Index

A

Access to services, 21, 250, 253

see also Cost factors;

Environmental constraints;

Health insurance;

Socioeconomic status

ethical issues, 247

mammography, 126, 139, 140, 143, 144, 146, 151, 152

race/ethnicity, 21, 140

transportation services, 126, 139, 140, 143, 146

Accidents, 107, 188

motor vehicle safety, 78-79, 84, 92-93, 185

race/ethnicity, 20, 168-169

Adolescents and youth, 61-62

see also School-based programs

authority, resistance to, 97

campaigns, 78-81, 86, 87-88, 96, 97, 102

drug abuse, 84, 87, 102-103, 106

segmentation, 86-88, 89

smoking, 76-77, 80-81, 86-87, 95, 96, 102, 105, 110, 112, 115-116

teenage pregnancy, 78-79, 84, 101, 103

computer games, xiii, 204, 208, 217

diabetes, 155, 158, 163

Internet, 217, 220

smoking, theoretical perspectives, 30, 49, 58, 59

Advertising, xii, 10, 56, 59, 63, 64, 97, 112-113, 265

tobacco companies, 96

African Americans, 18, 19, 20, 21, 68, 89

campaigns, 76-77, 96-97, 108, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 125

cultural competency, 239

definitional issues, 227, 228, 269

diabetes, 158-159, 161, 165, 166-168, 169, 171

Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 207-208

Internet access and use, 194, 195, 196, 197, 207-208

mammography, 119, 120, 125, 127, 129, 131, 133, 136, 137-138, 147, 188, 256

prostate cancer, 188

smoking, 188

tailored print communications (TPCs), 188



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations Index A Access to services, 21, 250, 253 see also Cost factors; Environmental constraints; Health insurance; Socioeconomic status ethical issues, 247 mammography, 126, 139, 140, 143, 144, 146, 151, 152 race/ethnicity, 21, 140 transportation services, 126, 139, 140, 143, 146 Accidents, 107, 188 motor vehicle safety, 78-79, 84, 92-93, 185 race/ethnicity, 20, 168-169 Adolescents and youth, 61-62 see also School-based programs authority, resistance to, 97 campaigns, 78-81, 86, 87-88, 96, 97, 102 drug abuse, 84, 87, 102-103, 106 segmentation, 86-88, 89 smoking, 76-77, 80-81, 86-87, 95, 96, 102, 105, 110, 112, 115-116 teenage pregnancy, 78-79, 84, 101, 103 computer games, xiii, 204, 208, 217 diabetes, 155, 158, 163 Internet, 217, 220 smoking, theoretical perspectives, 30, 49, 58, 59 Advertising, xii, 10, 56, 59, 63, 64, 97, 112-113, 265 tobacco companies, 96 African Americans, 18, 19, 20, 21, 68, 89 campaigns, 76-77, 96-97, 108, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 125 cultural competency, 239 definitional issues, 227, 228, 269 diabetes, 158-159, 161, 165, 166-168, 169, 171 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 207-208 Internet access and use, 194, 195, 196, 197, 207-208 mammography, 119, 120, 125, 127, 129, 131, 133, 136, 137-138, 147, 188, 256 prostate cancer, 188 smoking, 188 tailored print communications (TPCs), 188

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations Age factors, 12, 13, 16, 19, 41, 45, 69, 255 see also Adolescents and youth; Elderly persons campaigns, 78-81, 102, 103, 105, 107, 108, 117, 123, 126 diabetes, 80-81, 103, 155-160 (passim), 171 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 205, 208-209 Internet access and use, 194 mammography, 80-81, 108, 123, 126, 130-138 (passim), 141, 145, 146, 147 race/ethnicity, 21, 47, 103, 158, 159 Agency, see Personal agency Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 231 AIDS, see HIV/AIDS Alaskan Natives, 80-81, 94, 103, 116, 119, 131 definitional issues, 228 diabetes, 161, 162, 171 Alcohol use and abuse, 20 campaigns, 84 diabetes, 165 American Cancer Society, 132 American Indians, see Native Americans Anthropology, xi, xiii, 2, 13, 167, 228, 233, 234, 238, 250, 270, 271 Asians/Pacific Islanders, 17, 18, 21, 68 campaigns, 78-81, 104-105 definitional issues, 227, 228, 234 diabetes, 80-81, 159, 162, 166, 167, 169, 171, 174 Internet access and use, 194, 195, 196 mammography, 129, 131, 137, 138-139 renal disease, 162 Association of American Indian Physicians, 174 Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations, 174 Attitudes and beliefs, xii, 13, 22-23, 52, 61, 98, 213, 254, 265 see also Cultural factors, general; Depression; Personal agency; Religious factors; Stigma blaming the victim, 66, 169, 226, 239, 243, 247 channels of communication, 58, 96-99, 104-106 cost of health care, 34, 71, 74 diabetes, 155-156, 157, 158, 163-169, 172-175, 176-178 ethical issues, 247, 248-249 fear, use of in messages, 52, 74-75 Health Belief Model, 31, 70-71, 142, 183 immediate learning, 61-62 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 205, 208, 209-210 Internet access and use, 195, 198, 203-204 mammography, 29, 37-39, 46, 134, 135-137, 141 tailored print communications (TPCs), 187 technology, 192-193, 195 telephone contacts, 190 theoretical perspectives, 29-54 (passim), 70-75 Audience segmentation, 5, 7, 23, 41, 46-47, 55, 77, 85-99, 106, 121-122, 256, 257, 260, 264, 268 diabetes, 175-176 epidemiological data, 85-86, 90, 92-93 ethical issues, 244-245, 249 mammography, 145 Automobile safety, see Motor vehicle safety B Back to Sleep Campaign, 78-79, 94, 95, 110, 118-119 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 117-118, 153 Behavioral theories, see Theory Beliefs, see Attitudes and beliefs; Religious factors Best Start Loving Support Campaign, 78-79, 104, 108 Billboards, see Posters and billboards Black persons, see African Americans Blood pressure, see Hypertension

