WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?

A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Committee on Women in Science and Engineering

Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?: A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE? A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Committee on Women in Science and Engineering Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?: A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCENATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approvedby the Council of the National Academy of Sciences.This report has been reviewed by persons other than the author accordingto procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting ofmembers of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academyof Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This project was supported by the National Academy of Sciences. Anyopinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed inthis publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarilyreflect the view of the National Academy of Sciences. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07185-2Copies available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 (800) 624–6242, (202) 334–3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?: A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguishedscholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicatedto the furtherance of science and technology and to their use forthe general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted toit by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requiresit to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters.Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academyof Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers.It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of itsmembers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibilityfor advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineeringalso sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs,encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievementsof engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academyof Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to securethe services of eminent members of appropriate professions in theexamination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public.The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the NationalAcademy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviserto the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identifyissues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shineis president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associatethe broad community of science and technology with the Academy'spurposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government.Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by theAcademy, the Council has become the principal operating agency ofboth the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy ofEngineering in providing services to the government, the public,and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administeredjointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. BruceM. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman,respectively, of the National Research Council.

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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?: A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM STEERING COMMITTEE MARYE ANNE FOX, Chair, North Carolina State University MARGARET BURBIDGE, University of California, San Diego MILDRED COHN, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine MILDRED DRESSELHAUS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (on leave from August 2000) MARIA NEW, Cornell University Medical College VERA RUBIN, Carnegie Institute of Washington KAREN UHLENBECK, University of Texas, Austin HOWARD GEORGI, Harvard University LILIAN WU, IBM Corporation COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (1999) HOWARD GEORGI, Co-chair, Harvard University LILIAN SHIAO-YEN WU, Co-chair, IBM Corporation WILLIE PEARSON JR., Wake Forest University SUSAN SOLOMON, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University OSEP ADVISORY BOARD LIAISON STEPHEN LUKASIK, Independent Consultant Staff JONG-ON HAHM, Director SHIREL SMITH, Project Coordinator

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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?: A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PERSONNEL ADVISORY COMMITTEE(1999) M.R.C. GREENWOOD, Chair, University of California, Santa Cruz DAVID BRENEMAN, University of Virginia CARLOS GUTIERREZ, California State University, Los Angeles STEPHEN J. LUKASIK, Independent Consultant, Los Angeles JANET NORWOOD, The Urban Institute JOHN D. WILEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison TADATAKA YAMADA, Smith Kline Beecham Corporation A. THOMAS YOUNG, North Potomac, Maryland WILLIAM H. MILLER, ex-officio, University of California, Berkeley Staff CHARLOTTE V. KUH, Executive Director MARILYN J. BAKER, Associate Executive Director NINA KAULL, Administrative Officer CATHY JACKSON, Administrative Associate EDVIN HERNANDEZ, Administrative Assistant

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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?: A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE Preface Modern science is a complex web of many different people and institutions.If we are to maintain the pace of scientific discovery for the benefitof humankind, scientists need to ensure that outstanding people withmany different talents will continue to join the scientific community.Increasingly, we must compete with other communities for the bestminds the world has to offer. If science is to continue to prosperand move forward, we must ensure that no source of scientific intellectis overlooked or lost. This means including women and ethnic minoritiesas active participants in the scientific enterprise. In 1998, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) asked the NationalResearch Council's (NRC) Committee on Women in Science and Engineering(CWSE) to host a discussion centered on the challenges facing allscientists in the current scientific climate, but focused particularlyon the challenges that women face at every transition point in theircareers.

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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?: A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE Meeting participants agreed that these challenges contribute to thesharp losses in numbers of women scientists at each career stage,and that the NAS should make a strong statement to focus attentionon the importance of enabling women to contribute to and lead inthe scientific process. This symposium is the outcome of the 1998meeting. The symposium was held during the 1999 NAS annual meeting to addressthe question, “Who will do the science of the future?” The symposium focused on the need to bring in manyviewpoints to science and ways to increase the variety of viewpointsby recruiting and retaining women in science. The speakers, all leadersin their fields, emphasized the need to engage and sustain the interestof women in science, and presented ways in which different institutionshave developed approaches to retain women in scientific careers. The Committee on Women in Science and Engineering was honored tobe asked to organize the NAS symposium. Since its inception in 1991as a standing committee of the NRC, CWSE has worked to coordinate,monitor, and advocate national action on increasing the numbers ofwomen in science and engineering. The committee members representdiverse scientific and engineering disciplines, and all have broughtattention to the importance of including women in their own fields. We would like to thank the staff of CWSE, Dr. Jong-on Hahm, Director,and Shirel Smith, Project Coordinator, for bringing to fruition theideas of the symposium steering committee and CWSE. We would alsolike to thank Dr. Charlotte Kuh, Executive Director of the Officeof Scientific and Engineering Personnel in which CWSE is housed,for her support and guidance to CWSE during coordination of the symposium. Howard Georgi, Ph.D., Co-chair Lilian Shiao-Yen Wu, Ph.D., Co-chair Committee on Women in Science and Engineering

