In summary, the major findings and opinions expressed in this chapter are as follows:
Most institutions maintain and subsidize a critical administrative nucleus of professional veterinary and/or management personnel involved in program oversight. The data from the 1999 ARS did not permit the evaluation of the administrative configurations against program quality performance measures. The vacancy rate for these positions was 16.7%, suggesting the need for enhanced development, recruitment, and retention efforts to ensure sound program leadership.
Large mouse-based animal care and use programs are able to operate with higher ratios of technical staff to animal care management staff and so to realize an economy of scale in managerial staffing.
Inhouse training was the predominant mode (89%) used for preparing the workforce among the institutions participating in the 1999 ARS. Certification at some level by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science was more prevalent among management positions (72%) than among technical positions (24%).
The application of the team management approach (University of Michigan study) suggests that institutions should be encouraged to apply modern management techniques to enhance investigator (customer) satisfaction, improve employee performance and involvement, and potentially reduce costs. This approach may be more easily implemented by hiring and retaining employees with training and skills in personnel management.