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations Body size and weight, 17, 43 see also Diet birth weight, 160 diabetes, 159, 160-161, 163, 165, 166-167, 171-172, 173-174, 178, 229 tailored print communications (TPCs), 185 Breast cancer, see Mammography Breastfeeding, 78-79, 104 Brochures, 56 Buckle Up America, 78-79 C Campaigns, general, xiii, 3, 6, 10, 12, 13, 22, 23, 24, 26, 44-48 (passim), 57-58, 71, 256, 257, 258, 264-267, 270 see also National campaigns; specific campaigns and media adolescents and youth, 78-81, 86, 87-88, 96, 97, 102 drug abuse, 84, 87, 102-103, 106 segmentation, 86-88, 89 smoking, 76-77, 80-81, 86-87, 95, 96, 102, 105, 110, 112, 115-116 teenage pregnancy, 78-79, 84, 101, 103 African Americans, 76-77, 96-97, 108, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 125 age factors, 78-81, 102, 103, 105, 107, 108, 117, 123, 126 Asians/Pacific Islanders, 78-81, 104-105 audience segmentation, 5, 7, 23, 41, 46-47, 55, 77, 85-96 cancer, 78-81, 84 mammography, 77, 80-81, 84, 106, 108, 119-120, 123-126, 140-151, 153 community influences, 100, 107, 144, 146, 175 cost factors, 77, 82, 84, 97, 98, 101, 108, 113, 114, 122 cultural factors, general, 100, 103, 106, 174-175, 279 depression, 78-79, 93 elderly persons, 80-81, 108 exemplars, 76-126 face-to-face contacts, 82, 125, 140, 149 family factors, 97, 100, 107, 112 funding, 84, 94-95, 125, 126 gender factors, 77, 78-81, 84, 89, 105, 107, 108, 117-118, 122, 171 teenage pregnancy, 78-79, 84, 101, 103 geographic factors, general, 104-105, 116 Hispanics, 78-81, 96-97, 104, 108, 116, 118, 120, 124-125 historical perspectives, 83-84, 116-117, 120, 123-126 income, personal, 78-81, 105 legislation, 91, 94, 100, 115, 123, 125 mass media, 80-81, 98-99, 100, 101, 104, 113, 125-126, 141, 175; see also specific media Native Americans, 78-79, 94, 103, 112, 116 outcome measures, 82, 92, 93, 101, 110-112, 113, 114, 115-120 peers and friends (norms), 83, 99-100, 107, 140; see also Role models political issues, 91-92, 99-100, 107, 123, 125 privately sponsored, 76, 78-79, 222 religious factors, 100, 104, 107 sexual behavior, 78-79, 84, 101, 103 smoking, 76-77, 80-81, 86-87, 95, 96, 102, 105, 110, 112, 115-116 state-level, 76, 80-81, 95, 100, 102, 105, 110, 111, 115-116 sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 78-79, 94, 95, 110, 118-119 television, 82, 87, 96, 119, 175, 178 time factors, 8, 110-111, 115-120 urban areas, 80-81, 105, 119, 142 Canada, 91 Cancer, 2, 13, 19-21 campaigns, 78-81, 84

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations cervical cancer, 141, 186 colonoscopy, 44 gender factors, 19, 38, 43, 141, 183, 186, 188; see also Mammography Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 209 Internet access and use, 201, 219-220 prostate cancer, 38, 43, 183, 186, 188 Cardiovascular disease see also Cerebrovascular disease hypertension, 116-117, 162, 167, 173 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 210 national campaigns, 80-81, 95-96, 110, 116-118, 170-171 race/ethnicity, 19, 20, 117, 162, 167 Caribbean immigrants, 17 Case studies, 5, 123-126, 262 Celebrities, see Role models Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1, 110, 125, 126 Best Start Loving Support Campaign, 78-79, 104, 108 Guide to Community Preventive Services, 151, 153, 250-252, 267 Loving Support Campaign, 108 National Diabetes Education Program, 174-175 racial/ethnic definitions, 231 Cerebrovascular disease see also Cardiovascular disease National High Blood Pressure Education Program, 80-81, 95-96, 110, 116-118 race/ethnicity, 19 Cervical cancer, 141, 186 Children see also Adolescents and youth birth weight, 160 diabetes, 161 infants breastfeeding, 78-79, 104 national campaigns, 78-79, 80-81, 93, 94, 95, 104, 110, 118-119 sudden infant death syndrome, 78-79, 94, 95, 110, 118-119 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 208, 210 Internet access and use, 217 tailored print communications (TPCs), 192 telephone contacts, 190, 192 Children’s Partnership, 202-203 Child Safety Seat Distribution Program, 78-79 Cigarette smoking, see Smoking Colonoscopy, 44 Comic books, 56 COMMIT Program, 91 Common Sense Model, 73-75 Communication technology, see Campaigns, general; Mass media; Technology Community influences, xii, xiii, 9, 21, 24, 57, 250, 251, 252 see also Cultural factors, general campaigns, 100, 107, 144, 146, 175 diabetes, 165-166, 169, 175 Internet access and use, 199-200, 214, 215, 216, 218 mammography, 137, 138, 144, 146, 152 media advocacy, 64-65 tailored print communications (TPCs)/ telephone contacts, 192 Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS), 206-208 Computer technology, 8, 10, 140, 180, 181, 196, 199, 217, 218 see also Interactive Health Communication (IHC); Internet cost factors, 195, 203 digital divide, 22, 193, 194, 202-203, 212, 214 disabled persons, 195 games, xiii, 204, 208, 217 tailored print communications (TPCs), 181 telephone systems, 189, 191, 192; see also Internet wireless communication, 180, 205, 213, 214, 215-217, 268

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations Confidentiality, see Privacy Cost factors, xi, 1, 11, 219, 253 see also Funding; Health insurance; Income, personal attitudes and beliefs about, 34, 71, 74 campaigns, 77, 82, 84, 97, 98, 101, 108, 113, 114, 122 diabetes, xi-xii, 162, 166 diet, food costs, 44, 166, 247 ethical issues, 5, 246, 263 Internet access and use, 195, 203, 215-216 mammography, 143, 147 mass media, 59, 84, 108 telephone contacts, 190, 191 theoretical perspectives, 44 Cultural factors, general, xiii, 1-2, 9, 12-15 (passim), 22-26, 221, 222, 245, 250-252, 279 see also Attitudes and beliefs; Family factors; Language factors; Peers and friends; Political issues; Race/ethnicity; Religious factors; Role models anthropology, xi, xiii, 2, 13, 167, 228, 233, 234, 238, 250, 270, 271 campaigns, 100, 103, 106, 174-175, 279 competency, cultural, 239-242 definitional issues, 15, 224, 225-226, 231, 232-242, 252-254, 269 diabetes, 156, 160, 161, 162-164, 165, 166-169, 174-175 ethical issues, 245, 248-249, 263 interdisciplinary approaches, 10 Internet access and use, 195 mammography, 130 repetition of messages, 60-61 social diffusion, 61, 62, 64 tailored print communications (TCPs)/telephone-delivered interventions, 181 theoretical perspectives, 31 D Delayed learning, 61, 62 Demographic factors, general, xiii, 9, 12, 13, 18-21, 46, 92-93, 190, 224-225, 242, 253-254, 264, 269 see also Age factors; Cultural factors; Epidemiological data; Gender factors; Marital status; Race/ ethnicity; Sexual orientation; Socioeconomic status Department of Health and Human Services, 214, 222 see also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Food and Drug Administration, 125 Depression campaigns, 78-79, 93 diabetes, 164-165, 168-169 Depression Awareness, Recognition, and Treatment Program, 78-79, 93 Diabetes, xiv, 6, 26, 154-178, 256 adolescents and youth, 155, 158, 163 African Americans, 158-159, 161, 165, 166-168, 169, 171 age factors, 80-81, 103, 155-160 (passim), 171 elderly persons, 80-81, 155, 158, 168, 172-173, 174 Alaskan Natives, 161, 162, 171 Asians/Pacific Islanders, 80-81, 159, 162, 166, 167, 169, 171, 174 attitudes and beliefs, 155-156, 157, 158, 163-169, 172-175, 176-178 audience segmentation, 175-176 biology and prevalence, 157-161 body size and weight, 159, 160-161, 163, 165, 166-167, 171-172, 173-174, 178, 229 community influences, 165-166, 169, 175 cost factors, xi-xii, 162, 166 cultural factors, general, 156, 160, 161, 162-164, 165, 166-169, 174-175 depression related to, 164-165, 168-169 diagnosis, 156, 158, 160, 162, 176 diet, xii, 156, 160, 161, 165-167, 171-172, 173-174, 175, 177, 178, 229

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations 344 INDEX drug treatment, xii, 170-171, 172, 173, 177 elderly persons, 80-81, 155, 158, 168, 172-173, 174 exercise, xii, 161, 164, 167-168, 171-172, 173-174, 175 family factors, 155, 156, 164, 169, 170 foot care, 80-81, 156, 162, 170-171, 172 gender factors, 158, 159, 160, 167-168, 171 genetic factors, 157, 158, 160, 161, 228-229 geographic factors, general, 156, 159 health insurance, 164 Hispanics, 80-81, 159, 161, 162, 166, 167, 168-169, 171, 174 income, personal, 158, 168 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 208, 210 marital status, 158 national campaigns, 80-81, 103, 174-175 Native Americans, 160, 161, 162, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 171, 174, 229 peers and friends (norms), 155, 156, 163, 164, 170, 256 personal agency/self-efficacy, 163, 164, 168-169, 173-174, 176, 177 physicians, 170, 174 primary prevention, general, 154, 156, 157, 160, 164, 169, 171-175, 176, 177 race/ethnicity, 19, 20, 80-81, 103, 155, 158-164 (passim), 166-169, 174-175, 228-229 renal disease, 162 secondary prevention, general, xii, xiv, 3, 155-156, 165, 167, 168, 169-175 television, 175, 178 Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, 170 Diabetes Prevention Program, 171 Diagnosis and screening see also Mammography campaigns, 84 cervical cancer, 141 colonoscopy, 44 diabetes, 156, 158, 160, 162, 176 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 210 prostate cancer, 38, 43, 183, 186, 188 Diet see also Alcohol use and abuse; Body size and weight cost of healthy foods, 44, 166, 247 diabetes, xii, 156, 160, 161, 165-167, 171-172, 173-174, 175, 177, 178, 229 Hispanics, 47 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 208-209 malnutrition, 19 national campaigns, 78-79, 93, 94, 103 tailored print communications (TPCs), 183, 185 Diffusion of innovations, 214 see also Internet; Technology digital divide, general, 22, 193, 194, 202-203, 212, 214 theory of, 28, 67-68 Disabled persons, Internet access and use, 195, 198 Discrimination elderly persons/women/youth, 16 HIV-infected persons, 101 racial, 225, 230, 231, 237-239, 254 Drug abuse, 59-60, 61-62 national campaigns, 80-81, 84, 87, 94, 102-103 Drug treatment, diabetes, xii, 170-171, 172, 173, 177 E Economic factors, 11, 99, 250 see also Cost factors; Employment; Funding; Health insurance; Income, personal; Socioeconomic status advertising sector, xii mammography, 130 physicians use of e-mail, 211

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations Education, see Professional education; School-based programs Educational attainment, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 45 cultural competency, 239 diabetes, 158 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 209 Internet access and use, 194 literacy, 17, 79, 81, 203, 216-217, 248 mammography, 80-81, 133-134, 138, 142 national campaigns, 78-81 Elderly persons, 18, 253 campaigns, 80-81, 108 diabetes, 80-81, 155, 158, 168, 172-173, 174 exercise, 168 Internet access and use, 194 mammography, 46, 131, 132-134, 136, 138, 142, 147 tailored print communications (TPCs), 185 E-mail, 105-106, 180, 194, 198, 200-202, 210-211 Employment, xiii campaigns, 100 occupational status, 16, 21, 250 Environmental constraints, 4, 9, 16, 29, 31-32, 36, 41-42, 43-44, 99, 226 see also Access to services; Family factors; Geographic factors; Peers and friends; Socioeconomic status communications technologies, 179-180, 181 diabetes, 163, 168 digital divide, 22, 193, 194, 202-203, 212, 214 ethical issues, 247 exercise, 168, 172 mammography, 134, 139-140, 145, 147 Environmental risk factors, 21, 99, 247, 250, 251 occupational status, 16, 21, 250 Epidemiological data, 44, 224, 250, 253 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 117-118, 153 breast cancer, 129, 130-131, 135-136, 153 campaigns, 77, 101 audience segmentation, 85-86, 90, 92-93 definitional issues, 231-232 diabetes, 157 National Health Interview Survey, 116, 135-136, 153 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 21, 131 Ethical issues, xiv, 3, 5-6, 23-24, 243-249, 256, 262-264 attitudes and beliefs, 247, 248-249 blaming the victim, 66, 169, 226, 239, 243, 247 audience segmentation, 244-245, 249 campaigns, 91, 122 cost factors, 5, 246, 263 cultural factors, 245, 248-249, 263 Internet access and use, 198 privacy, 198, 203, 214-215, 218-219, 223 Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity Europe, 110, 212, 229 Evaluation, see Monitoring and evaluation Exercise diabetes, xii, 161, 164, 167-168, 171-172, 173-174, 175 Hispanics, 167, 168 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 209 tailored print communications (TPCs), 183, 185 Expertise, 55, 56, 106-107, 122 see also Health care professionals; Role models Exposure, 99, 113-114 see also Time factors repetition, 60-61 F Face-to-face contacts, 9, 56, 57, 58, 180, 268 see also Health care professionals campaign exemplars, 82, 125, 140, 149

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations diabetes, 178 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 210, 268 mammography, 140, 145, 146, 149, 152, 207-208 time factors, 196 Family factors, 1, 55 see also Genetic factors campaigns, 97, 100, 107, 112 diabetes, 155, 156, 164, 169, 170 Internet access and use, 194, 199-200 mammography, 46, 137, 138-139 tailored print communications (TPCs), 185, 192 telephone contacts, 192 Fear, use of, 52, 74-75 Federal government, 1, 14, 100, 123, 226-232 see also Funding; Legislation; National campaigns; Regulatory issues, legal; specific departments and agencies interagency coordination, 10 Internet access and use, 195 Office of Management and Budget, 227-228, 231-232, 267 Feet Can Last a Lifetime, 80-81 Females, see Gender factors Field testing, 7, 259 Folic Acid (March of Dimes) campaign, 78-79, 93, 95, 103 Food and Drug Administration, 125 Food and nutrition, see Diet Friends, see Peers and friends Funding, 221-222, 259, 261-262, 267, 271 see also Cost factors campaigns, 84, 94-95, 125, 126 definitional issues, 14-15 mammography, 140 mass media, 59 National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, 84, 94-95 smoking prevention, state funding, 95 G Gay persons, see Sexual orientation Gender factors, xiii, 12, 13, 16-17, 21, 45, 69, 255, 269 see also Mammography; Sexual behavior breastfeeding, 78-79, 104 campaigns, 77, 78-81, 84, 89, 105, 107, 108, 117-118, 122, 171 teenage pregnancy, 78-79, 84, 101, 103 cancer, general, 19-21 cervical cancer, 141, 186 cultural competency, 239 diabetes, 158, 159, 160, 167-168, 171 dieting, 41 exercise, 168 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 207-209 Internet access and use, 202, 207-208 prostate cancer, 38, 43, 183, 186, 188 race/ethnicity, 19, 20, 21, 117, 159, 166, 167-168, 171 mammography, 80-81, 119-142 (passim), 147, 151, 152 sexual orientation, xiii, 13, 17, 46, 69, 101, 113, 239 smoking, 116 tailored print communications (TPCs), 183, 186, 189 theoretical perspectives, 41 Generalized learning, 61, 62 Genetic factors diabetes, 157, 158, 160, 161, 228-229 race/ethnicity, 22, 228-230 screening, 38 tailored print communications (TPCs), 186, 188 Geographic factors, 64, 235 see also Community influences; Rural areas; Urban areas campaigns, 104-105, 116 diabetes, 156, 159 mammography, 130, 136

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations race/ethnicity, 104-105 telephone coverage, 179-180 Guide to Community Preventive Services, 151, 153, 250-252, 267 H Handicapped persons, see Disabled persons Harvard Center Risk Index, 216 Health Belief Model, 31, 70-71, 142, 183 Health care professionals, 55, 82, 83, 99, 101, 117-118, 237 see also Diagnosis and screening; Physicians; Professional education cultural competency, 239-242 fear amongst patients, 52 mammography, 119, 126, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 142, 145, 146, 151-152 Health insurance, 19 diabetes, 164 mammography, 123, 125, 134, 140 race/ethnicity, 21 Healthy People 2010, 12, 93 Heart disease, see Cardiovascular disease Hepatitis, xii Hispanics, 17, 19, 108 campaigns, 78-81, 96-97, 104, 108, 116, 118, 120, 124-125 definitional issues, 227, 228, 234 diabetes, 80-81, 159, 161, 162, 166, 167, 168-169, 171, 174 exercise, 167, 168 Internet access and use, 194, 195, 196 mammography, 80-81, 120, 124-125, 127, 131, 133, 136, 137, 139-140 smoking, 188 socioeconomic status, 18, 140 tailored print communications (TPCs), 188 telephone contacts, 190 Historical perspectives, 23, 46, 254, 270 campaigns, 83-84, 116-117, 120, 123-126 communications applications and technologies, 179-180 diabetes, 157 Internet, 193-194, 197 mammography, 120, 123-126, 127-129, 131, 135, 141-145 vaccines, xii HIV/AIDS, xii, 84, 101, 110 Homosexuality, see Sexual orientation Human Genome Project, 229 Humor, use of, 52 Hypertension, 116-117, 162, 167, 173 I Immediate learning, 61-62 Immigrants, 17 see also Language factors; specific immigrant groups mammography, 133, 137 Income, personal, 16, 19 campaigns, 78-81, 105 diabetes, 158, 168 exercise, 168 hypertension, 167 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 207-208 Internet access and use, 22, 193, 194, 195, 196, 216-217 mammography, 80-81, 133, 137-138, 140, 142, 146, 147, 148, 207-208 race/ethnicity, 18, 140 tailored print communications (TPCs), 189 telephone coverage, 179 Indian Americans, see Native Americans Infants breastfeeding, 78-79, 104 national campaigns, 78-79, 80-81, 93, 94, 95, 104, 110, 118-119 sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) , 78-79, 94, 95, 110, 118-119 Influenza, national campaigns, 39-41, 80-81 Infrastructure, 10, 271-272 see also Technology campaigns, 82-83

