Index

A

Adaptive behavior, 5, 12, 27, 40–41, 47, 103– 114, 116, 184, 212

see also Generalization of learning;

Maintenance of behaviors and skills

age factors, 104, 105–107, 111–113

comprehensive programs, 144, 169

independence, 5, 216, 218

professional education, 184

self-help, 5, 162, 167, 216, 218

toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114

Adults

see also Parental factors;

Teachers autistic, 36, 37–38, 43, 48, 71, 104, 106

behavioral problems, 117, 213

interactions with, general, 6, 49, 56, 59, 68–69, 70, 73, 76–77, 78, 80, 81, 138, 218, 219

comprehensive programs, 142, 157

Advocacy, 13, 181–182, 223

see also Litigation

parental, 32, 36–37, 39, 146, 214–215, 222

Age factors, 37–38, 71, 76–77, 84, 85, 88, 216

see also Adults;

Developmental theory and approaches;

Early intervention, general;

Peer interactions

adaptive behavior, 104, 105–107, 111–113

assessment of children, 29, 30, 74

behavior problems, 116, 117–118

communication and symbolic abilities, 50, 54, 123, 160

diagnosis, 3–4, 23, 25, 93, 94, 195–197, 212

interventions, 6, 7, 29, 43, 71, 74, 144– 145, 160, 163, 167–168, 169, 170, 171–172, 206, 207, 210, 220, 221

IQ and, 47, 71, 201, 206

older children with autism, 95, 104, 105– 106, 116, 144–145

parents of, 36, 37–38, 78–79

onset of autism, 2, 11, 211

screening, 4, 25, 195–197

sensory/motor deficits, 93, 94, 97, 110

Aggressive behavior, 49, 115, 116, 118, 125, 131, 145, 213

self-injurious behavior, 49, 115, 116, 117–118, 123, 125, 128–129

tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213

Alternative communication, see Augmentative and alternative communication

American Academy of Neurology, 14

American Psychological Association, 14

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 62, 188

Americans with Disabilities Act, 179



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Educating Children with Autism Index A Adaptive behavior, 5, 12, 27, 40–41, 47, 103– 114, 116, 184, 212 see also Generalization of learning; Maintenance of behaviors and skills age factors, 104, 105–107, 111–113 comprehensive programs, 144, 169 independence, 5, 216, 218 professional education, 184 self-help, 5, 162, 167, 216, 218 toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114 Adults see also Parental factors; Teachers autistic, 36, 37–38, 43, 48, 71, 104, 106 behavioral problems, 117, 213 interactions with, general, 6, 49, 56, 59, 68–69, 70, 73, 76–77, 78, 80, 81, 138, 218, 219 comprehensive programs, 142, 157 Advocacy, 13, 181–182, 223 see also Litigation parental, 32, 36–37, 39, 146, 214–215, 222 Age factors, 37–38, 71, 76–77, 84, 85, 88, 216 see also Adults; Developmental theory and approaches; Early intervention, general; Peer interactions adaptive behavior, 104, 105–107, 111–113 assessment of children, 29, 30, 74 behavior problems, 116, 117–118 communication and symbolic abilities, 50, 54, 123, 160 diagnosis, 3–4, 23, 25, 93, 94, 195–197, 212 interventions, 6, 7, 29, 43, 71, 74, 144– 145, 160, 163, 167–168, 169, 170, 171–172, 206, 207, 210, 220, 221 IQ and, 47, 71, 201, 206 older children with autism, 95, 104, 105– 106, 116, 144–145 parents of, 36, 37–38, 78–79 onset of autism, 2, 11, 211 screening, 4, 25, 195–197 sensory/motor deficits, 93, 94, 97, 110 Aggressive behavior, 49, 115, 116, 118, 125, 131, 145, 213 self-injurious behavior, 49, 115, 116, 117–118, 123, 125, 128–129 tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213 Alternative communication, see Augmentative and alternative communication American Academy of Neurology, 14 American Psychological Association, 14 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 62, 188 Americans with Disabilities Act, 179

