that serves both sets of interests. In the context of this study, that knowledge base would focus on the development and use of theory-based assessment. Furthermore, it is essential to recognize that research impacts practice indirectly through the influence of the existing knowledge base on four important mediating arenas: instructional materials, teacher education and professional development, education policies, and public opinion and media coverage. By influencing each of these arenas, an expanding knowledge base on the principles and practices of effective assessment can help change educational practice. And the study of changes in practice, in turn, can help in further developing the knowledge base.

The recommendations presented below collectively form a proposed research and development agenda for expanding the knowledge base on the integration of cognition and measurement, and encompass the implications of such a knowledge base for each of the four mediating arenas that directly influence educational practice. Before turning to this agenda, we offer two guidelines for how future work should proceed:

  • The committee advocates increased and sustained multidisciplinary collaboration around theoretical and practical matters of assessment. We apply this precept not only to the collaboration between researchers in the cognitive and measurement sciences, but also to the collaboration of these groups with teachers, curriculum specialists, and assessment developers.

  • The committee urges individuals in multiple communities, from research through practice and policy, to consider the conceptual scheme and language used in this report as a guide for stimulating further thinking and discussion about the many issues associated with the productive use of assessments in education. The assessment triangle provides a conceptual framework for principled thinking about the assumptions and foundations underlying an assessment.

Recommendations for Research

Recommendation 1: Accumulated knowledge and ongoing advances from the merger of the cognitive and measurement sciences should be synthesized and made available in usable forms to multiple educational constituencies. These constituencies include educational researchers, test developers, curriculum specialists, teachers, and policy makers.

Recommendation 2: Funding should be provided for a major program of research, guided by a synthesis of cognitive and measure-



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