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations interdisciplinary approaches, xi, xiii, 2, 10, 13, 24, 167, 228, 233, 234, 238, 250, 270, 271-272 Initiative to Eliminate Health Disparities, 93 Innovations, see Diffusion of innovations Institute of Medicine, 1, 2, 11-12 Institutional diffusion, 61, 63, 64, 100, 101, 113-114 see also Mass media; Religious factors; School-based programs cultural competency, 240 diabetes, 174 mammography, 146, 152 Insurance, see Health insurance Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 204-213, 217, 218-221, 222 see also Internet; Telephone African Americans, 207-208 age factors, 205, 208-209 attitudes and beliefs, 205, 208, 209-210 children, 208, 210 diabetes, 208, 210 personal agency/self-efficacy, 205, 210, 219 race/ethnicity, 205, 207-208, 209 videos, 205, 215, 219-220 Interdisciplinary approaches, xi, xiii, 2, 10, 13, 24, 167, 228, 233, 234, 238, 250, 270, 271-272 International perspectives Canada, 91 Internet access and use, 203, 212 mammography, 132, 146 International perspectives, campaigns AIDS, 110 diabetes, 170-171 segmentation, 91, 104 vaccinations, 110 Internet, xii, 57, 58, 105-106, 109, 180, 193-221, 223, 231, 268 adolescents and youth, 217, 220 African Americans, 194, 195, 196, 197, 207-208 age factors, general, 194 Asians/Pacific Islanders, 194, 195, 196 attitudes and beliefs, 195, 198, 203-204 community influences, 199-200, 214, 215, 216, 218 cost of access, 195, 203, 215-216 diabetes, 174 digital divide, 22, 193, 194, 202-203, 212, 214 disabled persons, 195, 198 e-mail, 105-106, 180, 194, 198, 200-202, 210-211 family factors, 194, 199-200 Hispanics, 194, 195, 196 historical perspectives, 193-194, 197 income, personal, and access, 22, 193, 194, 195, 196, 216-217 language factors, 198, 203, 216-217 mammography, 151 Native Americans, 194, 216-227 peers and friends, 199-200, 204 physicians, 180, 196, 200-202, 204, 210-211 race/ethnicity, 194, 195, 196, 202 regulation of, 195, 214-215, 220 tailored print communications (TCPs)/telephone-delivered interventions, 181 wireless communication, 180, 205, 213, 214, 215-217, 268 Internet Healthcare Coalition, 223 Interpersonal communication, see Face-to-face contacts; Telephone Interviews, see Face-to-face contacts K Kidney disease, see Renal disease L Language factors, 17, 107-108, 109 see also Hispanics cultural competency, 240 definitional issues, race/ethnicity, 227, 232, 233 diabetes, 160 Internet, 198, 203, 216-217

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations literacy, 17, 79, 81, 203, 216-217, 248 mammography, 138, 139, 151 newspapers, 104-105 tailored print communications (TCPs)/telephone-delivered interventions, 181 telephone contacts, 191 Lasswell, Harold, 46 Latinos, see Hispanics Legacy Foundation, 95 Legal issues, see Ethical issues; Legislation; Regulatory issues; Standards Legislation campaigns, 91, 94, 100, 115, 123, 125 Mammography Quality Standards Act , 125 media advocacy, 66 Minority Health and Health Disparities Research and Education Act, 12 Paperwork Reduction Act, 267 teenage smoking, 115 Treasury-Postal Appropriations Act, 94 Literacy, 17, 79, 81, 203, 216-217, 248 Loving Support Campaign, 108 M Mail, see Postal campaigns Males, see Gender factors Mammography, 12, 127-153, 256, 257, 259 access to services, general, 126, 139, 140, 143, 144, 146, 151, 152 African Americans, 119, 120, 125, 127, 129, 131, 133, 136, 137-138, 147, 188, 256 age factors, 80-81, 108, 123, 126, 130-138 (passim), 141, 145, 146, 147 elderly persons, 46, 131, 132-134, 136, 138, 142, 147 Asians/Pacific Islanders, 129, 131, 137, 138-139 attitudes and beliefs, 29, 37-39, 46, 134, 135-137, 141 audience segmentation, 145 campaigns, 77, 80-81, 84, 106, 108, 119-120, 123-126, 140-151, 153 committee study at hand, methodology, xiv, 3, 26 community influences, 137, 138, 144, 146, 152 cost factors, 143, 147 educational attainment, 80-81, 133-134, 138, 142 elderly persons, 46, 131, 132-134, 136, 138, 142, 147 environmental constraints, general, 134, 139-140, 145, 147 epidemiological data on breast cancer, 129, 130-131, 135-136, 153 geographic factors, general, 130, 136 health care professionals, 119, 126, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 142, 145, 146, 151-152 health insurance, 123, 125, 134, 140 Hispanics, 80-81, 120, 124-125, 127, 131, 133, 136, 137, 139-140 historical perspectives, 120, 123-126, 127-129, 131, 135, 141-145 immigrants, 133, 137 income, personal, 80-81, 133, 137-138, 140, 142, 146, 147, 148, 207-208 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 140, 145, 146, 149, 152, 207-208 language factors, 138, 139, 151 mass media, 80-81, 125-126, 140, 141, 144 National Cancer Institute, 80-81, 84, 108, 119-120, 124-126, 131, 132, 216 Native Americans, 80-81, 131 outcome measures, 37-38, 119-120, 129-130, 143, 145-151, 191-192 peers and friends (norms), 134, 137, 138-139, 140, 144, 151 physicians, 119, 126, 135, 136, 137, 138, 142, 145

