, 157 Technological innovations, 12, 130, 132-133, 138, 156, 160 animal colonies, 6, 13, 70, 184, 186, 188 food preservation, 130-131 geographic information systems, 97

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New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach historical perspectives, 17 managed care, 141 microarray chips, 6, 64, 70, 166 Television, 75, 102 Time horizons, 4, 22, 118 alcohol and drug use, 4, 22, 40 genetic factors, 22 predisease pathways, 23, 25 see also Longitudinal studies; Population health Tobacco use, see Smoking Training, see Health promotion; Professional education; Public education Triglycerides, 33 Tuberculosis, 108, 121, 123-125, 134 U United Kingdom, 104-105, 120, 131, 165-166, 186 United Nations, 135-136 Urban areas, 8, 92, 97-98 childhood asthma, 135 race/ethnicity, 9, 108 V Venereal diseases, see Sexually transmitted diseases W Weight factors adults, 35, 36, 52, 53, 75, 129, 156 birth weight, 36, 65, 91, 92, 93, 96, 119, 125, 134, 138 childhood obesity, 153 eating disorders, 9, 75, 148, 152, 156, 157 Whewell, William, 22 Whitehall II Study of the British Social Service, 105, 165 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), 105, 110, 165, 172, 185 Women, see Gender factors World Health Organization, 123