. "4 Contributions of Measurement and Statistical Modeling to Assessment." Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2001.
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Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Eduacational Assessment
BOX 4–5Map of Writing Achievement at the National Level
The figures below illustrate the use of progress maps to depict changes in development over time, applied in this case to writing achievement at the national level. In the right panel, one can see broad bands in the spell-