BOX 4–3 Reporting Individual Achievement in Spelling
Pictured below is a developmental continuum that has been constructed as a map for monitoring children’s developing competence in spelling. Five broad levels of spelling development, labeled “Preliminary Spelling” to “Independent Spelling” are shown. On the left of the figure, one child’s estimated levels of spelling attainment on four occasions are shown. Each estimate has been dated to show the child’s progress as a speller over time.
SOURCE: Masters and Forster (1996, p. 41). Used with permission of authors.
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4 Contributions of Measurement and Statistical Modeling to Assessment ."
Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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As of 2013, the National Science Education Standards have been replaced by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), available as a print book, free PDF download, and online with our OpenBook platform.
The NGSS offer a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school. The standards are based largely on the 2011 National Research Council report A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas.