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COLLOQUIUM ON Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis: 50 Years after Stebbins

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
WASHINGTON, D.C.
2000



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COLLOQUIUM ON Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis: 50 Years after Stebbins COLLOQUIUM ON Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis: 50 Years after Stebbins NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASHINGTON, D.C. 2000

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COLLOQUIUM ON Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis: 50 Years after Stebbins NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Colloquium Series In 1991, the National Academy of Sciences inaugurated a series of scientific colloquia, five or six of which are scheduled each year under the guidance of the NAS Council's Committee on Scientific Programs. Each colloquium addresses a scientific topic of broad and topical interest, cutting across two or more of the traditional disciplines. Typically two days long, colloquia are international in scope and bring together leading scientists in the field. Papers from colloquia are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

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COLLOQUIUM ON Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis: 50 Years after Stebbins National Academy of Sciences Colloquium Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms Toward a New Synthesis: 50 Years after Stebbins Beckman Center of the National Academies at Irvine, California January 27–29, 2000 Organized by Francisco J. Ayala, Walter M. Fitch, and Michael T. Clegg Welcoming Reception Session I. Early and Prokaryote Evolution Predicting the Course of Evolution: Viral Models • Walter M. Fitch (UC Irvine) Genetic Variation and the Response of Bacteria to Natural and Not-So-Natural Selection • Bruce R. Levin (Emory) The Evolution of RNA Viruses: A Population Genetics View • Andrés Moya (U. Valencia, Spain) Origin of the Nucleus and Symbiogenesis • Lynn Margulis (U. Massachusetts) Session II. Origins and Evolution of Eukaryote Cells: Evolutionary Mobility of Organelle Genes–Migration to the Nucleus and Lateral Transfer between Organisms • Jeffrey D. Palmer (Indiana U.) Transposable Elements in Plants • Nina Fedoroff (Penn State U.) Evolution of RNA Editing in Kinetoplastid Protozoa • Larry Simpson (UCLA) Evolution and Population Structure of Plasmodium • Francisco J. Ayala (UC Irvine) Banquet Lecture: Early Life - J. William Schopf (UCLA) Session III. Patterns of Plant Evolution: Saturday, January 29, AM Major Evolutionary Trends in Plants: The Fossil Record • David L. Dilcher (U. Florida) Polyploid Evolution: Genetic and Genomic Consequences • Pamela S. Soltis (Wash. State U.) Rates of Genome Evolution in Plants • Brandon S. Gaut (UC Irvine) Flower Color Variation: A Model for the Experimental Study of Evolution • Michael T. Clegg (UC Riverside) Session IV. Population Variation and Adaptation. Variation in Plant Populations • Barbara A. Schaal (Washington U.) Mating and Breeding Systems in Plant Evolution • Kent E. Holsinger (U. Connecticut) Hybridization as Stimulus for the Evolution of Invasive Success in Exotic Plants • Norman C. Ellstrand (UC Riverside) Origins of Domesticated Plants • Jared M. Diamond (UCLA)

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COLLOQUIUM ON Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis: 50 Years after Stebbins This page in the original is blank.

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COLLOQUIUM ON Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis: 50 Years after Stebbins National Academy of Sciences Colloquia Bound Reprints Available In 1991, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) inaugurated a series of scientific colloquia, several of which are held each year under the auspices of the NAS Council Committee on Scientific Programs. These colloquia address scientific topics of broad and topical interest that cut across two or more traditional disciplines. Typically two days long, these colloquia are international in scope and bring together leading scientists in the field. Papers presented at these colloquia are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) and are available online (www.pnas.org). Because they have generated much interest, these papers are now available in the form of collected bound reprints, which may be ordered through the National Academy Press. Currently available are: Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change ($11) Held November 13–15, 1995 (Irvine, CA) Computational Biomolecular Science ($16) Held September 12–13, 1997 (Irvine, CA) Earthquake Prediction ($16) Held February 10–11, 1995 (Irvine, CA) Elliptic Curves and Modular Forms ($7) Held March 15–17, 1996 (Washington, DC) Genetic Engineering of Viruses and Viral Vectors ($21) Held June 9–11, 1996 (Irvine, CA) Genetics and the Origin of Species ($8) Held January 31–February 1, 1997 (Irvine, CA) Geology, Mineralogy, and Human Welfare ($11) New! Held November 8–9, 1998 (Irvine, CA) Neurobiology of Pain ($8) New! Held December 11–13, 1998 (Irvine, CA) Ordering Information: Telephone orders will be accepted only when charged to VISA, MasterCard, or American Express accounts. Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function ($17) Held May 29–31, 1997 (Irvine, CA) Plants and Population: Is There Time? ($8) New! Held December 5–6, 1998 (Irvine, CA) Shipping and Handling Charges: In the U.S. and Canada please add $4.50 for the first reprint ordered and $0.95 for each additional reprint. Protecting Our Food Supply: The Value of Plant Genome Initiatives ($13) Held May 29–31, 1997 (Irvine, CA) Proteolytic Processing and Physiological Regulation ($11) New! Held February 20–21, 1999 (Irvine, CA) Papers from future colloquia will be available for purchase after they appear in PNAS. Science, Technology, and the Economy ($12) Held November 20–22, 1995 (Irvine, CA) To order, call toll-free 1-800-624-6242 or order online at www.nap.edu and receive a 20% discount. The Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation ($13) Held March 21–23, 1997 (Irvine, CA)

