training of how to implement results of a functional behavioral assessment in home and school interventions is often needed to link the assessments with interventions.

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

IDEA requires that if a child’s behavior impedes his or her learning or the learning of others, the IEP team must consider, if appropriate, strategies, including positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address that behavior (20 U.S.C., 1414 (d)(3)(B)(i), 1999; 34 C.F.R., 300.346(a)(2)(i), 1999. “Positive behavioral interventions and supports” describes an approach to deal with a child’s impeding behavior that focuses on the remediation of deficient contexts (i.e., environmental conditions and behavioral repertoires) that are confirmed by functional behavioral assessment to be the source of the problem (Carr et al., 1999a). An expanded definition of this proactive rather than reactive process brings together four interrelated components that draw on aspects of many of the interventions described above. Positive behavioral interventions and supports include (Turnbull et al., 1999):

  1. systems change (e.g., the process of considering, modifying, or substantially changing an agency’s policies, procedures, practices, personnel, organization, environment, or funding);

  2. environmental alterations (including building on a child’s strengths and preferences, connecting the child with community supports, increasing the quality of the student’s physical environment, making environmental alterations, such as changing when or for how long an activity occurs or introducing a schedule for the student, and making instructional accommodations for the student);

  3. skill instruction, consisting of instruction for both the student and those who interact with him or her on appropriate academic, independent living, or other skills; teaching the student alternative behaviors and adaptive behaviors that reduce or ameliorate the impeding behaviors; and teaching skills to those involved with the student regarding communication with the student, development of social relationships, problem solving, and appropriate responses to the student’s impeding behaviors; and

  4. behavioral consequences (so that impeding behaviors are eliminated or minimized and appropriate behaviors are established and increased).

The expected outcomes from positive behavioral interventions and supports are increases in positive behavior, decreases in problem behavior, and improvements in life-style (Horner et al., 1990). This includes the expectation of systems change, including changes in the behaviors of oth-

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