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations postal campaigns, 140, 145, 146, 148, 150 tailored print communications (TPCs), 186, 187-188, 191-192 race/ethnicity, 80-81, 119-142 (passim), 147, 151, 152 regulatory issues, 125 religious factors, 137 rural areas, 80-81, 133, 137-138, 139, 142 socioeconomic status, 80-81, 133, 137-138, 140 educational attainment, 80-81, 133-134, 138, 142 income, personal, 80-81, 133, 137-138, 140, 142, 146, 147, 148, 207-208 standards, 125, 153 telephone contacts, 140, 145, 150, 191-192 theoretical perspectives, 29, 37-39, 43, 150, 152, 153 transportation services, 126, 139, 140, 143, 146 urban areas, 80-81, 119, 139, 142 Mammography Quality Standards Act, 125 March of Dimes, 78-79, 103 Markle Foundation, 222 Mass media, 8-9, 22-23, 56-67, 214, 217, 218, 221, 234, 265-266 see also Advertising; Internet; National campaigns; Print media age factors, 41 campaigns, 80-81, 98-99, 100, 101, 104, 113, 125-126, 141, 175 committee study at hand, methodology, xii, xiv, 2, 3-4, 26-27 cost factors, 59, 84, 108 diabetes, 169-170, 178 mammography, 80-81, 125-126, 140, 141, 144 media advocacy, 28, 64-67, 100 music, 54, 56-57, 63 newsletters, 56, 182, 188 newspapers, 56, 57, 59, 104-105, 108, 175, 265 radio, 57, 82, 104-105, 119, 175, 180, 216 tailored print communications (TCPs), 8, 105(n.1), 181, 182-189, 191-193, 206, 213 telephone contacts, 188, 190, 191-193 television, 218 campaigns, 82, 87, 96, 119, 175, 178 diabetes, 175, 178 theoretical perspectives, 56, 57-58, 61, 63 Measles, xii Media, see Mass media Men, see Gender factors Mental health, 2, 13 see also Alcohol use and abuse; Attitudes and beliefs; Depression; Drug abuse; Personal agency; Psychology Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 208-209 Internet access and use among mentally ill, 195 Milk Matters campaign, 78-79 Minority groups, see Race/ethnicity; specific groups Minority Health and Health Disparities Research and Education Act, 12 Mobile communication, see Wireless communication Monitoring and evaluation, 84, 122, 123, 258-259, 267 see also Outcome measures; Secondary analysis of evidence process variables, 110, 112-115 Moral issues, see Ethical issues Motivation, see Attitudes and beliefs; Personal agency Motor vehicle safety, 84 national campaigns, 78-79, 92-93 tailored print communications (TPCs), 185 Multidisciplinary approaches, see Interdisciplinary approaches Music, 54, 56-57, 63

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations N National Air Bag and Seat Belt Safety campaign, 78-79, 92-93 National Ambulatory Index, 116 National Anti-Drug Media Campaign, 94-95 National Asian Women’s Health Organization, 174 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 80-81 National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 78-79, 103, 107 National campaigns, 27, 76, 78-81, 92-120 (passim), 123-126, 174-175, 272 Back to Sleep Campaign, 78-79, 94, 95, 110, 118-119 Best Start Loving Support Campaign, 78-79, 104, 108 Buckle Up America, 78-79 cardiovascular disease, 80-81, 95-96, 110, 116-118, 170-171 Depression Awareness, Recognition, and Treatment Program, 78-79, 93 diabetes, 80-81, 103, 174-175 diet, 78-79, 93, 94, 103 educational attainment, 78-81 Folic Acid (March of Dimes) campaign, 78-79, 93, 95, 103 influenza, 39-41, 80-81 Loving Support Campaign, 108 motor vehicle safety, 78-79, 92-93 National Air Bag and Seat Belt Safety campaign, 78-79, 92-93 National Anti-Drug Media Campaign, 94-95 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 80-81 National Cholesterol Education Program, 110 National Diabetes Education Program, 80-81, 103, 174 National Eye Health Education Program, 80-81 National 5 A Day Campaign, 78, 93 National High Blood Pressure Education Program, 80-81, 95-96, 110, 116-118 National Safe Kids Campaign, 78-79, 107 National Truth Campaign, 80-81, 95, 96, 108, 115-116 National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, 84, 87, 102-103, 106, 108 National Cancer Institute, 21, 80-81, 221-222 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 207, 216 mammography, 80-81, 84, 108, 119-120, 124-126, 131, 132, 216 National Cholesterol Education Program, 110 National Council of La Raza, 174 National Diabetes Education Program, 80-81, 103, 174 National Eye Health Education Program, 80-81 National 5 A Day Campaign, 78, 93 National Health Interview Survey, 116, 135-136, 153 National High Blood Pressure Education Program, 80-81, 95-96, 110, 116-118 National Hispanic Council on Aging, 174 National Infant Sleep Position Study, 118 National Institute for Child Health and Development, 118-119 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 174 National Institutes of Health, 1, 221-222, 259, 263, 267 National Library of Medicine, 197 National Medical Association, 125 National Safe Kids Campaign, 78-79, 107 National Truth Campaign, 80-81, 95, 96, 108, 115-116 National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, 84, 87, 102-103, 106, 108 Native Americans, 21, 242 see also Alaskan Natives campaigns, 78-79, 94, 103, 112, 116 definitional issues, 228, 230-231