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Educating Children with Autism Applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, 125–126, 131, 142, 148–149, 156, 184, 225 Asperger’s Disorder, 2, 24, 29–30, 85, 95, 212 Assessment, 2, 4, 7, 26–30, 156–158, 184–185, 211–214, 220–221 see also Diagnosis; Outcomes; Screening adaptive behavior, 107–110 age factors, 29, 30, 74 behavioral problems, 118–132 applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, 125–126, 131, 142, 148– 149, 156, 184, 225 functional assessment, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122–124, 127, 130, 131–132, 134, 135, 213 communication and language deficits, 26, 27, 28–30, 51–52, 74, 167 comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 156– 158, 167 functional, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122–124, 127, 130, 131–132, 134, 135, 213 growth curve analysis, 207–208, 210 intelligence, 27–28, 82, 90, 108, 193 IQ scores, 5, 44, 70, 84–87, 88, 90, 108, 168, 170–171, 172, 184, 201, 217 mental retardation, 1, 2, 24, 27, 82, 84–85, 104, 105, 106, 125, 129, 176– 177, 184 language factors, 27, 28, 29–30, 31, 52, 138–139, 167, 179, 215–216 multidisciplinary, 4, 23–24, 28, 30 parental factors, 27, 28, 29–30, 31, 52, 138–139, 167, 179, 215–216 siblings of autistic children, 38–39 videotapes, 94, 155, 156, 157–158, 171 Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System, 74 Assistive technology, 2, 3, 12, 56–57, 59–63, 103, 136, 184 Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 141 Attachment and attachment constructs, 67 Atypical autism, 3, 213 prevalence, 24 Auditory perception, 30, 31–32, 42, 83, 85, 98, 99–101, 123, 131, 212 Augmentative and alternative communication, 51, 55, 56–63, 136–137 Autism Behavior Checklist, 196 Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, 85, 196, 197 Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 197, 198 Autism Screening Questionnaire, 25–26 Autism Society of America, 188, 194, 228 Autistic Spectrum Disorders Support Systems, 223 Aversive approaches, 106, 110–111, 121–122, 123, 128, 133, 134–135, 146, 162, 163, 181 B Battelle Developmental Inventory, 74 Bed wetting, see Toilet training Behavioral problems, 5, 11, 12, 15, 49, 68, 69–70, 78, 104, 115–132, 194 see also Adaptive behavior; Aggressive behavior; Imitation; Maintenance of behaviors and skills; Pivotal behavior adults, 117, 213 age factors, 116, 117–118 applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, 125–126, 131, 142, 148–149, 156, 184, 225 assessment, 27, 28, 30–31, 118–132 applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, 125–126, 131, 142, 148– 149, 156, 184, 225 functional assessment, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122–124, 127, 130, 131–132, 134, 135, 213 auditory perception and, 30–31 classification of, 115–116 clinical practice guidelines, 118–119 communication deficits and, 49, 55 comprehensive programs, 116, 119–120, 125, 143, 144–145, 146, 147–149, 150, 157, 163, 169 developmental approaches, 12, 117, 119, 126 diagnosis, 2, 3–4, 25, 196, 211–212 family/parental factors, 3–4, 69–70, 115, 116, 120, 121–122, 123 functional assessment, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122–124, 127, 130, 131–132, 134, 135, 213 interventions, general, 6, 40–41, 42–43, 68, 71–73, 78, 79–81, 110–114, 118– 137, 139, 194, 195, 210, 218

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Educating Children with Autism applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, 125–126, 131, 142, 148– 149, 156, 184, 225 aversive approaches, 106, 110–111, 121–122, 123, 128, 133, 134–135, 146, 162, 163, 181 drug treatment, 116, 128–131 functional assessment, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122–124, 127, 130, 131–132, 134, 135, 213 incidental learning, 6, 54, 78, 119, 134, 150, 164, 184 Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148–149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161–162, 162, 165, 171 naturalistic teaching and learning, 15, 42, 134, 142, 148, 149, 159, 184 professional education, 183, 184 neurobiological factors, 116, 117–118 self-injurious behavior, 49, 115, 116, 117–118, 123, 125, 128–129 self-stimulatory behavior, 55, 105, 111, 213 sleeping, 107–108 toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114 stereotypic behavior, 61, 94, 96, 97, 98, 117, 118, 145, 176–177 tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213 teachers response to, 116, 130 time factors, 116–117, 119, 120, 123, 134, 163 Boys, see Gender factors Brain, see Neurobiological factors C CARS, see Childhood Autism Rating Scale Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 208 Central coherence theory, 89 Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), 25, 26, 196 Child-centered approaches, 63 Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), 27, 156, 169, 196, 197 Childhood disintegrative disorder, 3, 12, 213 Children’s Unit, 142, 146, 148, 150, 154, 155, 158, 161, 163–164, 165, 167 Classification issues, 2–3, 13, 25, 27–28, 69, 176–177 see also Assessment; Diagnosis behavioral problems, 115–116 features of autism, 11–12, 212 historical perspectives, 31, 32–33, 47 The Clinical Practice Guidelines for Autism/ Persuasive Development Disorders, 118–119 Clinical trials, 6, 8, 15–17, 90, 131, 194, 197– 198, 199–201, 204, 218–219, 222– 223 Clonidine, 129 Cognitive deficits, 5, 82–92, 212 see also Communication deficits; Language factors comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 145, 156–157, 162, 168–169, 172 Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 executive functioning, 84, 89 intelligence, 27–28, 82, 90, 108, 193 see also Mental retardation intelligence quotients (IQs), 5, 44, 70, 84–87, 88, 90, 108, 168, 170–171, 172, 184, 201, 217 age factors, 47, 71, 201, 206 interventions, general, 6, 86, 90–92, 220, 229 joint attention and, 83, 89 memory, 57, 83, 85, 88, 89 reading skills, 62–63, 78–79, 83, 91 Collaborative Program for Excellence in Autism, 209 Communication deficits, 1, 5, 12, 47–65, 71, 79, 83, 105, 115, 205 see also Auditory perception; Joint attention; Language factors; Social factors age factors, 50, 54, 123, 160 assessment, 26, 27, 28–30, 51–52, 74, 167 augmentative and alternative communication, 51, 55, 56–63, 136–137 communication training, 121 comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 149, 160, 162, 167 diagnosis, 25, 26, 47, 212 facilitated communication, 61–62 familial factors, 47

