FIGURE 4–12 A stage-sequential dynamic latent variable exhibiting cumulative monotonic development.

SOURCE: Collins and Wugalter (1992, p. 135). Reprinted by permission of Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

over multiattribute models. If some of the less common models in the toolkit were more widely utilized, much of the dissatisfaction might well disappear. However, this is probably not a sufficient response to the criticisms. For example, Wolf, Bixby, Glenn, and Gardner (1991) present a strong argument for the following needs:

If we are able to design tasks and modes of data collection that permit us to change the data we collect about student performance, we will have still another task in front of us. This is the redesign or invention of educational psychometrics capable of answering the much-changed questions of educational achievement. In place of ranks, we will want to establish a developmentally ordered series of accomplishments. First…we are opening up the possibility of multiple paths to excellence…. Second, if we indeed value clinical judgment and a diversity of opinions among appraisers (such as certainly occurs in professional settings and post secondary education), we will have to revise our notions of high-agreement reliability as a cardinal symptom of a useful and viable approach to scoring student performance…. Third, we will have to break step with the drive to arrive



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