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations diabetes, 160, 161, 162, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 171, 174, 229 Internet access and use, 194, 216-227 mammography, 80-81, 131 Networking for Health, 197 Newsletters, 56, 182, 188 see also Tailored print communications (TCPs) Newspapers, 56, 57, 59, 104-105, 108, 175, 265 Norms, see Peers and friends Nutrition, see Diet O Obesity, see Body size and weight Occupations, see Employment Office of Management and Budget, 227-228, 231-232, 267 Older persons, see Elderly persons Once A Year for A Life Time, 80-81, 84, 108, 119-120 Organizational requirements, see Infrastructure; Institutional diffusion; Interdisciplinary approaches Outcome measures, 1, 13, 54, 71, 213, 258, 259, 264 campaigns, 82, 92, 93, 101, 110-112, 113, 114, 115-120 definitional issues, 226, 239, 249, 251, 255, 269 diabetes, 177 dieting, 41 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 209-210 Internet access and use, 196-197 mammography, 37-38, 119-120, 129-130, 143, 145-151, 191-192 social discrimination, 237-239 socioeconomic status, 15-16 tailored print communications (TPCs), 183-189, 191-193, 213 telephone interventions, 189-193, 191-193 theory, 4, 37-38, 39-40 time factors, 110-111, 115-120, 190 Outreach workers, see Face-to-face contacts P Pacific Islanders, see Asians/Pacific Islanders Paperwork Reduction Act, 267 Pap smears, 141, 185 Peers and friends, 251, 252, 254 see also Role models; Stigma “buzz”, 60 campaigns, 83, 99-100, 107, 140 diabetes, 155, 156, 163, 164, 170, 256 Internet, 199-200, 204 mammography, 134, 137, 138-139, 140, 144, 151 social diffusion, 61, 62 theoretical perspectives, 30, 33-39 (passim), 45, 47, 54, 55, 60, 61, 62, 70, 73, 217 Personal agency, 33, 35, 36-45 (passim), 60, 71, 73, 265, 269 see also Depression campaigns, 83 communications technology, 180-181 cultural competency, 240 diabetes, 163, 164, 168-169, 173-174, 176, 177 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 205, 210, 219 self-regulation models, 73-75 tailored print communications (TPCs), 187 Person-to-person contacts, see E-mail; Face-to-face contacts; Telephone Philippines, 110 Physical activity, see Exercise Physicians, 3, 93, 117, 238 diabetes, 170, 174 e-mail, 180, 200-201, 210-211 mammography, 119, 126, 135, 136, 137, 138, 142, 145 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 210-211

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations Internet, 180, 196, 200-202, 204, 210-211 tailored print communications (TPCs), 187 telephone contacts, 179 Political issues, 9, 11, 64, 225, 226, 251, 252 campaigns, 91-92, 99-100, 107, 123, 125 media advocacy, 65-67 race/ethnicity, 230-231 Postal campaigns, 56, 79, 182 see also Tailored print communications (TCPs) mammography, 140, 145, 146, 148, 150 newsletters, 56, 182, 188 Posters and billboards, 56, 105 Poverty, see Income, personal; Socioeconomic status Primary prevention, general, 3, 250, 251, 252 see also Alcohol use and abuse; Campaigns; Diagnosis and screening; Diet; Exercise; Mammography; Smoking diabetes, 154, 156, 157, 160, 164, 169, 171-175, 176, 177 tailored print communications (TPCs), 183 Print media, 8, 54, 105(n.1), 108, 124, 178, 180, 181, 190 see also Newsletters; Newspapers; Postal campaigns; Posters and billboards; Tailored print communications (TCPs) Internet, 198, 200 Privacy, 198, 203, 214-215, 218-219, 223 Process variables, 110, 112-115 Production values, 54, 108-109 Professional education, 10, 119, 151 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 211 theory, 261 Professionals, health care, see Health care professionals Prostate cancer, 38, 43 tailored print communications (TPCs), 183, 186, 188 Psychology, 2, 4, 13, 221, 250 see also Attitudes and beliefs; Cultural factors; Depression; Mental health; Personal agency Public Education Fund, 95 R Race/ethnicity, xiii, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19-21, 45, 69, 255 see also Immigrants; Language factors; specific groups access to services, general, 21, 140 accidents, 20, 168-169 age factors, 21, 47, 103, 158, 159 campaigns, 78-81, 89, 96-97, 103, 107, 108, 117, 118, 119-120, 122, 123, 124-125, 174-175 cardiovascular disease, 19, 20, 117, 162, 167 cultural competency of providers, 239-242 definitional issues, 14, 224, 225-234, 237-239, 252-253, 259, 269 diabetes, 19, 20, 80-81, 103, 155, 158-164 (passim), 166-169, 174-175, 228-229 discrimination, 225, 230, 231, 237-239, 254 gender, 19, 20, 21, 117, 159, 166, 167-168, 171 genetic factors, 22, 228-230 geographic factors, 104-105 health insurance, 21 income, personal, 18, 140 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 205, 207-208, 209 Internet access and use, 194, 195, 196, 202 mammography, 80-81, 119-142 (passim), 147, 151, 152 sickle-cell anemia, 229-230 smoking, 116 socioeconomic status, 16, 18, 140 tailored print communications (TPCs), 187-189 technology, attitudes toward, 192-193