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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?: A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE Contents     OVERVIEW   1     WELCOME Bruce Alberts, President National Academy of Sciences   3  PLENARY PANEL I:   THE NEXT GENERATION: SCIENCE FOR ALL STUDENTS        Speaker Introductions Marye Anne Fox (Moderator) Chancellor, North Carolina State University   5      A Plan, A Strategy for K-12 Leon M. Lederman, Director Emeritus Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory   7      Mentoring Minority Women in Science: Special Struggles Richard Tapia, Professor, Computational and Applied Mathematics Rice University   12

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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?: A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE      Controversy, The Internet, and Deformed Frogs: Making Science Accessible Marcia Linn, Professor, Development and Cognition University of California, Berkeley   16  PLENARY PANEL II:   AN IN-DEPTH VIEW OF COMPUTER SCIENCE        Speaker Introductions Marye Anne Fox (Moderator) Chancellor, North Carolina State University   29      The Declining Percentage of Women in Computer Science: An AcademicView William A. Wulf, President National Academy of Engineering   31      Women in Information Technology: A View from Industry Lilian Shiao-Yen Wu Consultant to Corporate Technical Strategy Development, IBM President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology   38  PLENARY PANEL III:   STRATEGIES AND POLICIES TO RECRUIT, RETAIN, AND ADVANCE WOMEN SCIENTISTS        Speaker Introductions Marye Anne Fox (Moderator) Chancellor, North Carolina State University   43      A Tentative Theory of Unconscious Discrimination Against Women inScience Howard Georgi, Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics Harvard University   45      The Mentoring Program for Women in Mathematics Karen Uhlenbeck, Professor and Sid W. Richardson Foundation Regents Chair in Mathematics University of Texas at Austin   49      Strategies and Policies to Recruit, Retain, and Advance Women Scientists Mildred Dresselhaus, Institute Professor Massachusetts Institute of Technology   55

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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?: A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE  PLENARY PANEL IV:   ADVANCING WOMEN INTO SCIENCE LEADERSHIP        Speaker Introduction Marye Anne Fox (Moderator) Chancellor, North Carolina State University   57      Advancing Women Into Science Leadership M.R.C. Greenwood, Chancellor University of California, Santa Cruz   59     Closing Remarks Marye Anne Fox (Moderator) Chancellor, North Carolina State University   75     Question and Answer Comments        Panel I   77      Panel II   81      Panel III   84

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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?: A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE Figures FIGURES  1   The Frog Deformity Problem,   18  2   Lefty The Frog,   20  3   Research Forum on Deformed Frogs,   21  4   Women in Computer Science,   32  5   Computer Science Ph.D.s,   33  6   The Pipeline,   34  7   Interest in Computing,   36  8   Interest in Computing: Reason for Majoring in Computer Science,   36  9   Proportion of 24-year-olds Earning NS&E Degrees, by Country,   62  10   Nature Cover Story on Gender Differences,   64  11   Biological Sciences B.S. Degrees,   65  12   Biological Sciences Ph.D.s,   66  13   Women Biological Scientists in Academic Positions as a Percentageof Total (Men and Women),   66  14   Percentage of Women in Faculty Levels for All Science and Engineering,   67  15   Assistant Professors: Percentage of Women by Discipline,   68  16   Full Professors: Percentage of Women by Discipline,   68  17   Percentage of Women Scientists (Ph.D.s awarded pre-1969) CurrentlyEmployed in Research I and II Institutions and Percentage of CurrentFemale NAS Membership by Section,   70  18   Percentage of Women Biological Scientists Employed in Different Sectors,   72

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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?: A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?

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