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COLLOQUIUM ON Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis: 50 Years after Stebbins This page in the original is blank.

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COLLOQUIUM ON Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis: 50 Years after Stebbins PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Contents COLLOQUIUM Papers from the National Academy of Sciences Colloquium on Variation and evolution in plants and microorganisms: Toward a new synthesis 50 years after Stebbins     INTRODUCTION        Variation and evolution in plants and microorganisms: Toward a new synthesis 50 years after Stebbins Francisco J. Ayala, Walter M. Fitch, and Michael T. Clegg   1     COLLOQUIUM PAPERS        G. Ledyard Stebbins (1906–2000): An appreciation Peter H. Raven   5      Solution to Darwin's dilemma: Discovery of the missing Precambrian record of life J. William Schopf   7      The chimeric eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate protists Lynn Margulis, Michael F. Dolan, and Ricardo Guerrero   14      Dynamic evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes: Mobile genes and introns and highly variable mutation rates Jeffrey D. Palmer, Keith L. Adams, Yangrae Cho, Christopher L. Parkinson, Yin-Long Qiu, and Keming Song   20      The evolution of RNA viruses: A population genetics view Andrés Moya, Santiago F. Elena, Alma Bracho, Rosario Miralles, and Eladio Barrio   27      Effects of passage history and sampling bias on phylogenetic reconstruction of human influenza A evolution Robin M. Bush, Catherine B. Smith, Nancy J. Cox, and Walter M. Fitch   34      Bacteria are different: Observations, interpretations, speculations, and opinions about the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in prokaryotes Bruce R. Levin and Carl T. Bergstrom   41      Evolution of RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria Larry Simpson, Otavio H. Thiemann, Nicholas J. Savill, Juan D. Alfonzo, and D. A. Maslov   46      Population structure and recent evolution of Plasmodium falciparum Stephen M. Rich and Francisco J. Ayala   54      Transposons and genome evolution in plants Nina Fedoroff   62      Maize as a model for the evolution of plant nuclear genomes Brandon S. Gaut, Maud Le Thierry d'Ennequin, Andrew S. Peek, and Mark C. Sawkins   68      Flower color variation: A model for the experimental study of evolution Michael T. Clegg and Mary L. Durbin   76      Gene genealogies and population variation in plants Barbara A. Schaal and Kenneth M. Olsen   84      Toward a new synthesis: Major evolutionary trends in the angiosperm fossil record David Dilcher   90      Reproductive systems and evolution in vascular plants Kent E. Holsinger   97      Hybridization as a stimulus for the evolution of invasiveness in plants? Norman C. Ellstrand and Kristina A. Schierenbeck   103      The role of genetic and genomic attributes in the success of polyploids Pamela S. Soltis and Douglas E. Soltis   113

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COLLOQUIUM ON Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis: 50 Years after Stebbins G. Ledyard Stebbins 1906–2000 Ledyard Stebbins, the most eminent plant evolutionist of the twentieth century, died on January 19, 2000, just 8 days before the colloquium on “Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms” was held on January 27–29, 2000, at the Beckman Center in Irvine, California. The colloquium, which he planned to attend, was sponsored by the National Academies of Sciences to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the publication of Stebbins' classic book “Variation and Evolution in Plants.” These proceedings include the papers presented at the colloquium.