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Educating Children with Autism functional communication, 49–50, 61–62, 64–65, 123, 160, 221 initiation of communication/ spontaneous communication, 6, 41, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 64, 70, 71, 161, 169, 204, 221 goals of education, 40–41, 50–51, 72 historical perspectives, 47, 48 nonverbal communication, 3, 5, 25, 30, 47, 48, 58–59, 63–64, 69, 84, 85, 88, 95, 123, 214 augmentative and alternative communication, 51, 55, 56–63 comprehensive programs, 142, 144 pivotal behaviors, 53, 55–56 professional education, 184, 185 spontaneous, 6, 41, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 64, 70, 71, 161, 169, 204, 221 symbol use, 29, 49, 50, 54, 55–56, 58, 82, 123, 142, 160, 218 symbolic play, 42, 49–50, 70–71, 76–77 voice output communication aid, 59–60, 63 Communication Participation Model, 57 Community factors, 1, 11, 15, 32, 199 Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 interventions, general, 5, 7, 9, 218 Comprehensive programs, 17–18, 55–56, 133, 140–172, 204–205, 206–207 adaptive behavior, 144, 169 assessment, 142, 144, 156–158, 167 videotapes, 155, 156, 157–158, 171 behavioral problems, 116, 119–120, 125, 143, 144–145, 146, 147–149, 150, 157, 163, 169; see also Children’s Unit; Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center; Young Autism Project Children’s Unit, 142, 146, 148, 150, 154, 155, 158, 161, 163–164, 165, 167 cognitive development, 142, 144, 145, 156–157, 162, 168–169, 172 Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 communication deficits, 142, 144, 149, 160, 162, 167 cost factors, 153, 155, 172 curricula, 142, 143–145, 149, 158, 159, 165, 189 developmental theory and approaches, 144, 147–148, 149, 164 Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 Developmental Intervention Model, 142, 145, 147, 148, 150, 152, 153, 156–157, 160–161, 164, 168 discrete trials, 112, 141, 143, 144–145, 147, 148, 150, 163–164, 170 Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, 112, 143, 146, 148, 150, 151, 153, 154, 160, 164, 165, 167– 168 emotional factors, 142, 144, 148, 156–157 familial/parental factors, 142, 143, 144– 145, 149, 150, 152–154, 157, 170, 215 funding, 141, 143, 146 historical perspectives, 144, 146–147 individualized attention, general, 142, 159, 164–165 Individualized Support Program, 143, 145, 146, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 157–158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168 language factors, 144, 145, 156–157, 160, 167, 168, 172 Learning Experiences Alternative Program (LEAP), 143–144, 145, 146, 148, 150–155 (passim), 157, 158, 160, 161–162, 163, 168–169, 206–207 local education authorities (LEAs), 165, 178, 182, 213–214, 215–216 peer interactions, 142, 146, 148, 150, 157, 161, 162, 165, 171 Pivotal Response Model, 144, 147–153 (passim), 157, 161, 162, 169 play, 142, 161, 162 preschool programs, 143–144, 145, 146, 161, 165 Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 Individualized Support Program, 143, 145, 146, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 157–158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168 Learning Experiences (LEAP), 143– 144, 145, 146, 148, 150–155 (passim), 157, 158, 160, 161–162, 163, 168–169, 206–207

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Educating Children with Autism professional education, 154–156, 158– 159, 167, 185, 188–189, 224–225 school-based programs, 147, 157, 162, 165, 169; see also “preschool programs” supra social factors, general, 142, 144, 148–149, 156–157, 161–162, 165, 172 standards, 141, 155 state government role, 146, 165 time factors, 119, 142, 150, 151–152, 153– 154, 155–156, 161, 163, 167–168, 170 Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) program, 34, 35–36, 60, 80, 136–137, 144, 145, 146, 147, 150, 151, 152, 155, 158, 160, 161, 162, 164, 169–170, 188, 189 Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148–149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161–162, 165, 171 Young Autism Project, 112, 144–145, 146, 148, 150, 151, 153, 155, 158, 161, 162, 163, 170–171, 187–188, 206 Computer applications assistive learning technologies, 2, 3, 12, 56–57, 59–63, 91–92, 103, 136, 184 voice output communication aid, 59– 60, 61, 63 comprehensive programs, 157, 167 Internet, 214, 215 Core deficits, 5, 43, 47, 48–50, 54, 55–56, 63, 89, 128, 162 see also Communication deficits; Joint attention Cost and cost-effectiveness factors, 90, 180, 182 committee study methodology, 19 comprehensive programs, 153, 155, 172 family financial support, 153, 222 Council for Exceptional Children, 191 Court cases, see Litigation Creative Curriculum, 158 Cultural factors, familial, 34–35 Cure Autism Now, 194, 228 Curricula, 31, 40–41, 74, 120, 181, 186, 219, 226 comprehensive programs, 142, 143–145, 149, 158, 159, 165, 189 individualized education plans (IEPs), 36, 38, 109, 118, 119, 124, 127, 131, 154, 177–178, 180–181, 182, 207, 215–216, 217, 219–221 D Delivering Individualized Support for Young Children with Autism, 191 Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 Department of Education, 141 see also Office of Educational Research and Improvement; Office of Special Education Programs Department of Health and Human Services, see Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; terms beginning “National Institute…” Developmental, Individual Difference, Relationship-Based Model, 158 Developmental Intervention Model, 142, 145, 147, 148, 150, 152, 153, 156– 157, 160–161, 164, 168 Developmental theory and approaches, vii, x, 2–3, 6, 11–12, 13, 19, 82–92, 105– 106, 135–136, 203–204, 210, 213, 220 see also Age factors; Cognitive deficits; Language factors; Mental retardation atypical autism, 3, 24, 213 auditory perception, 31 behavioral problems, 12, 117, 119, 126 communication and symbolic abilities, 50, 51, 53–54 comprehensive programs, 144, 147–148, 149, 164 Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 Developmental Intervention Model, 142, 145, 147, 148, 150, 152, 153, 156–157, 160–161, 164, 168 pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), 2–3, 12, 24, 113, 206, 212, 213 social development, 15–16, 31, 66–69, 71– 72, 81, 105 state-funded programs, 23

