BOX 4–2 Example of a BEAR Progress Map

Below is an example of one of the types of progress maps produced by the BEAR assessment program. This particular example is called a “conference map” and is created by the GradeMap software (Wilson, Draney and Kennedy, 1999). This map shows the “current estimate” of where a student is on four of the IEY progress variables (the variable Group Interaction is not yet calibrated). The estimate is expressed in terms of a series of levels that are identified as segments of the continua (e.g., “Incorrect,” “Advanced”) and are specified in greater detail in the scoring guide for each progress variable. Additional examples of BEAR maps are provided later in this chapter.

SOURCE: Wilson, Draney, and Kennedy (2001). Used with permission of the authors.

infinity. The assessment items are shown in boxes (to denote that they are observed variables), and the arrows show that the construct “causes” the observations. Although not shown in the figure, each observed response consists of a component that statisticians generally call “error.” Note that error in this context means something quite different from its usual educational sense—it means merely that the component is not modeled (i.e., not attributable to the construct θ).

The representation in Figure 4–2 corresponds to a class of measurement models called item response models, which are discussed below. First, how-

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