the mechanisms through which these effects occur and how they can be reversed.

Population Health: greater understanding of macro-level trends in health status, how the macroeconomy and population health are linked, and the performance of the health care system.

Interventions: expansion of the scope and effectiveness of behavioral, psychosocial, and biological strategies for improving health, including multilevel (individual, family, organizational, population) initiatives.

Methodology: emerges from the recognition that new measurement techniques and study designs are required to link information across diverse levels of analysis (molecular, cellular, behavioral, psychosocial, community) and across time.

Infrastructure: refers to the need for future structures and resources to maintain long-term study populations and train new generations of scientists to integrate health-related knowledge across multiple disciplines.

The scope of these priorities is expansive and integrative, with each encompassing wide areas of research. Some represent phenomena at the individual level, while others deal with macro-level (e.g. population) issues. The chapters that follow elaborate each of these priorities and identify principal recommendations associated with them. Collectively, they comprise the integrated pathway approach to health that is the guiding theme of this report.

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