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Educating Children with Autism Diagnosis, 2–4, 11, 13, 16, 23–24, 25–26, 30, 85, 93, 94, 104–105, 195–197, 210, 211–214, 227 see also Assessment; Screening age factors, 3–4, 23, 25, 93, 94, 195–197, 212 behavioral problems, 2, 3–4, 25, 196, 211–212 communication deficits, 25, 26, 47, 212 language factors, 23, 25, 212, 214 multidisciplinary, 23, 26, 30, 214 time factors, 3, 25, 211, 214, 219 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), 197 Discrete trials, 6, 122, 133–134, 137, 219 communication skills, 50, 53, 54, 64 comprehensive programs, 112, 141, 143, 144–145, 147, 148, 150, 163–164, 170 defined, 133 professional training, 187 Young Autism Project, 112, 144–145, 146, 148, 150 Dopamine, 118 Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, 112, 143, 146, 148, 150, 151, 153, 154, 160, 164, 165, 167– 168 Drug treatment, 116, 128–131, 132 DSM-IV, see Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders E Early intervention, general, vii, 6, 7, 9, 12, 37, 38, 123, 221, 222 see also Preschool programs assessment, 29, 30, 196 committee charge and methodology, 2, 13–14, 20 comprehensive programs, 143–144, 145, 146–147, 151, 162, 165, 166, 171– 172 diagnosis, 4, 23 drug treatments, 129 goals of, 41–42, 43 personnel education, 7, 8, 190 Early Intervention Profile and Preschool Profile, 157, 167 Echolalia, 29, 47, 49, 105, 163 Education of All Handicapped Children Act, 1, 12 Electroencephalograms, 30 Emotional factors, 1, 61, 66–67, 69, 79 attachment constructs, 67 comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 148, 156–157 parental, 32, 34, 39, 66–67, 153 Epidemiology behavioral problems, 118 prevalence, 17, 24–25, 125, 212–213 Ethical issues, 6, 8 Ethnicity, see Racial and ethnic factors Executive functioning, 84, 89 F Facilitated communication, 61–62 Familial factors, 3–4, 6, 32–39, 214–216, 218– 219, 223 see also Parental factors behavioral problems, 3–4, 69–70, 115, 116, 120, 121–122, 123 comprehensive programs, 142, 143, 144– 145, 149, 150, 152–154, 157, 170, 215 genetic/neurological, 11, 26, 30, 38–39, 117 professional development, 8, 226, 229 research design and description, 8–9, 198–199, 205–206, 229 Federal government role, 7, 9, 13, 190–191, 222–224 see also Funding; Legislation; specific departments and agencies Federal Interageny Coordinating Council, 222–223 Females, see Gender factors Fidelity of treatment, 8, 9, 91, 194, 206–207, 209, 210, 227, 228 Functional behavioral assessment, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122–124, 127, 130, 131– 132, 134, 135, 213 Functional communication, 49–50, 61–62, 64–65, 123, 160, 221 initiation of communication/ spontaneous communication, 6, 41, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 64, 70, 71, 161, 169, 204, 221 Functional Emotional Assessment Scale, 156–157 Funding, 7, 9, 23, 175, 182, 195, 210, 223, 224, 226, 227–228, 229 comprehensive programs, 141, 143, 146 professional development, 8, 187, 188, 189, 191