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations Radio, 57, 82, 104-105, 119, 175, 180, 216 Regulatory issues, legal, 83, 91, 123, 244, 259 see also Standards Food and Drug Administration, 125 Internet, 195, 214-215, 220 mammography, 125 Religious factors, 1-2, 13, 55-56, 216 campaigns, 100, 104, 107 diabetes, 169 mammography, 137 Renal disease, 162 Role models, 54, 55-56, 100, 101, 102-103, 107, 109, 124, 125, 266 diffusion of innovation, 68 media advocacy, 65 racial/ethnic factors, 97 Rural areas campaigns, 80-81, 142 Internet access and use, 203 mammography, 80-81, 133, 137-138, 139, 142 telephone coverage, 179-180 S School-based programs, xiii, 58, 59-60 Screening, see Diagnosis and screening Secondary analysis of evidence, 7, 110-120, 258 see also Outcome measures Secondary prevention, 3, 99 see also Diet; Drug treatment; Exercise breast cancer, 3 diabetes, xii, xiv, 3, 155-156, 165, 167, 168, 169-175 Segmentation, see Audience segmentation Self-efficacy, see Personal agency Sex differences, see Gender factors Sexual behavior, 11, 17 campaigns, 78-79, 84, 101, 103 condom use, 52 ethical issues, 247 teenage pregnancy, 78-79, 84, 101, 103 Sexual orientation, xiii, 13, 17, 69, 101, 113 cultural competency, 239 mammography, 46 Sickle-cell anemia, 229-230 Smoking, xii, 220 campaigns, 76-77, 80-81, 86-87, 95, 96, 102, 105, 110, 112, 115-116 diabetes, xii, 161 tailored print communications (TPCs), 183, 184, 187, 188, 192 telephone contacts, 190, 192 theoretical perspectives, 30, 49, 58, 59 Social Cognitive Theory, 31, 71-72, 183 Social Learning Theory, 142 Social diffusion, 61, 62, 64 Socialization, see Family factors; Peers and friends Socioeconomic status, xiii, 12, 15-16, 19, 255 see also Educational attainment; Employment; Income, personal cultural competency, 239 definitional issues, 225, 226, 239, 269 digital divide, 22, 193, 194, 202-203, 212, 214 ethical issues, 247 Hispanics, 18, 140 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 209 mammography, 80-81, 133, 137-138, 140 national campaigns, 78-81, 119 race/ethnicity, 16, 18, 140 Songs, see Music Spanish-speaking persons, see Hispanics Sports and athletics, 112 after-school programs, 59-60 Stage models, 52-54, 142 Standards see also Regulatory issues communication applications and technologies, 217 Internet, 220 language, standard English, 17, 108

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations mammography, 125, 153 racial/ethnic definitions, 227-228 smoking cessation, 188 State-level campaigns, 76, 80-81, 95, 100, 102, 105, 110, 111, 115-116 Stigma, 23, 39, 101, 160 blaming the victim, 66, 169, 226, 239, 243, 247 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 205 Internet access and use, 198 Substance abuse, see Drug abuse Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 78-79, 94, 95, 110, 118-119 Suicide, 20 Surgeon General, 107 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 21, 131 T Tailored print communications (TCPs), 8, 105(n.1), 181, 182-189, 206, 213 diet, 183, 185 family factors, 185, 192 gender factors, 183, 186, 189 outcome measures, 183-189, 191-193, 213 prostate cancer, 183, 186, 188 smoking, 183, 184, 187, 188, 192 telephone contacts, 188, 191-193 Technology, 8-9, 179-223, 256, 268 see also Computer technology; Interactive Health Communication (IHC); Internet; Mass media; Postal campaigns ; Print media; Telephone; Videos attitudes regarding, 192-193, 195 privacy, 198, 203, 214-215, 219 Telephone, 8-9, 56, 58, 105, 179-180, 181, 182, 188, 189-193, 206, 210, 235, 265, 268 see also Internet children, 190, 192 cost factors, 190, 191 diabetes, 175, 210 mammography, 140, 145, 150, 191-192 mass media, 188, 190, 191-193 outcome measures, 189-193, 191-193 tailored print communications (TPCs) , 188, 191-193 wireless communication, 180, 205, 213, 214, 215-217, 268 Television, 218 campaigns, 82, 87, 96, 119, 175, 178 diabetes, 175, 178 theoretical perspectives, 56, 57-58, 61, 63 Theory, 4-5, 11, 28-75, 217, 256, 260-262 attitudes and beliefs, 29-54 (passim), 70-75 audience segmentation, 98 committee study at hand, methodology, xiv, xv, 2, 3, 13, 14, 24, 25, 224 diabetes, 163, 176 Internet, 199 mammography, 29, 37-39, 43, 150, 152, 153 outcome measures, 4, 37-38, 39-40 peers and friends (norms), 30, 33-39 (passim), 45, 47, 54, 55, 60, 61, 62, 70, 73, 217 smoking, 30, 49, 58, 59 tailored print communications (TPCs), 183, 187, 213 television, 56, 57-58, 61, 63 time factors, 43, 60, 61-62, 69, 74, 75 Theory of Planned Behavior, 72 Theory of Reasoned Action, 31, 72 Time factors, 12, 63, 74, 265 campaigns, general, 8, 110-111, 115-120 definition of groups, 252 delayed learning, 61, 62 diabetes, 155-156, 177-178 exercise, 172 exposure, general, 60, 61, 69 face-to-face encounters, 196 immediate learning, 61-62 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 206

OCR for page 339
Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations Internet, 196, 198 maintenance of healthy behaviors, 53 mammography, xiv, 43, 143 outcome measures, 110-111, 115-120, 190 telephone interventions, 190 theoretical perspectives, 43, 60, 61-62, 69, 74, 75 Tobacco use, see Smoking Transportation services mammography, 126, 139, 140, 143, 146 Treasury-Postal Appropriations Act, 94 U United Kingdom, 170-171 Urban areas campaigns, 80-81, 105, 119, 142 Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 207-208 mammography, 80-81, 119, 139, 142 measles, xii Urban League of Nebraska, 174 V Vaccines hepatitis, xii historical perspectives, xii HIV/AIDS, xii Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 209-210 international perspectives, campaigns, 110 national campaigns, 80-81 outcome expectancy, 39-41 telephone contacts, 190 Videos, 56, 180, 197, 200, 207, 208 see also Internet Interactive Health Communication (IHC), 205, 215, 219-220 Visual perception, 57 Internet access and use, 203 national campaigns for eye health, 80-81 production values, 54, 108 W Weight, see Body size and weight Wireless communication, 180, 205, 213, 214, 215, 217, 268 Women, see Gender factors Work-based programs, see Employment World Wide Web, see Internet