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Educating Children with Autism G Gender factors IQ scores, 85 parents of autistic children, 33, 34, 37, 66, 67, 221 prevalence of autism, 24 Generalization of learning, 5, 8, 35, 43, 64, 77, 108, 138, 139, 163–164, 184, 203, 216, 221 see also Maintenance of behaviors and skills Genetic factors, 11, 26, 30, 38–39, 117 Gilliam Autism Rating Scale, 196 Girls, see Gender factors Government role, see Federal government role; Legislation; State government role Governor’s Council for Developmental Disabilities, 223 Group instruction, 90, 91, 137–138, 159, 217 Growth curve analysis, 207–208, 210 H Haloperidol, 129 Hearing, see Auditory perception Heterogeneity, 2, 47–48, 69–71, 86, 186, 193, 197, 201, 207, 208, 211, 217 see also terms beginning “Individ…” Hierarchical linear modeling, 207–208, 210 Historical perspectives behavioral problems, 120 cognitive development, 82 communication deficits, 47, 48 comprehensive programs, 144, 146–147 definition/explanation of autism, 31, 32–33, 47 litigation, 176, 178, 179, 180–181, 182, 222, 224 prevalence of autism, 24 social development issues, 66, 67, 68 I IDEA, see Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IEPs, see Individualized education plans IFSP, see Individual Family Service Plan Imitation, 25, 42, 44, 50, 54, 56, 58, 69, 72, 73, 75, 80, 83–84, 95, 163, 218 echolalia, 29, 47, 49, 105, 163 Incidental learning, 6, 54, 78, 119, 134, 150, 164, 184 Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148–149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161–162, 165, 171 Independence, 5, 216, 218 see also Generalization of learning; Maintenance of behaviors and skills problem solving, 4, 124, 142, 163 self-help skills, 162, 167 toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114 Individual differences, see Heterogeneity Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP), 36, 178, 180–181, 217 Individual instruction, 31, 73, 83, 90, 91, 120, 137–138, 139, 142, 149 Individualized attention, 4, 6, 7, 31, 34, 144, 149, 153, 219, 220, 221 comprehensive programs, 142, 159, 164– 165 drug treatment and, 129 Individualized education plans (IEPs), 36, 38, 109, 118, 119, 124, 127, 131, 154, 177–178, 180–181, 182, 207, 215–216, 217, 219–221, 223 local education authorities (LEAs), 178, 182, 215–216 Individualized Support Program, 143, 145, 146, 149, 150, 152, 153, 154, 157– 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 2, 7, 13, 115, 119, 122, 124, 127, 132, 138, 176–179, 181– 182, 216, 222, 229 see also Individualized education plans Infants and Young Children, 141 Initiation of communication/spontaneous communication, 6, 41, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 64, 70, 71, 161, 169, 204, 221 Instructional strategies, 17–18, 78–81, 90–92, 112–114, 133–139, 216–218, 227 see also Comprehensive programs; Preschool programs; School-based programs; Teachers; terms beginning “Individual…” group instruction, 90, 91, 137–138, 159, 217 incidental teaching/learning, 6, 54, 78, 119, 134, 150, 164, 184

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Educating Children with Autism Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148–149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161–162, 165, 171 naturalistic teaching and learning, 15, 42, 134, 142, 148, 149, 159, 184 peer-mediated, 71, 72, 73–74, 77–78, 80, 81, 91, 109–110, 111, 133, 134, 138, 182, 217, 218, 221 comprehensive programs, 142, 146, 148, 150, 157, 161, 162, 165, 171 Intelligence, 27–28, 82, 90, 108, 193 see also Mental retardation Intelligence quotients (IQs), 5, 44, 70, 84–87, 88, 90, 108, 168, 170–171, 172, 184, 201, 217 age factors, 47, 71, 201, 206 Interdisciplinary approaches, 4, 7, 219 assessment of children, 4, 23–24, 28, 30 committee study at hand, vii–x, 14 diagnosis of autism, 23, 26, 30, 214 Internet, 214, 215 IQ, see Intelligence quotients J Joint attention, 5, 48, 50, 55–56, 63, 65, 123, 217 diagnosis of autism, 25 cognitive development and, 83, 89 goals of educational services, 42, 44, 73, 77 social development and, 48, 69, 73, 77, 213 L Language factors, 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 42, 44, 47– 65, 70, 87–88, 95, 118, 138–139, 205, 217, 219, 220 see also Auditory perception; Communication deficits; Nonverbal communication assessment of deficits, 27, 28, 29–30, 31, 52, 138–139, 167, 179, 215–216 augmentative and alternative communication, 51, 55, 56–63, 136–137 comprehensive programs, 144, 145, 156– 157, 160, 167, 168, 172 diagnosis of autism, 23, 25, 212, 214 echolalia, 29, 47, 49, 105 goals of education, 40–41, 50–51, 72 IQ and age of language development, 47, 70, 71 literacy, 62–63, 78–79, 83, 91 professional education, 184 reading skills, 62–63, 78–79, 83, 91 theory of mind, 89 Learning Accomplishment Profile, 74 Learning Experiences Alternative Program (LEAP), 143–144, 145, 146, 148, 150–155 (passim), 157, 158, 160, 161–162, 163, 168–169, 206–207 LEAs, see Local education authorities Legal issues, 14, 175–182 see also Legislation litigation, 176, 178, 179, 180–181, 182, 222, 224 Legislation, 176–179 Americans with Disabilities Act, 179 Education of All Handicapped Children Act, 1, 12 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 2, 7, 13, 115, 119, 122, 124, 127, 132, 138, 176–179, 181– 182, 216, 222, 229; see also Individualized education plans parental advocacy, 36–37 Rehabilitation Act, 179 Literacy, see Reading skills Litigation, 176, 178, 179, 180–181, 182, 222, 224 Local education authorities (LEAs), 222, 223 comprehensive programs, 165, 178, 182, 213–214, 215–216 diagnosis of autism, 23, 214 individualized education plans (IEPs), 178, 182, 215–216 litigation, 180 parental support by, 38, 215–216 Longitudinal studies, 5, 9, 16–17, 42, 44, 95, 210, 217 epidemiologic, 17, 24–25, 118, 125, 212– 213 M Maintenance of behaviors and skills, 8, 15, 35, 134, 135, 138, 203, 209, 221, 225, 227, 228 see also Generalization of learning

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Educating Children with Autism adaptive behaviors, 106 comprehensive programs, 161, 163–164 personnel training, 184 problem behaviors, interventions, 115, 121, 122, 125–126, 127, 128, 131 professional education, 184 social development, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81 Males, see Gender factors Massed trials, 133 Medical considerations, 30–31, 97, 104, 116 see also Genetic factors; Neurobiological factors diagnosis of autism, 26 drug treatment, 116, 128–131, 132 Memory, 57, 83, 85, 88, 89 Mental retardation, 1, 2, 27, 82, 84–85, 104, 105, 106, 125, 129, 176–177 diagnosis, 24 professional education, 184 Methodology, see Research methodology Michigan Scales, 74 Minorities, see Racial and ethnic factors Motor function, see Psychomotor function Multidisciplinary approaches, see Interdisciplinary approaches N Naltrexone, 129 National Alliance for Autism Research, 194, 228 National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Systems, 141, 191 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 9, 194, 209–210, 226, 228 National Institute of Mental Health, 9, 194, 209, 210, 226, 229 National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 9, 194, 209, 210, 229 National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 9, 194, 209, 210, 229 National Institutes of Health, 141, 146, 191, 214, 222–223 National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals, 187 Naturalistic teaching and learning, 15, 42, 134, 142, 148, 149, 159, 184 Neurobiological factors, vii, 1, 11, 13, 30, 68, 83, 89–90, 211, 214 see also Psychomotor function; Sensory perception behavioral problems, 116, 117–118 psychopharmaceuticals, 116, 128– 131, 132 genetic, 11, 26, 30, 38–39, 117 seizures, 30, 85, 130 New York State Department of Health, 14 Nonverbal communication, 5, 25, 30, 47, 48, 58–59, 63–64, 69, 84, 85, 88, 95, 123, 214 augmentative and alternative communication, 51, 55, 56–63 comprehensive programs, 142, 144 O Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 9, 208, 210, 214, 228 prevalence estimates, 25 professional education, 187, 191, 214, 226 Office of Special Education Programs, 4, 8, 9, 194, 212–213, 228 committee charge, vii, 2, 13 Outcomes, 3, 5, 8, 9, 15, 64, 65, 71, 73–80, 140, 151, 166–172, 193, 201–202, 205–206, 210, 216–217, 228, 229 see also Generalization of learning; Independence; Maintenance of behaviors and skills; Recovery clinical trials, 6, 15–17, 90, 131, 194, 197– 198, 199–201 goals of education, 40–44 IQ scores, 5, 44, 70, 71, 84–87, 88, 90, 108, 168, 170–171, 172, 184, 201, 206, 217 Overarousal theories, 68–69, 94 P Paraprofessionals, 7–8, 145, 187, 188, 226 Parental factors, 4, 32–39, 66–69, 76, 105, 179–180, 181–182, 199, 214–216 advocacy, 32, 36–37, 39, 146, 214–215, 222 assessment of autistic children, 27, 28, 29, 31, 52, 179, 215–216

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Educating Children with Autism behavioral problems, 3–4, 69–70, 115, 116, 120, 121–122, 123 comprehensive programs, 142, 143, 144– 145, 146, 149, 150, 152–154, 157, 170, 215 drug/nutritional treatment of children, 130 education of, 1, 12, 219, 226 emotional factors, 32, 34, 39, 66–67, 153 gender factors, 33, 34, 37, 66, 67, 221 litigation by, 176, 178, 179, 180–181, 182, 222, 224 local education authorities (LEAs) and, 38, 215–216 older children with autism, 36, 37–38, 78–79 sensory/motor deficits reported, 97, 105, 107 PECS, see Picture Exchange Communication System Peer interactions, 69, 70, 75, 79, 99, 109, 112, 116, 178–179, 213 comprehensive programs, 142, 146, 148, 150, 157, 161, 162, 165, 171 instructional methods, other, 71, 72, 73– 74, 77–78, 80, 81, 91, 109–110, 111, 133, 134, 138, 182, 217, 218, 221 Personal independence, see Independence Personnel preparation, see Professional education and development Pervasive development disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), 2–3, 12, 24, 113, 206, 212, 213 Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test-II, 26, 196 Pharmaceuticals, see Drug treatment Picture Communication Symbols, 58 Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), 59, 136, 160 Pivotal behaviors, 34, 42, 112, 122, 134, 144– 153 (passim), 157, 160–163, 169 communication, 53, 55–56 social development, 69, 73, 76–77, 79 Pivotal Response Model, 144, 147–153 (passim), 157, 161, 162, 169 Play, 6, 28, 29, 38, 41, 42, 48, 49, 70, 74–75, 77– 78, 79, 80, 84, 112, 122, 218, 221 comprehensive programs, general, 142, 161, 162 Denver Model, comprehensive program, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 diagnosis of autism, 25 symbolic, 42, 49–50, 70–71, 75, 76–77, 82– 83, 84 Playschool Model, 142 Policy issues, 7, 12, 19, 165, 175–182, 222– 224 see also Advocacy; Federal government role; Legal issues; Legislation; Litigation; Standards; State government role Posture, 94, 96, 99, 101, 182 Preschool programs, 2, 12, 74, 89, 112, 146, 217, 219 see also Early intervention, general committee charge, 2, 13 comprehensive programs, 143–144, 145, 146, 161, 165 Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 Individualized Support Program, 143, 145, 146, 149, 150, 152, 153, 154, 157–158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168 Learning Experiences Alternative Program (LEAP), 143–144, 145, 146, 148, 150–155 (passim), 157, 158, 160, 161–162, 163, 168–169, 206–207 Prevalence, 17, 24–25, 125, 212–213 Problem solving, 4, 124, 142, 163 Professional education and development, 7–8, 72–73, 183–192, 194, 214, 224– 226 clinical practice guidelines, 118–119, 167 comprehensive programs, 154–156, 158– 159, 167, 185, 188–189, 224–225 curricula, 31, 40–41, 74, 120, 181, 186, 219, 226 comprehensive programs, 142, 143– 145, 149, 158, 159, 165, 189 individualized education plans (IEPs), 36, 38, 109, 118, 119, 124, 127, 131, 154, 177–178, 180–181, 182, 207, 215–216, 217, 219–221 medical personnel, diagnostic signs, 30 paraprofessionals, 7–8, 145, 187, 188, 226 state government role, 189, 190–191 teachers, 7, 8, 12, 130, 182, 184–186, 189– 190, 224–225 technical assistance, 8, 141, 146, 152, 184, 185, 190, 191, 223, 226

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Educating Children with Autism Professional organizations, 4, 14, 62, 188, 214, 228 Psychomotor function, x, 15–16, 30, 83–84, 89–90, 93–102, 104, 109, 117, 163, 212, 218 see also Sensory perception age factors, 93, 94, 97, 110 posture, 94, 96, 99, 101, 182 toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114 Punishment, see Aversive approaches Q Qualitative research, 28, 30, 62, 209 R Racial and ethnic factors, 35, 39 Reading skills, 62–63, 78–79, 83, 91 Recovery, 43, 114, 166, 171, 216–217 IQ scores, 85–87 Recreational interventions, 144, 162, 177 Rehabilitation Act, 179 Research methodology, 6, 12–13, 64–65, 75– 76, 98, 131–132, 193–210 clinical trials, 6, 8, 15–17, 90, 131, 194, 197–198, 199–201, 204, 218–219, 222–223 committee study at hand, vii, 13–20, 141, 148 comprehensive programs, 166–172 controlled studies, 6, 8, 15 epidemiology, 17, 24–25, 118, 125, 212– 213 ethical issues, 6, 8 growth curve analysis, 207–208, 210 interdisciplinary approaches, vii, 14, 214, 219 longitudinal studies, 5, 9, 16–17, 42, 44, 95, 210, 217 qualitative research, 28, 30, 62, 209 sampling, 15, 24–25, 26, 50, 52, 64, 71, 76, 87, 194, 198, 201, 208–209, 229 single-subject designs, 15, 44, 52, 56, 64, 90, 91, 104, 111, 116, 120, 201–203, 204, 205, 217, 227 standards, 8–9, 14, 16, 196–197, 198, 199, 209–210 validity, external, 15, 26, 52, 62, 82 validity, internal, 15, 26, 28, 52, 98 Research recommendations, 4, 5, 8–9, 19–20, 39, 63–65, 81, 92, 102, 113–114, 131–132, 209–210, 211–229 (passim) Retardation, see Mental retardation Rett’s syndrome, 3, 12 Risperidone, 129 S Sampling, 15, 24–25, 26, 50, 52, 64, 71, 76, 87, 194, 198, 201, 208–209, 229 Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised, 74 School-based programs, 7–8, 12, 31, 112, 115, 139, 177–179, 183–186, 216– 218 see also Local education authorities; Preschool programs; Teachers advocacy, 37 assessment of children, 31, 222 committee charge, 2, 13 comprehensive programs, 147, 157, 162, 165, 169 curricula, 31, 40–41, 74 diagnosis, 23, 26 individual instruction, 31, 73, 83, 90, 91, 120, 137–138, 139, 142, 149 individualized education plans (IEPs), 36, 38, 109, 118, 119, 124, 127, 131, 154, 177–178, 180–181, 182, 207, 215–216, 217, 219–221, 223 local education authorities (LEAs), 178, 182, 215–216 parental involvement, 4, 31, 33, 38, 184, 223 School Psychology Review, 141 Screening, 4, 25–26, 27, 28, 195–197 see also Diagnosis age factors, 4, 25, 195–197 Screening Test for Autism in Two Year Olds, 25, 26, 196 Secretin, 130 Seizures, 30, 85, 130 Self-help skills, 162, 167 Self-injurious behavior, 49, 115, 116, 117– 118, 123, 125, 128–129 tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213 Self-stimulatory behavior, 55, 105, 111, 213 Sensory perception, x, 15–16, 42, 83–84, 89, 93–102, 110, 123, 127, 131, 176–177 see also Psychomotor function age factors, 93, 94, 97, 110

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Educating Children with Autism assessment, 30, 212 auditory perception, 30, 31–32, 42, 83, 85, 98, 99–101, 123, 131, 212 visual perception, 57, 62–63, 69, 83, 85, 90, 94, 95, 96, 98, 100–101, 123, 131, 137–138, 144, 212; see also Nonverbal communication Serotonin, 129 Sign language, see Nonverbal communication Single-subject designs, 15, 44, 52, 56, 64, 90, 91, 104, 111, 116, 120, 201–203, 204, 205, 217, 227 Sleeping, 107–108 toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114 Social factors, 1, 2, 5, 11, 12, 15, 66–81, 83, 115, 119, 212–213 see also Adaptive behavior; Behavioral problems; Communication deficits; Community factors; Cultural factors; Familial factors; Imitation; Joint attention; Parental factors; Peer interactions adults, interactions with, general, 6, 49, 56, 59, 68–69, 70, 73 assessment, 27, 28, 52, 74–75, 212, 214 comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 148– 149, 156–157, 161–162, 165, 172 developmental theory, 15–16, 31, 66–69, 71–72, 81, 105 goals of education, 40–41, 42, 71–75, 212– 213, 221 historical perspectives, 66, 67, 68 incidental learning, 6, 54, 78, 119, 134, 150, 164, 184 Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148–149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161–162, 165, 171 interventions, general, 6, 31, 71–81, 212– 213, 216, 217, 218, 229 maintenance of behaviors, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81 pivotal behaviors, 69, 73, 76–77, 79 professional education, 184, 186, 187 reading skills and, 78–79, 83 recreational interventions, 144, 162, 177 Society for Clinical Child Psychology, 14 Socioeconomic status, 35, 39 Spontaneous communication, see Initiation of communication/spontaneous communication Standards see also Outcomes assessment instruments, 25–30 (passim), 74, 75, 85, 88, 91, 96, 108–109, 135– 136, 156–158, 167, 169, 196–197 IQ scores, 5, 44, 70, 84–87, 88, 90, 108, 168, 170–171, 172, 184, 201, 217 age factors, 47, 71, 201, 206 attachment process, 67 behavioral problems, response to, 115, 118–119, 125 clinical practice guidelines, 118–119, 167 committee study at hand, 14, 15 comprehensive programs, 141, 155 curricular, 40–41 fidelity of treatment, 8, 9, 91, 194, 206– 207, 209, 210, 227, 228 goals of education, 40–44, 50–51, 71–75, 77, 212–213, 218, 221 policy, 175 professional, 7, 118–119, 187, 191, 224, 227–228 research design and description, 8–9, 14, 16, 196–197, 198, 199, 209–210 State government role, 7, 14, 222–224 comprehensive programs, 146, 165 diagnosis of autism, 23 professional education, 189, 190–191 Stereotypic behavior, 61, 94, 96, 97, 98, 117, 118, 145, 176–177 Student/teacher ratios, 120, 159, 219, 220– 221 individual instruction, 31, 73, 83, 90, 91, 120, 137–138, 139, 142, 149 Symbol use, 29, 49, 55–56, 58, 82, 218 see also Nonverbal communication age factors, 50, 54, 123, 160 comprehensive programs, 142 Symbolic play, 42, 49–50, 70–71, 75, 76–77, 82–83, 84 System for Augmenting Language, 61 T Tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213 TEACCH, see Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) program Teachers, 1, 4, 31, 114, 133, 157, 179 assessment of autistic children, 27, 31, 52

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Educating Children with Autism behavioral problems of children, 116, 130 communication interventions, 54–55 diagnosis by, 26 education of, 7, 8, 12, 130, 182, 184–186, 189–190, 224–225 individualized education plans (IEPs), 178 parents as, 35–36, 39, 109, 144–145, 146 student/teacher ratios, 120, 159 individual instruction, 31, 73, 83, 90, 91, 120, 137–138, 139, 142, 149 Technical assistance, 8, 141, 146, 152, 184, 185, 190, 191, 223, 226 Technology, assistive, see Assistive technology Theory of mind, 83, 88–89 Time factors, 2, 11 see also Age factors behavioral problems, 116–117, 119, 120, 123, 134, 163 diagnosis, 3, 25, 211, 214, 219 interventions, duration and time intervals, 6, 35–36, 86, 91, 113, 119, 120, 123, 133, 134, 193, 217, 218, 219, 220 assistive technology, 63 comprehensive programs, 119, 142, 150, 151–152, 153–154, 155–156, 161, 163, 167–168, 170 parental time spent with child, 34, 35– 36, 152, 153 professional training, 155–156 social deficits, 31 variability in child over time, 86 Toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114 Transfer of learning, see Generalization of learning Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) program, 34, 35–36, 60, 80, 136–137, 144, 145, 146, 147, 150, 151, 152, 155, 158, 160, 161, 162, 164, 169–170, 188, 189 V Validity, external, 15, 26, 52, 62, 82 Validity, internal, 15, 26, 28, 52, 98 Videotapes, 94, 155, 156, 157–158, 171 Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 74, 108–109, 169 Visual perception, 57, 100–101, 62–63, 69, 83, 85, 90, 94, 95, 96, 98, 100–101, 123, 131, 137–138, 144, 212 see also Nonverbal communication Voice output communication aid, 59–60, 61, 63 W Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148–149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161–162, 165, 171 Women, see Gender factors World Wide Web, see Internet Y Young Autism Project, 112, 144–145, 146, 148, 150, 151, 153, 155, 158, 161, 162, 163, 170–171, 187–188, 206